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S' ^9. 



THIS BCOK Tv!AY NOT BE PHOTOCOPIED 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF 



THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



OF LONDON. 



VOLUME IX. 




LONDON: 

PEINTED FOR THE SOCIETY : 

SOLD AT THEIR HOUSE IN HANOVER-SQT'ARE : 

AXD BY MESSRS. LOXGM.\NS, GREEN, READER, AND DYER, PATERNOSTER-ROW. 



1877. 



77- 



4 - -^^ 

? 



[•KI.NTED BY TAYLOK A>T) I'li.VXCIS, 
KKD LIOX COUUT, FLEET STKKBT. 



C N T E N T 8. 



I. On the Dentition and Osteologtj of the Maltese fossil Elephants, being a Description 

of Remains discovered hy the Author in Malta between the years 1860 and 1866. 
£yA.L-EiTuAT)Aiis,M.£.,F.B.S.,F.G.S. page 1 

II. A List of the Birds Jcnoim to inhabit the Philippine Archipelago. By Arthur, 

YiscoxLniWkhD-m, F.B.S., President of the Society 125 

III. On DiNORNis (Part XX.): containing a Bestoration of the Skeleton of Cnemiomis 

calcitrans, Ow., ivith remarks on its affinities in the Lamellirostral group. By 
Professor Ottex, F.B.S., F.Z.S., &c 253 

IV. On the Ourassoivs noiv or lately living in the Society's Gardens. By P. L. Sclater, 

M.A., Ph.D., F.B.S., Secretary to the Society 273 

V. On ^githognathous Birds (Part I.). By W. K. Parker, F.B.S., F.Z.S. . . 289 

VI. On the Myology of Opisthocomus cristatus. By J. Beswick Perrin, Demonstrator 

of Anatomy in Oivens College, Manchester 353 

VII. On British Annelida. By W. C. M'Intosh, C.M.Z.S 371 

VIII. On the Annelida of the 'Porcupine' Expeditions o/1869 and 1870. By W. C. 
M'Intosh, C.M.Z.S. 395 

TX. On the Osteology of the Marsupialia. — (Part V.) Fam. Poephaga, (?f«?<s Macropus. 
By Professor Owen, C.B., F.B.S., F.Z.S., &c 417 

X. On the Avifauna of the Galapagos Archipelago. By Osbert Salvin, M.A., 

F.B.S.,&c 447 

XI. Revision of the Heteroceroiis Lepidoptera of the family Spbingidre. i?y Arthur 

Gardiner Butler, F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c., Senior Assistant, Zoological Department, 
British Museum 511 



iv CONTENTS. 

XII. On the Rhinoceroses now or lately living in the Society s Menagerie. By P. L. 
ScLATER, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.iS., Secretary to the Society 645 

List of the Pfvpera contained in Vol. IX 661 

Index of Species &c. ..,,,,,,.,..,.,.,,, 663 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF 



THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



I. On the Dentition and Osteology of the Maltese fossil Elephants, being a Description 
of Eemains discovered by the Author in Malta between the years 1860 and 1866. 
By A. Leith Adams, M.B., F.B.S., F.G.S. 

Eead June 24, 1873. 

[Plates I. to XXII.] 

I. Intkoduction. 

I HE discovery of remains of large quadrupeds in a fossil state in the superficial 
deposits of the island of Malta has been recorded by one of its earliest historians'; and 
subsequently the geologist Dolomieu ' detected teeth of Hippopotamus ; but no further 
attention seems to have been given to the subject until of late years, when the contents 
of other cavern- and fissure-deposits disclosed remains of extinct species of elephants, 
also exuviae of large rodents and aquatic bii'ds, descriptions of which are contained in 
the sixth volume of the Society's Transactions ^ Associated with the above were 
reptilian remains, with indications of the presence also of Carnivora, which, however, 
were represented only by traces of fierce gnawing on several elephants' bones from the 
Zebbug cave. 

The geological conditions in connexion with the animal exuviae from Zebbug have 
been fully detailed * ; it only remains to describe the reptilian bones thoroughly, so as to 
complete the osteology of the Maltese fossil fauna collected by Admiral Spratt, C.B. 

In the following I will attempt to define the characters and relations of the teeth 

' Abela's 'Delia descrittione di Malta,' 16-47. ' Appendix to St. Priest's 'Malta.' ' Pages 119, 227-307. 
' " On the Bone-caves near Crendi, Zebbug, and Melliha in the Island of Malta," by Capt. Spratt, E.N., C.B., 
r.R.S., F.G.S., Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc. vol. sxiii. page 283. 

VOL. IX. — PART I. November, 1874. b 



2 ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGT OF 

and bones of the fossil elephants discovered by me during five years exiilorations in the 
caves, fissures, and alluvial deposits of these islands'. My collections comprehend 
remains of several hundreds of elephants of all ages, from the unborn calf to the aged. 
Although the large bones are for the most part imperfect, such is not the case with the 
small bones and teeth, many of which are entire and in good states of preservation. 
Although the following descriptions are strictly anatomical, it appears to me important 
that some notice should be furnished also in relation to the physical aspect and localities 
where the remains were discovered, seeing that frequent allusion will be made to parti- 
cular deposits where certain specimens were found. The accompanying map, therefore, 
shows the sui'face formations and names of all the ossiferous caves, fissures, and alluvial 
soils hitherto recorded. These may be arranged in the following chronological order. 

The Cave of Melliha (see Map No. 1) was discovered accidentally in 1840. It 
existed in the Upper Limestone, and contained remains of Hippopotamus pentlandi and 
perhaps a much smaller species. The teeth and bones were contained in a conglomerate 
formed of blue marl and much-rounded and water-worn fragments of the parent rock. 

The Gandia Fissure (No. 2) was first discovered (accidentally) in 1857, and was 
reopened by me in 1865. It was a gaping rent in the calcareous sandstone, and con- 
tained the red soil of the surface intermixed with fragments of the parent rock, among 
which were numerous entire and broken teeth and bones, chiefly of the largest elephant, 
with a distal extremity of the radius of Hippopotamus^, a few bones and teeth of 
Myoxus melitensis, and large bones of birds, evidently Anseres and other aquatic forms. 
All were huddled together without any order whatever. 

The Malak Cave (No. 3) was discovered (also accidentally) in 1858. It seems to have 
been a cavern opening only horizontally. The deposits on its floor were of precisely the 
same character as those of Melliha, with the same description of animal remains, and 
the addition that a solitary molar of one or other of the elephants was discovered by me 
in the conglomerate, which was composed of blue marl and fragments of the Lower 
Limestone in which the cavern was formed. Many of the above-mentioned remains 
had been much injured from rolling ; but many molars of Hippopotamus pentlandi and 
//. minutus were perfect. On the top of this deposit lay several inches of red soil and 
cavern-earth infiltrated by calcareous drippings ; and profusely intermixed were abundant 
remains of Myoxus melitensis, birds' bones, and entire recent land-shells. Here there 
were none of the pronounced indications of turbulent aqueous action which are seen in 
the substratum ; and a line of demarcation divided the two formations. 

The Zebbug Cave (No. 4) was discovered by chance in 1859. It was situated in the 
calcareous sandstone, and contained red and blue clays, with numerous remains of the 
various species of elephants and birds described by Falconer, Busk, and Parker in the 

' The geological details are deaoi-ibed in my work, ' Natural History and Archaeology of the Nile Valley and 
Maltese Islands,' p. 161 : Edmouston and Douglas, 1870. 
• PI. XI. fig. 21. 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 3 

sixth volurae of these Transactions. There were, besides, reptilian remains, which have 
not yet been described. 

The Middle Caye (No. 5) was discovered by me in 1862. It was a horizontal tunnel 
without any roof-communication, and opened on the same terrace, and was within a few 
yards distance of the Malak Cave. The parent rock was the Lower Limestone. The 
cave was packed to the roof with about sixteen feet of red soU, showing distinct bands 
of stratification and a gradual process of filling up. At various horizons (evidently 
different cave-levels) I found remains of Myoxus melitensis in conjunction -ndth teeth 
and bones of an Arvicola not apparently distinct from the Bank-Vole, besides bones of 
large birds, small frogs, and recent land-shells, the last absolutely identical with species 
now living on the islands. 

The Mnaidea Gap (No. 6) was discovered by me in 186". It was a large opening in 
the Lower Limestone, within a few yards, and only a few feet above the level, of the 
Middle Cave. It was filled to the top with red earth and. blue clay intermixed with 
masses of the calcareous sandstone, more or less rounded and waterwom, with a super- 
ficial drift of a calcareous red earth. From top to bottom, but chiefly in the deeper 
parts among the stones, were discovered portions (indeed, apparently entire skeletons) of 
Elephants, in conjunction with enormous quantities of the bones oi Myoxus melitensis 
and of large aquatic birds, including the Cygnus faJconeri of Parker, also fragments of 
Chelonians', with recent land-shells belonging to Helix, Clausilia, and Bulimus. 

Among the surface-deposits of the Malak Fault (No. 7) I discovered in 1863 
remains of the largest form of Elephant, including a much mutilated skull with penul- 
timate true molars. The upper limestone of this depressed portion of the coast-line 
is covered by a surface-deposit many feet in thickness, composed of fragments of the 
parent and other rocks mingled mth red soil, and indicating water-action, as if the 
scourings of the surface had been washed " pell-mell " over the cliff on which the Malak, 
Middle, and Mnaidra remains were deposited, and formed a talus now nearly eaten 
away by the waves. 

The Gap of Benghisa (No. 8) was found by me in 1864. It is situated in the cal- 
careous sandstone and is almost level with the sea. It is a triangular-shaped hollow 
about thirty-two feet in height, fiicing the sea, which is rapidly disintegrating its contents. 
Here, among blocks of the parent rock and red soU alternating with bands of pebbles 
and fine red loam, lay remains of Elephants, but more especially of the smallest 
form, which seems to have greatly predominated. The geological conditions here are 
eminently suggestive of the aqueous forces that hurried the exuvite into the gap. The 
bones and teeth of the Myoxus, and bones of a large fresh-water Tortoise, and a small 
Lizard were also discovered, besides recent land-shells of species now residing on the 
island. 

The Leonardo Fissuke (No. 9) was discovered by me in 1864. It existed in the 

' I have described these remains in Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc. vol. sxii. p. 594. 

b2 



4, ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

calcareous sandstone, and contained red soil and angular fragments of the parent rock 
intermixed with calcareous infiltrations. Here portions of a skeleton of the smallest 
form of Elephant, containing the last true molar in situ, were exhumed. 

The Shantiin Fissure (No. 10) ' was discovered in 1870, accidentally, when quarrying 
the calcareous sandstone. It was situated within a short distance of Gandia Fissure, 
and seems to have contained precisely similar deposits, with remains (as far as I can make 
out) almost if not entirely belonging to the largest form of Elephant, with traces also of 

the Myoxus ^. 

The importance of the discoveries made in the caverns and alluvial deposits of the 
Maltese Islands during the last fifteen years have been fully appreciated by competent 
authorities; and here I feel it a duty to record, as far as my own researches are concerned, 
that the prosecution of my explorations in Malta and the illustrations of this communi- 
cation have been materially assisted by liberal grants accorded from time to time by the 
British Association for the Advancement of Science. 

II. Dentition. 
General Bemarks. 

The contour and direction of the incisors of the Maltese elephants do not appear to 
difi'er from each other, nor from what obtains in recent species ; and the characters are 
alike. A transverse section shows the same " engine-turning," whilst the removal of 
the external laminae displays distinct " longitudinal channelling," as seen in PL XL figs. 
11 & 14. The latter is perhaps more pronounced than usually noticed in other species. 
The transverse section varies between elliptical and round, the former being usually 
observed near the sheaths, the latter towards the middle and distal extremity. 

When a fully developed molar of any of the Maltese fossil elephants is sawn longitu- 
dinally and vertically, it will be found to present the usual succession of compressed 
and elevated ridges, thinning towards their summits, which, in the colline^, are made up 
of several digitations. These vary in number and size according to the circumstance 
whether they happen to belong to thick or thin plated ridges ; in the latter they pre- 
dominate. The ridges of the upper molars are usually straight and upright, and 
remarkable, as in Elephas antiqims, for their great height, being more than double the 
breadth of the crown. The lower molars, even the last of the series, have their ridges 
sometimes much retroflexed, as for example in PI. VIII. fig. 9 ; but this is by no means 

' This rock-cavity was explored by Dr. Caruana, F.G.S., and discoTered since I left Malta. See Quart. Joum. 
Geol. Soc. vol. xxvi. p. 434, and Author's work on Malta, p. 169. 

^ During the formation of a dock at Valetta a few years since, fossil remains of Cervus clama, and teeth of 
Horse and Fox were discovered in a rock-fiasure, and were determined by Mr. Busk, F.R.S. 

' As several terms will be used in the sequel with reference to the enamelled ridges, it is advisable that 
they should be at once known. " CoUine " is applied to the unworn ridge, whether talon or plate. " Eidge " 
includes all the enamel laminse. " Plate " excludes the " anterior " and " posterior talon." 



THE MAXTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 



constant, whilst also, as seen in the same figure, instead of being erect, several of the 
last plates and posterior talon are reclinate, a condition common enough in the last true 
molars of other species. The external surface of a plate when denuded of cement, 
presents, as seen in Plate II. figs. 3 & 5, perpendicular ridges more or less parallel, 
and always situated towards the middle of the plate, their number varying in plates of 
the same molar ; however, as seen in fig. 3, they are more or less concurrent with the 
central digitations. Their outline varies considerably, being either rounded or sub- 
angular ; but there is usually one much larger than the others, with its inner surface 
hollow and triangular, so as to form " the angulation," which is a prominent feature of 
the disk when ground down below the digitations. 

Besides these prominent ridges there are numerous small and finely defined ribs 
separated by inosculating channellmgs, which converge and become faint towards the 
digitations, as seen in fig. 5. Again the outer surface of the enamel is marked by 
transverse wrinkling or wavy puckerings, which are extremely fine in germ molars ; 
whilst in teeth in wear they become rough and granulated, in order that the cement 
may be firmly attached to their surfaces. The figs. 4 & 4 « display the interior surface 
of a plate, against which the ivory is packed. Here the only feature on the enamel is a 
series of vertical strife like the external channellmgs, with the above-mentioned " angular 
expansion " forming a furrow with abrupt sides, sometimes extending up and down 
in an unbroken or an irregular manner. It is situated, in upper molars, about the 
middle ; and in lower, from the arcuation of their crowns, it is usually ex-central. Its 
abutment on the macheerides of the enamel not only increases the triturating capabilities 
of the crown-surface, but, as just remarked, it forms a conspicuous feature on all well- 
worn disks. 

These channellings, puckerings, and angular expansions vary considerably ; the latter, 
however, are always present at some time or other during the attrition of a plate, their 
absence being usually noticed in newly invaded crowns, which, when half worn, often 
display the " angulation " in a pronounced degree. The transverse section, as in fig. 7, 
shows a granulated outline on the cement side of the enamel, which is caused by the 
above-mentioned rugous channellings and wavy lines. These, in descriptions of the disks, 
are named by Falconer " false or spurious crimping." I shall allude to the condition 
frequently, using the expressions " false " or " famt " crimping according to the nicety 
or obscurity of the appearance. 

It is evident therefore that the irregularities of the machserides of worn disks are 
owing to the above conditions, whilst the digitations and their obliquity, together with 
their intervening sulci, furnish the irregular and often excessive festooning of newly 
invaded crowns. Whenever the enamel is very thick its sui-face-roughness is not so 
well developed ; and even in thin-plated molars it is not always pronoimced. 

Besides these characters there is, especially in lower molars, a central expansion of 
the disk, which increases when the wedge is being ground down to a, as may be supposed 



6 ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

from fig. 6. It varies likewise in individual instances and in upper and lower molars, 
sometimes being scarcely apparent, as observed in fig. 7. The parallelism of the disks 
of fig. 7, and of all crowns like it almost worn to the enamel-reflections, is in consequence 
of the angle at which the ridges are placed, thus diminishing from above downwards 
the interval between them, which, as shown in fig. 6, is greatest towards the summits. 
Thus fig. 7 might represent a transverse section of a crown at a of fig. 6. From the 
curving of the lower molars these disks of wear show their horns directed somewhat 
forwards, the anterior machserides being slightly concave, whilst the posterior are slightly 
convex : see PI. IV. fig. 5. The outlines of the crown vary ; the upper molar, however, 
is generally broad in front, narrowing rapidly towards its posterior ; whilst the contour 
of the lower teeth displays discrepancies, which, in combination with other data, go to 
establish characters which will be pointed out in the sequel. 

The above are seemingly more or less common to all the Maltese fossil Elephants, to 
wit : — first, great height of plates, which difi"er in thickness of their ivory, cement, and 
enamel ; second, mesial expansions and angulations of worn disks, with fine or faint 
crimping of the machserides. 

In some points they resemble the crown-patterns of the African Elephant and E. 
antiquus, only that the rhomb outline of the disk is by no means so pronounced as in 
the former : and whilst they assimilate in the height of ridges, mesial expansions, and 
angulations to E. antiquus, there is the absence of the great crimping of the enamel 
plates so generally characteristic of this species. 

As regards the numerical estimate of their ridges, collectively, they belong to Falconer's 
subgenus Loxodon, and yield a formula almost analogous to that oiElephas meridionaUs ; 
and whilst difiering from one another, they equally, irrespective of the usual character of 
the milk- and true molars, display thick- and thin-plated varieties, which require careful 
study and comparison in order not to magnify or underrate their values. I therefore 
made it an object beforehand to collate all evidence on this head with respect to other 
known species of this genus. An excellent example is shown in the so-called Elcphas 
priscvs, Avhich Falconer, deceived by the incompleteness of specimens and their thick 
plates, placed in the first instance in his subgenus Loxodon ; but he subsequently regarded 
the condition as only a form oiElephas {Euelcphas) antiquus^. Again, in the usually thin- 
plated molar of the Mammoth there are considerable discrepancies. Mr. Davies, of the 
British Museum, than whom very few have had a greater experience in manipulating 
teeth of fossil Elephants, more especially of the above species, has furnished me with the 
following pertinent observations on the subject in question. "From an examination of 
numerous molars oi EI ephas primi genius, found in England and elsewhere, I have long 
thought that there are two distinct varieties, which are easily recognized, the molars of 
one being formed of thin plates, separated by narrow intervening layers of cement, the 
other composed of thicker plates and having wider interspaces. This last form is more 
' Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc. vol. siii. p. 319, and Palseont. Memoirs, vol. ii. p. 251. 



THE MALTESE POSSIL ELEPHANTS, 7 

common than the first ; and the inward dimensions are partly due to a thicker enamel, 
but more so to the thicker dentine of the plates. 

" This conclusion as to the varieties is not derived from the worn surfaces of the teeth, 
but from the space a given number of plates occupy in any portion of an antero-posterior 
line midway between the grinding-surface and the base of the molar. 

"As an illustration I send you the measurements of the spaces which eight plates 
occupy in six upper ultimate molars of corresponding size, and of small individuals. 

ijicheg. 

1. From Eschscholtz Bay 2-8"| 

2. From Ballingdon, Herts 2-9 > Thin-plated. 

3. From cavern near Wells . • 2'9J 

4. Ilford 3-6 j 

5. Brighton 8-7 > Thick-plated. 

6. Erith 4-oJ 

" In a very large tooth of this species, dredged off Happisburgh, the same number of 
plates fill a space of 4-7. 

" But the teeth of fossil Elephants are so variable in size and character, that it is 
impossible to di-aw a line by measurements between the thin-plated and the thick-plated 
varieties ; I distinguish them more by general appearance and character of the teeth, 
than by the assistance of compass and rule. All the thin-plated molars are shorter, and 
the setting of the plates much more compact. I believe, from my personal experience, 
that the varieties are local ; but I cannot positively assert it." 

What has been designated the " talon-complication " is, as regards the molars of the 
Maltese fossil Elephants, quite as embarrassing as in other species. The varieties of 
form and shape assumed by the first and last ridges prove, at all events, the necessity of 
invariably including all enamelled laminae in the ridge-formula, whether sprmging from 
the body of a plate, or in common with it arising from the base at the reflections. 
Sometimes, however, they are rudimentary, forming small digitated splints, or enamelled 
eminences, or a talon-shaped ridge, so that it is difficult to decide whether or not such 
should be included in the estimate ; and this, as regards certain molars, is of considerable 
importance with reference to specific distinctions, as will be shown presently. Dr. 
Falconer lays much stress on the number of ridges, combined with their characters, as 
diagnostic of species of Mastodon and Elephant ; indeed, as regards the latter, he has 
founded the subgenera Stegodon, Loxodon, and Euele])has entirely on dental features. It 
must, however, I opine, be generally admitted that, invaluable as are such data when 
taken as characteristic of types or forms, both the characters and ridge-formulas are apt 
to vary, not only in allied species, but, as just observed, in members of the same species. 
Indeed, to arrive at even an ordinary estimate, it is necessary to examine a much larger 
assortment of materials than come usually within the reach of a single observer. 



ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 



1. Milk-incisors. 



No specimen of the milk-tusk was discovered by me similar to the very perfect and 
characteristic tooth (PI. I. fig. 1) from the Zebbug collection, which I have reproduced 
from Dr. Falconer's drawing' to show the contrast between it and a much smaller 
specimen (fig. 2). The figure 1 was supposed by Dr. Falconer to represent the milk- 
incisor of Tlleplms melitensis. It is of the same dimensions as the tooth in two uterine 
skulls of African Elephants, 70 8 ji' and 708 h in the British Museum. But the pulp- 
cavity in the two last and in fig. 2 extends almost to the crown ; whereas it is obliterated 
in fig. 1, excepting a small foramen at the proximal extremity for nutrient vessels. As 
regards relative dimensions, the tooth is rather smaller than that of the recent species, 
and therefore, as surmised by Mr. Busk^, may have belonged to the largest form, which 
ordinarily seems to have been under the average size of the African and Asiatic 
Elephants. The crown has an investing shell of enamel on the top, which thus shows, 
as far as yet known, a peculiarity confined to the forms of the Maltese Elephants and 
the African. 

The almost entire incisor (PI. I. fig. 2) from Mnaidra Gap represents what I 
opine is the milk-tusk of a very small form of Elephant. The outline is cylindrical, 
with a gentle curve; it is rather compressed towards the proximal, and somewhat 
truncated at the distal extremity, with a defined dark stain on the enamel 0-5 inch 
from the tip, possibly the alveolar impression. The outline of the hollow pulp-cavity 
is nearly a perfect oval, with the larger end upwards. Like the last it is not only 
tipped, but entirely enveloped in a remarkably fine shell of glistening enamel, which, 
although partially rubbed off on the part that extended beyond the gum, is well 
seen elsewhere, as also the minute surface-channellings running lengthways. The 
dilated blunt point seen in fig. 1 is here wanting; and, but for attrition of the enamel, 
it would be difficult to believe that it ever resembled the other in form. But I find 
that the shape of the milk-incisor varies considerably, as does the permanent tusk, in 
the Asiatic Elephant, being often misshapen and stunted, especially in females. It is 
difiRcult, therefore, to surmise to what form of the Maltese Elephants the above 
belonged. From its small dimensions I should be inclined to place it with the smallest- 
sized teeth to be described in the sequel. 

2. Permanent Incisors. 
Tusks, sometimes entire, but generally in fragments, accompanied bones and molars, 
more especially wherever there were indications of entire skulls having been conveyed 
into the gaps and fissures. Indeed, from the quantities of ivory found wherever molars 
were plentiful, and the numbers of short and straight specimens, it may be surmised 
that the tusk was always fully developed in adults, and existed also in both sexes. It 

' Palseontological Memoirs, vol. ii. pi. 11. fig. 3, a & 6 ; Trans. Zool. See. vol. vi. pi. 53. fig. 1, a & 6. 
= Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vi. p. 284 (foot-note). 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 9 

seems impossible, however, to attempt to classify the smaller fragments ; I shall there- 
fore proceed at once to a consideration of the largest. Two of the latter, of about the 
same dimensions, were discovered in Mnaidra Gap lying close to the last true molars 
(PI. VII. fig. 2, and PI. VIII. fig. 7), and belonged to different individuals. The more 
perfect tusk showed an unbroken length of 4 feet 2 inches from the apex of the pulp- 
cavity, where the girth was 15 inches, the average circumferences of the other tusk being 
13'5 inches at the alveolus and 13 inches at the fractured distal extremity (a section 
of which is shown, PI. XL fig. 12), thus representing a tusk which could not originally 
have been under 5 feet in length. The curve was gradual, sweeping gently downwards, 
forwards, and inwards. A somewhat smaller incisor is shown by the fragment, fig. 11. 
Another fragment of a large tusk from the same situation gives a girth of 15 inches in 
front of the alveolar opening ; but the largest fragment was discovered by Dr. Caruana, 
F.G.S., in Shantiin Fissured It was 21 inches in length, with a circumference of 
17 inches. A skull containing what I consider to be the first true molar of the largest 
form (PI. VIII. fig. 5), held also an entire tusk, which measured 2 feet 2 inches in length, 
with a maximum girth, just in front of the alveolus, of 7 inches. 

Sections of all the permanent incisors in my collection (and they are very numerous) 
display well-marked " engine-turning," and " surface-channelling " more pronounced 
than I have observed in those of either of the recent species (see PI. XI. figs. 11-15). 
Although tusks as criteria of the size of the Elephant are at best fallacious^, it is clear 
that the owners of the largest of the above equalled the dimensions of an Elephant 
at least from 6'5 to 7 feet in height. The latter, as far as I can make out from my own 
collection, was about the greatest height attained by the largest form of Maltese 
Elephant. The tips of the tusks, large and small, seemed, as in the living animal, to 
have varied considerably, as will be seen from the representations on PI. XL ; perhaps 
the obtuse points belonged to females. The termination of the pulp-cavity is seen at 
«, fig. 14. 

An instructive specimen, showing the permanent tusks in place, is represented in 
PI. I. fig. 18; both are entire, with a fragment of the left molar in situ. The latter, 
for reasons stated in the sequel, is, I apprehend, the last of the milk-series, and as such 
would represent the same stage of growth as observed in the recent species, but in a 
much smaller Elephant. The right incisor (5) has been displaced ; but the left may 
be said to be in place, or nearly so. The fragment in the alveolus, figured and described 
by Busk^ would seem to have belonged to a somewhat younger individual. The 
portion shown, PI. XL fig. 13, was presented to me by the owner of the property 
where the Zebbug cave exists, from which it was obtained. The specimen gives 
about 7-5 inches of the central portion of a tusk, the maximum girth of which is 
6 inches, and from the curvature indicates a full-grown animal, and no doubt also of the 

' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxvi. p. 435. 

» See Baker's ' Nile-Tributaries of Abyssinia,' p. 533. ' Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vi. pi. 52. fig. 46. 

VOL. IX. — PAKT I. November, 1874. c 



10 MK. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

same small form. In this specimen all the characters of the Elephant's tusk are well 
shown, the " engine-turning " being especially distinct. 

3. First or PreantepenuUimate Milk-molar ; Second or Ante- 
penultimate Milk-inolar. 

In all known species of the genus Elephas both the first and the second milk-molar, 
theoretically, have two divergent fangs ; the only exceptions apparently are among the 
Maltese fossil Elephants, which show a functionally developed second tooth with only 
one straight fang, as seen in PI. I. fig. 6, and others referred to by Falconer, and 
published in the sixth volume of the Society's ' Transactions '^ 

With reference to the theoretical first or preantepenultimate milk-molar, rarely 
developed in either fossil or recent species, there is one very interesting specimen 
in the British Museum. 

The African skull containing this condition is No. 7085 of the osteological catalogue. 
It is the same referred to in the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis,' pi. 14. fig. 4, left side, a, 
and by Blainville in his ' Osteographie,' pi. 9. figs. 1, 2. The appearances of the 
dentition are as follows: — The milk-incisor and its enamelled tip is just protruding 
beyond the sheath, with a club-shaped -point as seen in the Zebbug fossil (PI. I. fig. 1), 
the former being 1'4 inch in girth. In the Upper Jaw the second or antepenultimate 
is in full wear, with one ridge of the next tooth invaded. The former is 0'8 by 0'7 inch, 
and composed of three plates and two talons ; the latter is 2"3 by 1 inch, and is composed 
of five plates and two talons ; behind all is the empty alveolus of the last milk-tooth. 

The Lower Jaw (Right) contains the antepenultimate and penultimate molars. 
The former is in full wear, with three ridges of the latter invaded. The antepenulti- 
mate is 0"8 by 0'4 inch ; its fangs axe furcate, with a pronounced depression or pressure- 
mark below the crown posteriorly, as in the fossils to be described presently. The 
penultimate is 2-2 inches by 1-1 inch, and made up of six plates and two talons. 

The Left Lower Ramus contains the first or preantepenultimate, composed of two 
plates and two talons ; the length of the crown is 0-G5 by 0'4 inch. The antepenultimate 
is also composed of two plates and two talons ; its length is 0-85 by 0-6 inch. The fangs 
in both are divergent ; but the posterior of the preantepenultimate is more divergent 
than either of the antepenultimate, and absolutely crosses the anterior fang of the 
latter, which, like the other root, is inserted more perpendicularly. The penultimate 
is of the same dimensions as that of the right ramus ; and the same number of ridges 
are invaded. No sejdum divides the ^ire- from the antepenultimate, and the latter and 
the penultimate ; so that the grinding-surface on the left side is not more extensive than 
on the opposite. Indeed the three successive teeth are close together, whereas there 
is a septum between the ante- and penultimate teeth in the right side. Thus the 
additional tooth takes up the space of the ordinary septum. 

' Page 286, and pi. 53. fig. 2 ; see also Pal«ont. Mem. vol. ii. p. 297. 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 11 

The highly interesting portions of upper and lower jaws (Nos. 91, 90, PI. II. figs. 1, 2) 
are unfortunately by no means perfect. By good luck, however, a small part of the 
upper jaw in front of the third or penultimate molar has been preserved. Here, close 
to the tooth and somewhat internally, at 5 is a distinct and rounded fang with a smaller 
central canal. A little further down at c there is another, but considerably smaller, 
ivory stump sticking in the ramus, the distance between them being about 0*6 inch. 
There is no appearance of an alveolus, such as obtains in the last-named and other 
species. The posterior root seems to be the largest ; and both are standing quite erect ; 
so that unless the tooth they upheld had two perpendicular instead of divergent fangs ; 
1 see no way of explaining the condition than by the hypothesis that instead of one 
there were two separate molars in place at the same time, each with single erect fangs; 
i. e. the first and second milk-molars were developed in the upper jaw, which, as far as 
I know, is an anomaly. However, these are the facts, look at them how we may ; 
Mr. Busk, who examined the fragment of jaw referred to, is of opinion with me that 
it holds indications of the entire milk-series, as will be reverted to frequently in the 
sequel. As to the lower jaw in this instance, I am unable to state whether or not the 
same condition obtained, as the anterior portion has been removed close to the third 
milk-molar, leaving it and the collines of the last milk-molar in place. However, from 
the very young and uterine lower Zebbug rami described and figured by Busk', it 
would appear that the first milk-tooth, as in recent and other extinct species, was 
often, if not as a rule, suppressed. At the same time, from what is shown by the African 
instance, it may, when developed, have performed its function in common with the 
second. 

1. The entire upper second or antepenultimate milk-molar (No. 105, PL I. fig. 3) I 
discovered in a fragment of jaw, with the penultimate in germ behind it. The latter 
was composed of eight ridges, and equalled in size the penultimate milk-tooth (fig. 13) 
attributable to the largest form of Elephant. The crown of fig. 3 is composed of four 
collines. The anterior is triangular and short, and occupies the inside front; the 
third is the highest and broadest, with its digitations very slightly touched by wear, 
showing the owner was not unborn. All the ridges rise from the common base, the 
first two being modified with single digitations. The fang has been broken off close to 
the crown ; its hollow base is still evident. The ridges are thick. The length of tlie 
crown is 0'5 inch. There is no possible likelihood of any additional ridge having 
existed in this specimen, which might be said to hold three plates and an anterior talon, 
just as anatomists may choose to look on the latter. 

2. No. 67, fig. 5, is entire, with the recent loss only of a figment of the second ridge. 
The first is placed like the preceding, and is of the same pyramidal shape. There is a 
distinct posterior talon appendage adhering to the last ridge. The crown has the tips 
of the second and third ridges just touched by wear; it is narrow in front and broad 

' Trans. Zool. Soc. rol. vi. p. 276, pi. 52. figs. 42, 43, & 45. 

c2 



12 MR. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

posteriorly. The single hollow fang h.as been recently broken off about 0-4 inch 
below the crown. There is a pressure-hollow 0-.3 inch broad on the upper and 
posterior side of the fang. The tooth is made up of five ridges, or three plates and 
two talons. Here the first and last ridges may be called modified ridges ; at all events 
the posterior fairly claims to be considered a talon. The crown is 0-55 inch in length. 
The ridges are moderately thick, but not quite so large as in the last. 

The above is probably a lower molar, and does not seemingly diifer in character 
from the last. The anterior ridge also rises from the common base, but is not quite 
so large as in fig. 3. 

3. Specimen No. 103 (fig. 4) might, from the figure, be considered a good deal 
larger than either of the foregoing ; and this is the case to a trifling extent ; but from 
injui7 some time or other there is a lengthening of the crown which is not natural. The 
enamel also of the posterior talon has been denuded, and the single hollow fang was 
broken off recently at about 0-5 inch below the crown. The pressure-hollow, 0*3 inch 
in breadth, and a scar are well seen on the back part of the fang. There is no indi- 
cation of wear on the crown, which from its narrow front might have belonged to the 
lower jaw. The first and last ridges claim the character of talons, being simple splints. 
It contains the same ridge-formula as the last. The length is about 0'6 inch. 

The ridges in this and fig. 5 are almost the same thickness. From its breadth the 
above may have been an upper tooth. 

4. No. 109 (fig. 6) is a well-worn crown. There is seemingly a trace of an anterior 
ridge which had been worn out, possibly by pressure or attrition, leaving the enamel 
of the next bare and rough. The flat, single, straight, solid fang is entire. It is com- 
pressed laterally, with a small opening at the extremity for the nutrient vessels, and is 
0-8 inch in length. The enamel on the posterior ridge has been denuded, and there 
are two caries-like erosions, one immediately under the crown behind, and another 
in front. 

Although only three ridges remain, it may be there were two more. The length of 
the crown is 0-4 inch, and, although well worn, shows no pattern of any value for 
comparison with succeeding teeth. 

The enamel of the plates in this molar is not seemingly so thick, nor are the plates as 
in any of the preceding ; and altogether the tooth would appear to have belonged to a 
smaller animal. 

Mr. Busk has kindly allowed me to compare Admiral Spratt's collection of Zebbug 
molars, figured and described by Dr. Falconer, with the above ; and seeing that, com- 
bined with my own, they comprise all the first or second milk-teeth of the Maltese 
Elephants yet discovered, I must briefly refer to them also. 

The similarity between the lower tooth described by Falconer' and the last is very 
striking, even in the caries-like erosions just under the crown, posteriorly, where a 
' PalEeont. Mem. vol. ii. p. 297 and pi. xii.; Trans. Zool. Soo. vol. vi. p. 53. fig. 2. 



THE MALTESE POSSIL ELEPHANTS. 13 

second fang would ordinarily diverge. But it is clear that if any thing of the kind did 
exist it must have been of very diminutive size, and came off at right angles to the 
main root, which here, as in my specimen, is flat. It has three worn ridges, with a 
posterior talon. The crown is 0-4 inch in length. There is a less perfect specimen in 
the collection, showing a crown on the point of being shed. Here the base of the fang 
presents indications of having been single ; and although only three ridges are left in a 
space of 0'5 inch, there are traces of a lost ridge on the fore and on the hind plate, 
also well-marked pressure on the base posteriorly. 

It seems clear therefore that the single straight perpendicular fang of the Maltese 
elephants supported all the ridges, and had no divergent fang. This has been further 
confirmed by Falconer and by Busk ; the latter discusses the subject in a note in his 
monograph '. He is of opinion, moreover, that the fangs \7ere connate ; and certainly 
on the flat side of fig. 6 there is a slight tendency to a central depression lengthways, 
as if the two had grown together. 

It is scarcely necessary to indicate the small dimensions of the above teeth as com- 
pared with other known species of elephants. I may state, however, that among a 
large series of instances of antepenultimate molars I find the smallest specimens of the 
Asiatic are 0-6 inch in length, whereas none of the African are below 0*8 inch, and the 
majority are fully 1 inch in length. 

As to their specific characters, it would be difiicult, excepting on the score of size, to 
make out that they belong to more than one form of elephant. However, on account 
of the larger dimensions and seeming thickness of plates, it might be that the molars 
(PI. I. figs. 3, 4, & 5) belonged to a larger form of elephant than fig. 6 and the two 
Zebbug specimens. As to their claims to be considered either first or second milk-molars, 
it is clear that fig. 3 belonged to the latter, although holding a ridge less than figs. 4 
& 5. This being the case, the probability is that they are likewise second or ante- 
penultimate milk-teeth. At all events, whether first or second milk-molars, there can 
be but one opinion as to the unusually small size of all their owners. 

4. The Third or Penultimate Milk-molars. 

Of all the dental materials of the Proboscidea discovered by me in Malta the majority 
are referable to this member of the series. 

Besides several specimens from Gandia Fissure, collected by Dr. Caruana, Mr. Welch, 
and myself, and now in the Museum of the University of Malta, my own collection 
furnishes upwards of thirty examples of the penultimate or third milk-molar, the 
greater number being entire, or in conditions which admit of ready determination. 
Moreover, whilst furnishing valuable odontological data, they also supply grounds for 
speculation as to the causes which brought about the destruction and aggregation in 
small areas of so many very young and immature elephants as compared with the adult 

' Trans. Zool. Soo. vol. vi. p. 287. 



14 ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

and aged. This subject, however, has been fully discussed by me elsewhere^ I shall 
therefore proceed at once te a consideration of their anatomical characters. 

As regards dimensions the specimens constitute two series, graduating regularly 
from the smallest to the largest, the extremes of length in upper teeth being 1'6 to 
2 inches, against 1-3 to 2'4 inches in the lower jaw. 

A Series. — The smallest penultimate milk-molar in my possession — indeed, I believe, 
the most diminutive third milk-tooth of any recent or fossil species of elephant hitherto 
fissured and described, is represented by the entire and beautifully preserved specimen 
of the left-side lower jaw No. 14 (PI. I. figs. 8 & 8a). The one described by Falconer^ 
is not quite entire ; and although apparently belonging to the same type, it is a little 
larger, seeing that with the loss of its anterior talon it contains six ridges in 1'3 inch, 
whereas fig. 8 holds seven ridges in the same space. The latter molar is well worn, so 
as to fully display the character of the crown-pattern, which is precisely like that of 
the other, and bears also a resemblance to the disk of Elephas antiquus and the African 
species. This character pervades generally all molars of Maltese fossil elephants, with 
faint crimping near the middle of the disk, which is expanded, and shows a small 
angulation, as in E. antiquus. On the anterior talon of fig. 8 there is a distinct 
pressure-scar, 0-2 inch broad, and the usual pressure-hollow posteriorly at b. As 
regards comparisons, it is almost needless to state that the above is about half as long 
and one third as broad as even the smallest penultimate milk-molar of any known 
species of the genus. 

The somewhat imperfect upper molar (No. 2, figs. 7 & la) shows satisfactorily that 
it originally held the same number of ridges as the last in about 1-6 inch. Here the 
pi'essure-scar (fig. la, I) is 0'6 inch broad, and indicates a succeeding tooth impinging 
steadily on the posterior talon. The fangs are consolidated, and the crown is con- 
siderably arcuated externally, seeing it is an upper molar. Although as far advanced 
in wear as fig. 7, the machferides are more crimped, whilst the central dilatation and 
angulations are also pronounced. 

The two perfect and very instructive upper and lower teeth (Nos. 91 & 90) belonging 
to the same skull have been already noticed in connexion with the foregoing members 
of the milk -series. They are represented in situ (PI. II. figs. 1 & 2). The upper penul- 
timate milk-molar in fig. 1 has a ridge less than any of the foregoing, just as obtains 
in the antepenultimate (PI. I. fig. 3). It bears a close resemblance to the entire speci- 
men of the penultimate milk-molar of Falconer's E. melitensis^, only that it contains seven 
ridges in 1-4 inch, whereas fig. 1 holds six ridges in 1-5 inch; nevertheless these two teeth 
are very much alike, and contrast with the upper molar just described in their thick plates. 
The investing cement in Falconer's molar has been denuded ; but in fig. 1 it is present, 
and gives a thick-plated aspect to the crown. Immediately in front of fig. 1 there are 

' Nat. Hist. & Arch, of NUe VaUey and Malta, p. 161. 

' Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vi. pi. 53. figs. 4 & 4a. ' Ibid. figs. 6 & 6o. 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHAIvTS. 15 

the two stumps sticking in the jaw, as just recorded, besides a scar on the enamel of the 
anterior talon, internally, 0'4 inch in breadth ; but the most suggestive part of the speci- 
men is the succeeding alveolus, in which the collines a of the last milk-molar lie horizon- 
tally, furnishing a maximum breadth olone inch. The crown of the penultimate tooth is 
not sufficiently worn to show the pattern. The lower ramus No. 90 (fig. 2) has been 
broken across in front just clear of the tooth, which, however, has a deep scar on the 
enamel made by the antepenultimate. The last ridges are not perfectly consolidated. 
The entire length of the crown is 1"8 inch, in which there are seven instead of six 
ridges in the upper tooth. The last milk-molar a is seen in situ, showing a breadth of 
colline of about 0-8 inch. As in the upper the antepenultimate and the first milk- 
tooth also were possibly in wear at the same time, seeing that the digitations of the 
first four ridges only are invaded. The colline a is nearly entire and well shown behind, 
presenting dimensions equal to those of No. 44 (PI. IV. fig. 3), which appears to belong 
to the last milk-molar of this pygmy form of elephant. 

Other teeth referable to A series are seen in my collection in the British Museum. 
For example. No. 1, holding seven ridges, is an entire upper molar, 1'7 inch in 
length, with a crown like figs. 1 & 2, just coming into wear, whilst No. 7 is more 
attrited, and No. 8 is of the lower jaw, with only the first three ridges slightly worn. 

All these teeth demonstrate the presence of an upper and lower penultimate milk- 
molar, holding seven ridges, or five plates and two talons. 

Intermediate in size between the above and B Series are a number of small lower 
teeth, somewhat larger than the former, with figmentary posterior talons raising the 
ridge-formula by one ridgelet. They difi'er, however, in no other particulars, and 
may be regarded as belonging to A type, with the usual variety of an additional 
ridge. 

The diflaculty in deciding what should be called a plate and talon is shown in the 
lower molar. No. 75 (PL I. fig. 9). Here the first ridge is quite independent of the 
second, and the last is a mere triangular splint attached to the seventh ridge. Tlius 
this molar might be said to contain seven plates and a posterior talon in a space of 
1-7 inch. 

The rhomboidal tendency of the disks is here also apparent, with slight crimping 
about the middle ; but the crown is not quite half-worn. 

Conditions precisely the same as in fig. 9 are shown by the ridge-formulse in Nos. 3, 
4, 6, & 10, which represent lower molars in various stages of wear, the half-worn crown 
of No. 6 displaying disks in no way distinct from those of PL I. fig. S. These molars gra- 
dually increase in length up to No. 9 (fig. 15), which is 2 inches in length, with its seventh 
plate convex, and a triangular figment at a constituting a posterior talon. A similar 
specimen of a lower molar is shown by No. 62, which holds seven ridges in 1*8 inch, 
neither of which, however, might be considered other than plates, the part of the 
surface of the seventh ridge which gave rise to the little ridgelet in the preceding 



16 MR. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGT OF 

being hollow in this specimen. As these, however, are all lower teeth, the occasional 
addition of a ridge is not uncommon ; thus it may be that the normal number is seven, 
or, in other words, five plates and two talons. They are, however, slightly larger 
than No. 14 (fig. 8), yet doubtless of the same form. 

B Series. — An upper molar holding eight ridges in 2 inches is well shown in crown 
No. 60 (PI. I. fig. 13). It is worn not quite half down, so that the crimping of the machse- 
rides, as in fig. 7, is pronounced. It is a broader tooth, however, with very thick plates, 
each being as much as 0'3 inch ; indeed their size gives quite a character to the ridges. 
The posterior talon is a broad digitated splint, rising about the middle of the seventh 
ridge, the anterior talon being semicircular, and worn to the common base. 

The fragments Nos. 89, 97, & 85, of upper molars just commencing wear, are referred 
to this variety. Of other upper molars of B Series, or what might be called the thick- 
plated type, No. 104 (fig. 16) represents eight independent ridges in a space of 2'2 inches, 
followed by Nos. 76, 82, 77, & 54 of my collections in B. M. The last, represented in 
fig. 14, is the largest penultimate milk-molar, and contains eight ridges in 2*4 inches. 
None, excepting No. 82, are worn suflaciently to fully develop their rhomboidal disk, 
which, however, is beautifully shown on its crown. In regard to its posterior talon- 
shaped ridge, so often dwarfed in A series, it is well developed in all of the largest penul- 
timate milk-teeth ; and although convex in the above, it rises for the most part from the 
common base with the other collines, so as to be classed as a talon only on account of 
its more curving outline. 

The largest lower molar (fig. 14) is as large as small instances of the penultimate 
milk-molar of the African Elephant, which ordinarily contains the same number of 
ridges. It does not difier, however, from the other large specimens in its ridge-formula 
and crown-pattern. 

Summary. — From the foregoing I think it must be inferred that they at least repre- 
sent two elephants differing in size : — one of dwarf dimensions, holding ordinarily seven 
ridges in its upper teeth ; and another, larger form, with eight ridges. The likelihood 
of an intermediate form is not at all clear. As regards crown-patterns, the same appear- 
ances prevail throughout A & B series. In newly invaded crowns there is much 
crimping ; but when half-worn in the smallest, intermediate, and largest, as seen in 
fig. 8 and Nos. 6 & 82, we find the rhomb-shaped outline, with the angulation of 
Elephas antiquus, but there is faint instead of pronounced crimping. 

The thickness of the plates does not seem, unless in the largest molars, to be dia- 
gnostic, as we find thick- and thin-plated specimens among tlie smallest and intermediate- 
sized teeth. In the largest, however, it would seem to be general, with rugosities on 
the enamel of the posterior talon, and which we shall find are also prominently shown 
in the largest last milk-molars. 

The fragment of the lower molar, holding six ridges in a space of 1-5 inch, shown in 
jaw No. 41 (PI. I. fig. 12), and its profile view (PI. VI. fig. 2), is by no means perfect 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. . 17 

enough to enable me to decide as to its position in the series, further than by com- 
parison with tooth and jaw No. 91 (PI. II. fig. 2). It is clear that the former belonged 
to a larger animal ; nor, as will appear in the sequel, is the broad crown in keeping 
with the last milk-teeth attributed to the smallest form ; but I find that the largest 
penultimate milk-molar (PL I. fig. 14) gives the same number of ridges in a like space, 
more especially when taken close to its enamel reflections posteriorly, which is the 
horizon displayed in fig. 12. It might therefore have represented the penultimate 
tooth of the largest form, nearly worn out, and the last of the milk-series coming into 
wear. Reference will be made to the jaw itself when I come to consider the cranium. 

5. The Fourth or Last Milk-molar — First True Molar. 

I shall now refer to several large and interesting series of molars, all of which are 
in the British Museum. They comprehend teeth differing widely in size and characters ; 
but in consequence of possessing the same ridge-formula, and having been more or less 
intimately associated in the same deposits, it appears necessary that they should be 
brought together, so that their distinctions may be more easily compared. The ridge- 
formulas in the following vai7 between ten and eleven ridges, or eight or nine plates 
and two talons ; in one instance there are twelve ridges in a lower molar, where, how- 
ever, an extra ridge (or even two) is not uncommon in all known species of the genus. 

A Series. — The small upper molar. No. 45, here shown, and its upper aspect in 

Fis. 1. 




Last Upper Milk-molar. Nat. size. 

PI. I. fig. 11, is unfortunately not quite entire, having lost in all probability two, if not 
three, of its posterior ridges, leaving eight ridges in a space of 1'8 inch. The pressure- 
scar is roughly shown on the enamel of the anterior talon, but not distmctly. It is, 
however, clearly defined on the front of the fragment No. 16, which, in all points, is of 
the same type. Here the scar is 0-4 by 0-5 inch. Now it is important, with reference 
to the position of these teeth in the dental series, to consider how far there is evidence 
to give them a claim to the position of a last milk-tooth. This is probably proved, 
not only by dimensions, as compared with the preceding, but from the circumstance of 
VOL. IX. — PART I. November, 1874. "^ 



18 - MR. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

the breadth of the scar on the anterior talon, which, in virtue of its dimensions, could 
not have been caused by any of the antepenultimate milk-molars just described. 

The disks of the specimens not being sufficiently worn to display the pattern, little 
can be recorded on this point further than that the only full-developed disk of fig. 11 
shows faint crimping. The dentine and cement are in about equal proportions ; and 
the enamel is not thick. 

I am disposed to associate with the members of this series the fragment of an upper 
jaw. No. 46 (PI. I. fig. 18), containing the two permanent tusks and a morsel of an 
upper molar, already referred to. The tooth, although on the point of being shed, 
shows a large flat posterior fang, with two middle round fangs in front («, «), which 
alone would incline me to the belief that this is a fragment of a last milk- instead of a 
penultimate milk-molar. The specimen, therefore, might have represented the last of 
the milk-series disappearing, with the first true molar almost in full wear, and the tusks 
protruding for some distance beyond their alveoli ; it is just possible, however, that the 
fragment may be that of the penultimate tooth, where, however, the intermediate roots 
between the large anterior and posterior fangs are far more diminutive, especially in 
upper molars. The development of the tusks would seem also opposed to this view. 

There is no lower molar in my collection allied, as regards size and other characters, 
to No. 45 (fig. 11) and its series; but the long narrow tooth considered by Falconer to 
belong to the last of the milk-series of Elephas melitensis \ might have belonged to the 
same type as No. 45. It holds ten ridges in 2-3 inch^. The disks, as regards pattern, 
are precisely like those of PI. I. fig. 8, to which, as regards size and ridge-formula, it 
might fairly claim to be the successional molar. 

B Series.— The two upper molars, Nos. 18 & 19 (PI. I. figs. 10 & 17), are decidedly 
larger than the last, but not beyond the limits of variability observed in known species 
of elephants. The more perfect of the two (fig. 10) has lost its last ridge and fangs, 
with a considerable portion of the inferior aspect of the crown. 

The following profile view (fig. 2) shows its length, 2-6 inches, in which there are nine 
ridges. Fig. 17 has lost recently three of its central ridges, but was entire when dis- 
covered, and held ten ridges in a space of 3 inches. There are large well-defined pres- 
sure-scars on the anterior talons of both molars, more especially on the latter, where 
the impression is 0-5 by 0-6 inch. 1 would correlate with the above Nos. 17 & 12 of 
the Collection. The latter represents four well-wom disks, showing central expansions, 

' Trans. Zool. Soo. vol. vi. pi. 53. fig. 5, and p. 589. This remarkable tootli, Dr. Faloner remarks, " is 
unique as regards the complexity of its crown conjoined with such smaU dimensions," seeing that it contains 
ten ridges in the same space occupied by the eight ridges we have seen in the largest penultimate milk-molars 
just referred to. Certainly the posterior talon in the above is a mere figment, but neither more nor less than 
frequently obtains in all molars. Altogether the crown of fig. 5 is so long and so narrow that I have been 
sometimes disposed to consider it an instance of two extra ridges in a lower penultimate milk-molar. It is, 
however, equalled nearly by No. 44 (PI. IV. fig. 3), which, however, is a larger tooth. 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 



19 



angulations, and faint crimping, which decrease towards the cornua. The ridge is 
remarkable for the profusion of its digitations, as seen in fig. 10. 

Fig. 2. 




Last Upper llilk-molar. Nat. size. 

The colline (a) shown in PI. II. fig. 1 equals in breadth those of figs. 10 & 17, which 
might therefore fairly be considered the last milk-molars of the same pygmy form. 

There is a perfect upper molar, said to belong to the Zebbug collection, although, 
strange to say, it is not referred to by Falconer in his description of the teeth. It has 
however, been figured and described by Mr. Busk in a note appended to Falconer's 

Fis. 3. 




Last Lower Milk-molar? Nat. size. 

memoir'. This specimen displays ten ridges in a space of 2-9 inches, and in characters 
agrees very well with the above. 

' Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vi. p. 290. I have examined the specimen carefully, and compared its exterior with 
other molars from Zehbug, and find they agree in mincralogical characters, only that the white incrustation on 
the cement is very much thicker in the above. Considering that the specimen must have been with Dr. Fal- 
coner when he wrote his description of the last upper milk-molar of Elephus meliiensis, it seems very strange 
that he should have selected a fragment of an analogous tooth when he had such a perfect specimen of the 
same type before him. 

d2 



20 MR. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OE 

The entire lower molar, no. 44, of which the accompanying woodcut (fig. 3} and its 
crown view (PI. IV. fig. 3) will give a good idea, contains eleven ridges in 3 inches. 

The talons here are mere apjjendages. The crown, like that of the last milk-molar of 
E. melitensis (Falc), is long and narrow, the disks are also rhomboidal, with little, even, 
faint crimping; the central angulations, however, as usual, are apparent. Indeed, 
in regard to dimensions, this tooth might fairly claim to be the lower molar of PI. I. 
figs. 10 & 17, and of the upper tooth described by Busk. 

C Series.— The two left lower molars. No. 66 (PI. VI. figs. 5 & 5a) and No. 67 (PI. V. 
fig. 2), are precisely of the same type. They differ, not only in size but in configura- 
tion and other characters, from any preceding lower molars. The entire specimen 
No. 66 (PI. VI. fig. 5) contains eleven ridges in 4-2 inches. Unlike No. 44 (PI. IV. fig. 3), 
the crown is much arcuated, and instead of being narrow in front is broad and rounded on 
the internal border and narrows posteriorly. The plates, moreover, are thicker, being 
0-34 instead of 0-3 inch. Indeed, altogether the tooth has very much the aspect of 
a true molar. The crown, like the other, is long and narrow ; and the discal pattern 
(PI. VI. fig. 5«) shows the pronounced expansions and angulations', with very little faint 
crimping and numerous digitations. The enamel is not thick ; but the plates are large 
as compared with No. 44 (PI. IV. fig. 3). 

The septum {a, fig. 5) still remains ; but as the crown was just being invaded, we 
should not expect the next tooth to have made great progress ; however, the slope on 
the back part shows there was pressure being exerted. 

The enth-e and remarkable upper molar described by Falconer as either the first or 
the second true molar of his Meplias melitensis'^, holds eleven ridges in three inches. At 
first sight one would be disposed to place it in the D series, with the molars referred 
to the last milk-teeth of the largest form, which it and the specimen in my collection, 
No. 24 (PI. II. fig. 9) closely resemble, but only in the crown-pattern^. 

The latter contains only seven of the anterior ridges, the remainder having been lost. 
As far as the specimen goes, however, it may be called a.fac simile of the Zebbug tooth. 
They differ from the last milk-molar above mentioned in the greater breadth of crown 
and great height of ridges, which, however, are not nearly so thick, there being, for 
instance, five ridges in 1-4 inch in PI. II. fig. 9, whereas there are only four in the same 
space in PI. III. fig. 4. 

The profusion of the digitations is noteworthy, as they are especially plentiful on the 
coUines of all the thin-plated milk- and true molars. Altogether these teeth appear to 

' The central rib or ribs which g^ve this feature to the cro-mi are more pronounced in some specimens than 
in others, and more especially in those referable to the smallest form. See PI. II. fig. 5, where these ridges 
are seen side by side in a plate of an analogous tooth to the above. 

' Vol. vi. pi. .53. figs. 9 & Off. 

' Compare my specimen (PI. II. figs. 9 & 9o) and Falconer's figures 9 & 9a with the disks of PI. IV. fig. 2<( 
and PI. III. fig. 4. 



THE MALTESE POSSIL ELEPHANTS. 21 

me to exceed other upper molars in both collections with regard to the following — viz. 
the greater height of the crowns, the length as compared with the breadth of the 
croMTi, and the thinness of the enamel and plates'. To what position in the dental 
series do they therefore belong 1 Are they the opposing molar to the narrow-crowned 
teeth (PI. VI. fig. 5, and PI. V. fig. 2) which we have just seen carry the same number 
of ridges in a space of 4-2 inches 1 

In the thinness of the enamel and absence of crimping on the machaerides of well- 
M'orn disks the two are precisely alike. The plates of the lower molars are much 
thicker. This, however, does obtain more or less in the lower jaw, just as the ciown is 
narrower by a good deal. 

As regards relative length, it is nothing uncommon to meet with much discre- 
pancy in this respect between upper and lower first true molars, to even a greater 
extent than in the above. Lastly, in the short, stumpy outline of the upper Zebbug 
molar, with the pronounced pressure-hoUow below its posterior talon, made by the 
advancing septum, we find precisely the same conditions in other species of Elephant, 
and in PI. III. fig. 3, which I have assigned to the same position in the dental series 
of the largest form^. 

D Series. — The perfect and highly suggestive upper molar No. 61 (PI. III. figs. 4, 
4 a, & 4S) contains ten ridges in 3-2 inches. There is a well-defined pressure-scar on 
the enamel of the anterior talon, 0-6 by 0-8 inch in breadth, which equals the base 
posteriorly of the largest upper penultimate milk-molar (PL I. fig. 13). The talons 
here are well shown. The crown, just commencing wear, has not the pattern well 
developed; but in No. 65 (PI. IV. figs. 2 & 2a), which doubtless belongs to the same 
series, we find a half-worn crown displaying decided mesial expansions, slight tendencies 
to angulation, with faint crimping extending even to the cornua. These characters 
are continued in the still more attrited crowns of Nos. 18 & 52 of the Collection. The 
fangs are well shown in No. 65, PI. IV. fig. 2 ; and the posterior pressure-slope (a) is 
also exceedingly clearly defined. The rugosities or digitations of the collines are 
excessive, extending to the posterior talon, as seen in PI. III. fig. 45, where the investing 
cement has been purposely removed. This latter character is common also to the largest 
penultimate milk-teeth, as shown by PL I. fig. 14. 

The lower molar referable to this type is, I apprehend, well shown in No. 49 (PL III. 
figs. 5 & 5 a). As regards relationship I scarcely think there can be a doubt of the 

' The thickness of the enamel on the crown of Falconer's figrire (Trans. Zool. Soo. vol. vi. pi. 53. fig. 9) is 
exaggerated. I have compared the actual specimens with PI. II. fig. 9, with which its machKrides agree very 

closely. 

= There is, moreover, this character, ahnost peculiar to first true molars : viz. the tooth is generally very much 
broader at the base of the crown than other members ; and although they vary much in size individually, the 
specimens coUectively of all first true molars, upper especially, seem to be shorter and stumpier teeth than any 
other of the intermediate members. 



22 MR. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

connexion between it and fig. 4. Here we have ten ridges in 3-3 inches ; for although 
the fore part of the crown is somewhat distorted in consequence of an ancient fracture, 
the measurement is not invalidated in any material way. 

As in the upper tooth, the same thickness of enamel and the very much digitated 
posterior talon (figs. 5« & 4 J) are present, just as, I repeat, obtains in the largest penul- 
timate lower milk-molars. 

Precisely the same characters are continued in the lower molar No. 63, the crown 
of which is not so far invaded as that of fig. 5 ; and although the anterior talon has been 
recently removed, there are nine ridges in a space of 3-2 inches. It will therefore be 
seen at a glance that the members of this series differ in size and characters from 
any of the foregoing. 

E Series. — The largest of the class of molars holding ten to eleven ridges is beauti- 
fully represented in the perfect crown No. 89 (PI. III. figs. 3 & 3a), which is an upper 
molar commencing wear. It holds ten ridges in a space of 4'3 inches. The pressure- 
scar on the enamel of the anterior talon is 0-6 by 1-2 inch in breadth. 

Another suggestive specimen of an upper molar of the same type, but belonging to a 
larger individual, is presented by the tooth No. 71 (PI. VIII. fig. 5 '). It shows a more 
worn crown, and is embedded in a portion of the jaw, to which reference will be made 
in the sequel. The latter is omitted in the figure. The tooth holds ten ridges in a 
space of 5 '2 inches. Probably the first ridge is worn out, seeing that the large anterior 
fang which ordinarily gives support to three has only two ridges on it, and the first 
disk is ground down to the enamel reflections, with a pressure-scar in front. 

The lower molar No. 72 was found in a ramus close to the jaw which contained the 
above. It is entire, and contains twelve ridges, including a diminutive posterior talon, 
in a space of 5'5 inches. The crown, as usual in lower molars of this series, is much 
arcuated, almost like a bow, and similar to No. 37 (PI. IV. fig. 4), which shows a well- 
worn crown entire. It holds eleven ridges in about 5 inches. A third lower molar 
(No. 51) is represented on PI. IV. fig. 5. The contrast between it and the preceding is 
merely one of size, there being eleven ridges in 4-2 instead of 4-8 inches ; consequently 
it is of the dimensions of the upper molar, PI. III. fig. 3, just as PI. IV. fig. 4 consorts 
with PI. VIII. fig. 5, both of which are a little larger. 

The characters of all the members of this and D Series are remarkably alike. As 
compared with the other teeth they have thick plates, with thick enamel, and the 
ridges are weU apart, with abundance of cement between them. 

The lower molars of this series are all much arcuated, as usually observed in true 
molars, whilst there is little or no bending in D Series. This, however, is not always 
to be depended on. Again, the crown patterns show a repetition of the same characters 
in D and E Seiies. 

' The tusk found in the skull -which contained this molar has been referred to at page 9. 



THE MALTESE EOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 23 

There is central expansion and angulation, with irregular crimping in newly invaded, 
and fine crimping on the cement-side of the well-worn disk. 

Summary. — In the first place, from what has just and previously been stated, with 
respect to the molars I have assigned to the position of penultimate milk-molars, it 
seems to me evident that none of the foregoing can be referred to a more youthful 
condition than the last of the milk-series. Before, however, attempting to classify 
these complex varieties of molars, we must bear well in mind that there is a wide 
individual difference, as regards size, between specimens of last milk and first true 
molars in all known species of elephants. I find among the materials in the British 
Museum, and the fine collection of molars of the Asiatic Elephant in the Royal College 
of Surgeons, that this difference is remarkable. In the paleeontological collection of the 
British Museum there are specimens of the last milk-molar of the Mammoth, holding 
the same number of ridges, with full}- one inch difference in length ; indeed, as stated 
by Falconer, " often the antepenultimate true molar of a large variety may be nearly as 
large as the penultimate of a small one"'. Therefore slight differences in size, other 
points being equal, must be received with considerable caution. 

1. Reverting to the fragments of jaws (PI. II. figs. 1 & 2) containing the penultimate and 
germs of the last milk-teeth, I find that the collines of the latter in both rami are slightly 
longer and broader than the largest plates of A Series, but agree exactly with those of B 
Series. Now, with reference to the members of A Series, although differing perceptibly 
in dimensions from B Series, they all maintain the same ridge-formula, the same crown- 
pattern, and thickness of plates ; in fact they are distinct only as regards size. If a 
comparison between the upper molars Nos. 45 & 18 (PI. I. figs. 10 & 11) is made, it 
will be found that their relative lengths are 2 and 2-8 inches ; and the last lower molar of 
Falconer' and No. 44 (PI. IV. fig. 3) give proportional lengths of 2-3 to 3 inches, which 
will be found by no means remarkable individual differences between teeth holduig 
the same number of ridges, or one of which (as in the case of No. 44) has an extra 
ridgelet. I am therefore disposed to conclude that A and B Series represent the last 
milk-molar of a small form or species of Elephant, whose antepenultimate and penulti- 
mate milk-teeth are exhibited by PL I. fig. 6 and fig. 8. 

The ridge-formula, therefore, of its milk-molars would stand 5:7:10-11, or, without 
talons, 3:5: 8-9, which, with the exception of an occasional extra ridge in the lower 
jaw, is precisely the same as that deduced by Dr. Falconer from the Zebbug collection. 

2. The two upper and two lower molars comprising C Series are distinct from any other 
specimens in my coUection ; and being from different localities, there is no likelihood 
that their peculiar outlines are to be ascribed to casual or individual peculiarities. At 
all events they would appear to claim the position of true molars, each holding eleven 
ridges. As compared with the last milk-molars of the smallest form, they agree with 

> " On the Mastodon and Elephant," Quart. Journ. Gcol. Soc. vol. xxi. p. 317. 
■ Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vi. pi. 53. fig. 5. 



24 ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

regard to the thin enamel and plates ; but the comparisons as regards length present 
anomalies in the upper molar. Thus the difference in length between the members of 
A Series and the Zebbug upper molar' is not by any means disproportionate ; but the 
members of B Series are about the same length, although not nearly so broad, nor are 
their crowns so high. Nevertheless, allowing for individual differences, it might be 
concluded that this series represents the first true molar of the smallest form, which 
ordinarily held eleven ridges, or nine plates and two talons. 

3. Reverting to the antepenultimate milk-molar (PI. I. fig. 3) it has been stated that 
the jaw which contained it held also a germ penultimate milk-tooth of the dimensions 
of the largest specimens (to wit, figs. 13 & 14), which differ from the smaller penulti- 
mate milk-teeth (figs. 7 & 8) in size, ridge-formula, and development of the crown- 
constituents. The former moreover display a highly rugous and digitated condition of the 
collines, especially posteriorly, as seen in fig. 14. Now all these characters are repeated 
in the members of D series, viz. the upper molar (PI. III. figs. 4, 4 a, & 46) and the 
lower (figs. 5 & 5a), whilst the proportion in length between the two sets stand, as 
regards upper teeth, as 2 to 3 '2 inches, and in lower as 2-4 to 3'4 inches. Indeed 
these molars differ collectively so widely from their congeners in crown-pattern, plates, 
and size, that I scarcely think there can be a doubt as to their independent characters. 
The thickness of the plates and enamel as compared with other milk-molars, the less 
rhomboidal-shaped disk, and the presence of pronounced crimping of the machserides 
on newly invaded, and faint crimping on well-worn crowns, seem to me to distinguish 
these much larger teeth from those of the smallest form. 

The ridge-formula, therefore, deducible from the above data would, as regards the 
milk-series of the largest form, stand as 5:8:10-11, or, without the anterior and 
posterior talon, 3:6: 8-9, being one ridge more in the penultimate milk-tooth than 
obtains in the smallest form. 

4. If we admit the members of D series to represent the last milk-molar of the 
largest form, there can be, I think, little doubt that E series wiU illustrate its succes- 
sional first true molar. Irrespective of size, which entirely excludes the latter from all 
the preceding, their relatively thicker plates and enamel claim for them the position 
of true molars. As regards the thickness of plates and cement and discal pattern, how- 
ever, they bear a close resemblance to the last milk-teeth just referred to, as may be 
seen by comparing PI. VIII. fig. 5, and PI. III. figs. 3, 3«, and PI. IV. figs. 4 & 5, with 
PI. III. figs. 4, 5, and the other well-worn crown of the latter (PI. IV. fig. 2 a). The 
relative proportions between the last milk-teeth and members of E series are, as regards 
upper molars as 3-2 to 4-3 inches, and lower as 3-4 to 5 inches. 

The ridge-formula, therefore, of the first true molar of the largest form of Elephant 
would stand as in its last milk-tooth, viz. ten to eleven ridges, or eight to nine plates 
and two talons. 

' Trans. Zool. Soo. vol. vi. pi. 53. figs. 9 & 9a. 



THE MALTESE EOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 25 



6. Second True Molar. 



I shall now describe three series of molars containing apparently twelve ridges, or 
ten plates and two talons. 

A Series.— 'The two rami Nos. 100 & 101 (PI. V. figs. 1 a & J), with their associated 
molars in situ, are veiy interesting. They are evidently the right and left of the same 
individual. The right has been rolled, thus giving a rotundity to it w-hich is not seen 
in the other ; on the contrary, the left has been flattened by pressure, and was also 
found in the gap of Benghisa, firmly impacted between blocks of stone. They thus 
well exemplify the geological conditions under which they were deposited. These 1 
have fully described elsewhere \ 

Unfortunately both rami have been broken across at a short distance behind their 
teeth ; but there are apparently data for establishing the position of the latter m the 
dental series. The more perfect of the left side shows clear evidence of twelve ridges in a 
space of 5-6 inches, irrespective of the oval-shaped fragment of dentine in front, which, 
judging from the opposite tooth, may have formed a base for a semilunar anterior talon, 
such as is seen in the last true molar (PI. VI. fig. 1 a). In PL V. fig. 1 there is no trace 
of a preceding tooth in front ; and considering that all the ridges, excepting the last three, 
were in wear, we should expect a succeeding tooth to be making advances, and the 
former to have been pushed further forwards, seeing that they extend for 2 J inches 
behind the anterior border of the coronoid process, and neariy to the angle of the jaw. 
They are remarkably long and narrow ; and taper gradually, with a small posterior talon 
at c on the right tooth, the same having been lost on the opposite. Although the 
cement is not injured, there is a void behind as if it had held the germ of an advancing 
tooth ; indeed this is so apparent that I am much inclined to regard the above as 
penultimate true molars. A fragment of a similar tooth is represented in PI. II. figs. 

8 & 8a. 

B Series.— 1. The molar No. 42 b (PI. XI. figs. 10 & 10 a), in situ, is nearly perfect, 
having only lost its last ridge, probably by the same accident which cleared away all the 
jaw posterior to the tooth. The lost posterior talon, however, is preserved in the detached 
tooth (42 a) of the other ramus ; but the crown of the latter is much distorted through 
injuries received when the molar was fresh. It is probable, from the gap a, fig. 10, 
that a fragment of the preceding tooth was in wear. I think, from the circumstance that 
the double anterior fang in 42 a distinctly supports two plates and a field of dentine 
in front, with a machseris of what may probably form portion of its semilunar talon, we 
may very fairly surmise that this tooth held twelve ridges in a space of 6-3 inches. 

The question is, therefore, is this a penultimate or a last true molar 1 Unfortunately 
all the portion posterioriy is lost, so that there is no direct evidence of a successor; but 
though all the ridges except the last two are invaded and there are no indications of 
' Author's ' Nat. Hist, and Arch, of the NUe VaUey and Malta,' p. 189. 

VOL. IX. — PART I. November, 1874. ^ 



26 ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

severe pressure on the enamel of the last ridge, at the same time it seems pretty 
generally the case that the succeeding tooth does not commence to attrite the pre- 
decessor until the latter has about one third of the crown worn out. Again, the 
crown does not graduate, like last teeth, towards the posterior talon; moreover the 
heel is only about 2-5 inches behind the anterior margin of the coronoid, and the plates 
(see fig. 10ft) are arcuated as in teeth that are being pushed onwards. These facts 
dispose me to regard the above as being penultimate true molars. 

The discal pattern displays the expansions and excentral angulations of a well-bent 
lower molar. " The enamel is in no wise thick ; and there is scarcely a trace of crimping. 
The crown, as obtains in certain last lower molars, is broad in front and narrow 
posteriorly. 

2. The almost worn-out fragment of an upper molar No. 50 (PI. II. fig. 7) contains 
seven and a half ridges in 2'8 inches, and, from dimensions and consistence of enamel 
and discal pattern, might have belonged to this series, the crowding and parallelism of 
the plates being, as previously shov/n, a result of the advanced stage of wear. 

C Series. — 1. The upper molar No. 38 (PI. III. fig. 1) represents a broader crown 
than ordinarily obtains, from the circumstance that the plane of attrition is oblique 
instead of horizontal. As to its claims to the position of second true molar I 
think there cannot be much doubt. There is a broad pressure-scar on the posterior 
aspect. The double anterior fangs have been broken off close to the crown, and 
support only the first ridge, which is worn to the common base ; therefore, allowing for 
the loss of one plate and the anterior talon, we are seemmgly justified in concluding that 
the original formula amounted to at least twelve ridges. There are ten ridges in a space 
of 5-4 inches, which with those worn out would make up the length to fuUy 6-5 inches. 
The well-worn and perfect condition of the disks shows the decided pattern of the 
largest form as displayed in the well-attrited crowns of its preceding teeth. The 
contrast between the above and PI. II. fig. 7 is remarkable. Although the latter is 
almost worn out, it displays seven disks in a space of 3 inches, which is precisely the 
dimensions of another fragment of a similar tooth in germ (see No. 69 of the collection). 

2. Another well-worn fragment of an upper tooth of the same type as No. 38 is shown 
in No. 80 (PL VIII. fig. 4). It contains six ridges in a space of 3-5 inches, which 
would make the original dimensions about the same as No. 38. Here the shallow disk, 
with the famt crimping on the cement-side of the machserides, and some arcuations of 
the plate with the pronounced angulations are well seen ; whilst a vertical section of 
the opposite tooth of the same individual displays the thick intervening cement as com- 
pared with the breadth of the plates. 

3. But a far more convincing proof of teeth analogous to the above being penulti- 
mate true molars is seen in PI. VIII. fig. 2, where the last of the series is in situ, with 
a fragment («) of the penultimate also in place. The latter holds six ridges in a space 
of 3' 3 inches. 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 27 

4. The lower molar referable to this series is well shomi in the fragment No. 81 a 
(PI. Hi. fig. 2). It has, like the others, a well-defined pressure-scar posteriorly. 

5. There is another, posterior portion (No. 81b) of evidently the opposite tooth of per- 
haps the same individual. This specimen shows a pronounced xmsterior pressure-scar 
1-3 inch in height by 1-6 uich in breadth. Here also the cement is in excess. Allowing 
for the displacement of the machserides by the longitudinal fracture in fig. 2, the expan- 
sions of disks, angulations, and faint crimpuig are veiy evident. The enamel is nearly 
0-2 inch in thickness^; and had it not been for the clear mdications of an advancing 
tooth, the two specimens might have been fairly considered to belong to the last of the 
series. Fig. 2 contains four plates in 2-5 inches, which would make the tooth to have 
been from 6 -5 to nearly 7 inches in length. 

Summary. — It seems to me evident from the foregoing dcta that all the molars just 
described cannot fairly claim to be considered other than penultimate true molars. 
That they have no title to the position of antepenultimate true molars is proved, not 
only from the preceding molars, but from their ridge-formula, crown, constituents, and 
fangs. 

1 . I shall in the first place consider their individual affinities. As regards the dimen- 
sions of the molars in A & B series and their rami, it must be allowed that the contrast 
as regards both is seemingly at variance with any assumed specific relationship. The 
molars (PL V. figs, \a8cb) contrast with that of PI. XL figs. 10 and 10 a, in respect of 
outline and crown-constituents, the ridge-formula and dimensions being equal. Thus the 
crown of the first is long and narrow, whilst that of the latter displays a broad rounded 
front, naiTOwing posteriorly after the manner of the last true molars (PL VII. fig. 2). 
Again, there are decidedly broader bars of cement between the plates in PL V. fig. 1 than 
in fig. 10 ; but they agree as regards the thickness of the latter, and enamel, and the 
pattern of the disks. 

2. The rami differ also. Allowing that PL V. figs. la&.b have been much injured, 
whilst PL XI. figs. 10 & 10 « has lost a portion of its posterior border ; nevertheless the 
discrepancies in the dimensions, as will be seen when I come to consider them, render it 
extremely likely that, if both jaws hold penultimate true molars, the owners belonged to 
forms or species differing much in size, also in the configuration and crown-constituents 
of their molars. 

3. As regards C series, there is a considerable difference in respect of size between its 
members and either of the other two series. With A series there is no affinity what- 
ever ; and most assuredly a comparison between the two surfaces in wear, alone, at once 
proclaims them distinct in every respect. Again, as compared with B series, unless the 
latter is allowed to be a small variety or a sexual condition, I see no manner of 
arrivmg at any other conclusion than that these penultimate teeth represent three 
distinct forms of Elephant ; and yet as regards length the members of B & C series 

' The enamel is broader than shown in the figure. 

e2 



28 MR. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

are alike. But the difference in the thickness of the plates and their enamel is cer- 
tainly vei"y great ; yet when the same elements in equivalent molars of the thick- and 
thin-plated varieties of H. antiqims are compared we find more astounding differences. 

(1) Assuming A series to represent the second true molar of the smallest form, the 
lengtli of the first molar would be to the second as 4'2 to 5'6 inches. 

(2) Allowing B series to belong to a variety of thin-plated molars of the largest form, 
and C series a larger thick-plated sort, their lengths, as compared with the first true 
molar, would stand as 6 "5 and 7 inches to 4'2 and 5 inches. Now, as individual differ- 
ences in the size of first and second true molars in all other known species vary very 
much, there is nothing in these discrepancies very discordant as compared with them. 
In the African Elephant the first true molar often varies in the upper jaw as much as 
an inch in individual molars holding the same number of ridges ; and the like is the 
case to a greater extent in the Asiatic, whilst teeth referable to the second true molar of 
the Mammoth, and holding eighteen ridges, I have found to vary as much as 2 inches. 

7. Tlie Third or Last True Molar. 

The last of the dental series is well represented in my collection by several entire 
specimens, which therefore fix in certain instances the dimensions, ridge-formula, and 
characters of this important molar beyond reasonable doubt. At the same time there 
are conflicting data in regard to the characters of specimens ; and, as in the penulti- 
mate milk-molar, they form a series graduating from what is evidently a very small last 
molar up to a large one ; and this progression is so gradual that I find it difficult to 
separate the intermediate from either of the extremes, which, however, differ widely in 
characters as well as dimensions. Although certain types held 14 to 15 ridges, or 12 
to 13 plates and 2 talons, it is not evident that all I have considered last true molars 
contained so large a ridge-formula. 

A Series (thin-plated). — 1. In the first place I will select as a type of this series the 
finely preserved molar considered by Falconer to repi'esent the last upper molar of the 
Elephas melitensis^ . This tooth I have carefully compared with similar specimens in 
my own collection, more especially No 28 from Mnaidra Gap, with which it agrees very 
closely; indeed so similar are they in general characters that, were it not that both belong 
to the right side, it would at first sight be difficult to discriminate the differences, which, 
however, are important. No. 28 has an additional ridge ; and a portion of its posterior 
talon has been recently broken off. In front there is a field of dentine, where doubtless 
another ridge or ridges existed ; and whilst ten ridges are contained in 4 inches in the 
Zebbug specimen, there are eleven in 4-4 inches in No. 28. Dr. Falconer has pointed 
out that in the former the large front fang and its ridges have disappeared by ab- 
sorption and attrition ; and as this root usually upholds three ridges, it is fair to surmise 
that the Zebbug molar may have originally been about 5 inches in length, perhaps a 
' Zool. Trans, vol. vi. p. 296, Palisont. Memoirs, vol. ii. p. 202, pi. xi. figs. 1 & 1 a. 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 29 

little more ; and this is precisely the estimate to be aimed at by computing the loss in 
the same way in No. 28. 

In upper last true molars of the African, Asiatic, Mammoth, and E. antiquus, and, 
indeed, in all representatives of the genus, there is a decided graduation of the ridges 
towards the last, or posterior talon, which is commonly dwarfed in size. Moreover the 
usual flattening just below the latter, invariably present in other members of the series 
when well worn, is as a matter of course not observed in the 3rd true molar. Now as 
regards these distinctions I must state that, whilst the Zebbug molar and No. 28 display 
a pronounced similitude to the pyramidal-sided outline of the last of the series, there is 
a flattening at the base of the posterior talon in both, which, with all due deference to 
■ Dr. Falconers's opinion to the contrary as regards the former, I submit is not unlike a 
pressure-hollow made by the septum of an advancing tooth. Again the difference in 
length and breadth between the last plate and hind talon in both gives an abruptness 
posteriorly which, as far as I have seen of recent and fossil last upper true molars, seems 
to me exceptional' ; but at the same time I am willing to admit considerable variations 
on this head. 

In respect of general characters the foregoing, although smaller, agree in a remark- 
able manner with the following, and more especially in the pattern of the worn disks, 
which, I repeat, are well shown in the Zebbug specimen figured and described in the 
' Paleeontological Memoirs'^. The crown-constituents are pretty evenly distributed; 
the plates are not thick ; and the enamel, dentine, and cement are not in excess. The 
disk widens towards the middle, with abrupt angulations and faint crimping on the 
cement-sides of the machaerides. 

I feel therefore much disposed to associate these two specimens with the penultimate 
lower molars, PI. V. fig. 1, and reckon that the Zebbug molar has lost a plate and a 
talon, and No. 'AS the latter only ; so that their original lengths would have been about 
4"8 inches. 

2. The upper jaw of my collection, No. 86 (PI. IV. fig. 1), containing two molars 
in situ, presents several important characters. It will be observed that all the ridges 
are invaded, and yet the teeth occupy a very large expanse of the jaws. The last ridge 
on the right side is preserved, and behind it a considerable fragment of the back 
portion of the alveolus ; there is no abrasion of even the cement of the posterior talon a ; 
nor is there the pressure-slope usually present when a tooth comes to be so far attrited. 

Irrespective of the masses of dentine in front, and the single machseris, b b", the 

' 3Ir. Davies has inspected the Zebbug specimen, and agrees with me in this opinion. As regards the 
anterior fang, which is not in the specimen, it must be stated that it is very rarely found in upper molars 
unless when far advanced in wear. 

^ Vol. ii. p. 292 and pi. xi., and figs. 1 and 1 a, Zool. Trans. Tol. vi. p. 296. I have ascertained all data in 
connexion with this tooth from repeated careful examinations of the specimen, the profile and crown-view of 
which is well seen in Pateont. Mem. ii. pi. xi. fig. 1 a. 



30 ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

remainder of the ridges (nine) are contained in a space of 4'2 inches ; so that by making 
the same allowance for the lost portion as in the cases of the Zebbug molar and 
No. 28', there would have been fourteen ridges in about 5^ inches, i. e. supposing the 
teeth to have been last true molars. At all events it is clear that their ridge-formulas 
exceeded ten plates and two talons. This is further shown by the following, which re- 
presents the palatal region containing a fragment of the left and almost the entire right 
molar in situ. 

3. The specimen in the B. M. (No. 87) has been much injured, and the posterior talon 
has been recently lost. The crown is not nearly so far advanced in wearas the last, the four 
posterior ridges being intact. There is a small field of dentine in front, 0-3 inch, and 
sufficient to have maintained an extra ridge. As the tooth stands, tliere are thirteen 
ridges in 5-5 inches ; and from its state of wear it may be said to be entire, with the 
exception of the loss of the last ridge. In crown-constituents it repeats precisely the 
characters of the preceding, and from its long graduating crown indicates at all events 
the usual contours of the penultimate and last upper true molars. The crown-pattern in 
PI. IV. fig 1 and No. 87 are precisely alike, and also correspond with the two pre- 
ceding. Now, in comparison with No. 28 and the Zebbug molar, it will be found that 
the two just described contain an extra ridge in a given space ; thus the two former 
hold seven ridges in the same space occupied by six ridges in the two latter. 

4. One of the most characteristic and instructive specimens in my collection is the 
portion of a right lower ramus. No. 95 (PI. VI. fig. 1), containing an entke molar 
(fig. 1«) which has been detached and is represented of the natural size in order to 
show its outline. Here we have the character not rare in last true molars of recent and 
fossil species when the posterior ridges become reclinate, so that the posterior talon c 
(fig. I a) is nearly horizontal. The tooth in this instance fills the ramus, so that its base 
posteriorly reaches to b (fig. 1), or in other words, within a short distance of the opening 
of the dental foramen. There is an indication of the bony alveolar septum behind ; so 
that, to all appearance, the only conclusion we can come to is that the molar is the 
last of the dental series. It contains fourteen ridges in about G inches. Excepting 
the ten disks in wear, the remainder of the coUines are more or less hidden by the 
investing cement ; but their tips are determinable. 

It will be seen from fig. ] a that the ridges are crowded, and that the enamel is 
decidedly thin as compared with the upper teeth ; there is faint crimping, however, with 
central expansions and angulations on the well-worn disks. It may be here observed 
that the surface in wear represents the entire attrition-plane, as no fragment of a pre- 
ceding molar is noticeable. From this circumstance, therefore, and the space occupied 
by the tooth, it seems to me to afi'ord conclusive proof of its being a last true molar of 
a very small species of elephant. 

' I have invariably estimated the average width of the ridges by measurements taken at the base of the crown, 
so as to overcome the errors likely to arise from measuring disks in various stages of wear. 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 31 

B Series (thick-plated). — The series I shall now describe comprehends several teeth 
remarkable for their smaU size and the thickness of their plates and enamel. 

1. The most suggestive instances have been figured and described by Falconer as the 
last lower true molars of his E. melitensis^ . Two of his specimens (figs. 12 & 13) 
display the fan-shape or reclinate aspect of the last few ridges, as seen in PI. VI. fig. 1 of 
A series, and one of them a peculiarity, or rather a diseased condition of wear, observed 
occasionally in domesticated elephants. The most perfect, however, is shown in fig. 11. 
This long narrow and very thick-])lated molar holds eleven ridges in 4 inches. The 
front fang has evidently been ground away, and with it not only three ridges but pos- 
sibly part of the succeeding ; thus, allowing for their loss, it was surmised by Falconer 
that the crown originally held twelve or thirteen ridges, in a space, 1 calculate, of about 
5'4 inches, which brings the molar nearly to the dimensions of PI. VI. fig. 1. And also, 
like the penultimate molars (PI. V. fig. 1), it displays a very long and narrow crowj), 
with the plates separated by much intervening cement. Three molars equivalent to 
the above are represented in my collection by the right and left specimens of the same 
individuals Nos. 35 A & B (PL IX. figs. 1, \a & 2, and PI. II. fig. 10). None of these, 
unfortunately, is entire. 

The fii-st shows a tooth in place, and the fellow of the other ramus detached. The 
lower jaw which held them lay close to a portion of the vertebral column (PI. XL fig. 9), 
of which two of the vertebrae are seen also in PI. IX. figs. 3 & 4. The fragment of the 
molar No. 15 (PI. II. fig. 10) was also discovered along with the above. Whether or 
not these molars are referable to the last of the series of a dwarf elephant, there can be 
no question whatever as to the matured state of the vertebrae, seeing that all their 
epiphyses are completely consolidated, as will be further noted when I come to describe 
them. 

Eeverting to the right ramus, PI. IX. fig. 1, it is unfortunately imperfect, but 
sufficiently complete to show that the molar extends far back near to the angle of the 
jaw ; the septum c is M'ell seen in the figures. On the inner aspect the dental canal 
has been laid open, showing a fragment of the triangular-shaped plug running up 
towards its opening. The infiltration of calcareous matter into this porous osseous 
substance, however, has considerably obscured the original character ; but no capsule 
or hollow cavity is apparent therein, such as obtains in alveoli of all intermediate 
teeth, even when- the crown of the molar in its immediate front is commencing wear ; 
and considering that here only four of the last collines are entire, I think, under the 
cu-cumstances, there should have been indications of a succeeding molar in the above 
situation. It is impossible, however, to be positive on this point, in consequence of the 
loss of substance. 

Eeverting to the molars, the more perfect (figs. 1 & 1 a), I calculate, holds ten ridges 
in 4-5 inches ; it will be seen that the first disk on fig. 1 a is worn to the enamel- 

' Zool. Trans, vol. vi. pi. 53. figs. 11, 12, and 13. 



32 MR. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

reflections with a field of dentine in front ; perhaps a fragment of the preceeding molar 
may have been in use at the same time. The anterior fang has been broken oflt or is 
worn out, and has left no indications of its presence on the lower surface of the crown ; 
it is difficult therefore even to surmise what may haA'e been the original length and 
ridge-formula of this tooth. But supposing Dr. Falconer's estimate of the above ' 
correct, this specimen, provided it held fourteen ridges, would have been originally 
about the same dimensions. They agree moreover in their characters; but figs. 
1 & 2 are narrow-crowned as compared with the Zebbug teeth ; yet the same 
thick plates, thick enamel, central expansion, abrupt angulations tvithout even faint 
crimping, are common to all. Indeed, as regards the thickness of the enamel, it may 
be stated that the average of the larger plates in the Zebbug (fig. 11) and the above is 
0'5 inch, which is excessive as compared with the lower molar of B series. 

2. The fragment No. 15 (PI. II. figs. 10 and 10 a) shows what appears to me to be 
a left lower molar commencing wear. It is displayed chiefly with the view of 
indicating the outline of the crown in front, thickness of ridges, and tlie fore fang, 
which is here quite traceable and gives support to two plates besides a diminutive 
anterior talon. All these molars show considerable arcuation of the crowns — more, 
however, in the above and the Zebbug specimens than in PI. IX. figs. 1 & 2. 

It is apparent therefore that there is no evidence whereby the precise ridge-formulas 
of these teeth can be ascertained. Dr. Falconer, reasoning from analogy, as in the 
upper molar" just referred to, gave the lower molar fourteen ridges. And I think his 
hypothesis is now much strengthened if we allow the members of this series to be only 
thick-plated varieties of A series ; and considering what has been already shown, and 
what will be further displayed in the next series, it seems to me a fair deduction that 
the above are only varieties of the same molar represented by the entire thin-plated 
tooth, PI. VI. figs. 1 & 1 a, where we have fourteen ridges. 

C Series. — 1. The reclinate condition of the last ridges, pointed out in PI. VI. fig. 1, 
is repeated in the thick-plated molars 43 A «& B (right and left), the former of which is 
represented in PL VIII. fig. 9. It is one of a pair found iti situ. The left is much 
injured ; but fig. 9 is fairly entire, having lost recently a few of its anterior ridges 
supported by the long front double fang. The fan-shaped expansion of the last five 
ridges prolongs the length beyond what would have obtained had they been erect. 
Allowing ,for the loss of the three ridges ordinarily borne on the anterior fang, we may 
fairly surmise that this tooth held originally fourteen ridges in a space of certainly 
7 inches. The graduation of the posterior ridges must always add to the length of 
a tooth. 

The disks here, as usual, show the central expansion, with angulations and faint 
crimping ; and, as compared with B series, this may be also called a thick-plated molar ; 

' Zool. Trans, vol. vi. pi. liii. flg. 11. 
' Pal. Mem. vol, ii. pi. xi. fig. 1, 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 33 

but although its enamel is not so thick as that of B series, it is altogether a much 
larger tooth, with a diflferent configuration. 

As to the position of No. 43 A & B (fig. 9) in the dental series, had it not been 
for the posture of the last ridges, the pronounced retroflexion of the ceiitral plates 
would naturally indicate the pressure of a succeeding molar ; but considering these facts 
and that all the ridges except the last five are touched by wear, and there are no traces 
of pressure on the posterior talon, I can see no more feasible conclusion to arrive at than 
to consider the above to be a last true molar of an elephant larger than any of the 
owners of the teeth in A or B series, from which it diifers in configuration as well as 
dimensions and crown-constituents, although the outline of the disk is much alike in all. 

2. Two beautiful and highly suggestive examples of what must be considered last 
true molars, are represented by the entire specimens Nos. 64 & 59 (PI. VII. figs. 1 & 2 & 2a). 
The former, an upper tooth, shows fourteen ridges, including the pygmy digitated 
posterior talon «, in a space of 7 inches. Attached in front, although not shown in the 
figure, are two plates of the penultimate molar. As the crown is just being invaded, of 
course its pattern is not developed ; the machserides are therefore well crimped, and the 
plates and enamel thick. 

The next, No. 59 (figs. 2 & 2a), is a much arcuated lower molar ; the last ridge, although 
rounded and finger-like, rises like the others from the common base to the same level 
as the penultimate. There is a slight flattening on its base internally, but no trace of 
what could be called a pressure-mark. The crown is broad in front, tapering steadily 
posteriorly. The anterior talon is large and semilunar ; and the anterior fang seems to 
support it and the succeeding plate only. Here we have fourteen ridges in 6'5 inches. 

The crown- constituents are precisely the same as in the last. The disks show central 
exj^ansion. with angulations and faint crimj^ing. 

Another jjair of upper molars, Nos. 70 & 58 (PI. VIII. figs. 2 & 3), are larger than 
No. 64, but only slightly ; and as their posterior ridges were not quite consolidated, 
they have become somewhat displaced and are encased (fig. 2) in a fragment of the 
jaw. This tooth holds, in front, the fragment {a) of a penultimate molar already noticed. 
The figs. 2 & 3 contain each fourteen ridges in 7'3 inches; none of the digitations of 
the four ridges in wear being obliterated, there is of course excessive looping. Their 
crowns are rather narrower as compared with PI. VII. fig. 1, just as the lower molar 
No. 56 (PI. VIII. figs, 8 & 8a) compares with the crown of No. 59 (PI. VII. fig. 2). 

The molar, PI. VIII. fig. 8, is markedly narrow throughout, and held, no doubt, au 
extra ridge, as there are fourteen in the space of 7'4 inches, and clear indications of the 
loss of one or more posteriorly. The last three ridges, however, were broken ofl' and 
reunited ; so that there may be a slight excess thereby given to the length. The re- 
markable feature in this molar and the two preceding is that their enamel is not so 
thick as in PI. VII. figs. 1 & 2 ; but the difference is not very material. 

This is also evident in a very much worn upper molar, No. 79, where the crown 
VOL. IX. — PART I. NovnnLer, 1874. v 



34 ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

is almost ground down to the top of the penultimate ridge with the rudimentary and 
digitated posterior talon at its base. Here fourteen ridges are held in space of 7" 2 inches ; 
there is much parallelism of the disks, and a comparative thinness of plates ; and their 
enamel is quite in keeping with the last. Possibly these may be only sexual differences. 
In all the above teeth the discal pattern is alike, showing very faint crimping of the 
machserides in well-worn crowns, with the central expansion and angulation. Less perfect 
molars of the same dimensions are represented by Nos. 57 and 40 of the Collection. 

The nearly perfect upper molar No. 93 (PI. VIII. figs. 1 & 1 a) contains fifteen ridges 
in 7 '5 inches. It differs from the foregoing only in the presence of an extra ridge. 
The posterior talon here is only a diminished ridge rising from the common base with 
the others. 

A fragment. No. 68 of the Collection, is referable to the same type. 

A mutilated lower molar, No. 36, with several of its ridges depressed from an 
injury when the tooth was fresh, is no doubt on this account considerably lengthened, 
from the infiltration of matrix at the seat of fracture. The last ridge here is of the 
same character as in PL VIII. fig. 2, with the same flattening internally at its base. 
The cement has been I'emoved by accident from the tops of the last three collines, which 
alone are unworn ; therefore the tooth is far advanced and under all circumstances 
should have maintained indelible marks of pressure on its last ridge, which is not the 
case. 

Probably No. 36 did not exceed materially the dimensions of any of the foregoing, to 
which it assimilates in all particulars ; only the enamel is, if any thing, thicker. The 
worn disk shows the faint crimping and pronounced central angulations. 

T) Series (thick-plated). — The members of this series are unfortunately very imperfect ; 
but what remain transcend in dimensions any of the foregoing. 

1. A fragment. No. 78, shows six and a half of the posterior ridges of an upper 
molar in a space of 4'3 inches ; so that if the tooth held fourteen ridges, like the pre- 
ceding, it must have been fully 9 inches in length. It is remarkable for the massive 
appearance of the plates ; and although the crown is considerably abraded, its disks are 
well shown. The three anterior pretty well indicate the original dimensions of the 
plate; the first, being the broadest, was no doubt one of the central ridges. It is 2-5 
inches in breadth, and 0'5 inch in thickness, which would equal the same in the second 
true molar of Elephas antiquus. The last three ridges display large circular digitations 
in pairs, which are from 0-5 to 1 inch in breadth. The parallelism of the plates is 
of course pronounced, seeing that the section is close to the base. There is distinct 
faint crimping of machserides and abrupt angular expansions ; the latter, however, are 
not very conspicuous, but quite as much so as obtains in the members of C Series. 

2. The fragment of a lower molar. No. 55 (PI. VIII. fig. 7), was unfortunately all 
that could be saved of an entire tooth after having been knocked about by the workmen. 
It was found close to the last, and, indeed, may have been the opposing tooth of the same 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 35 

individual. Here the last srs ridges are contained in a space of 4-6 inches, and the 
average of each plate is about 0-7 inch, which, supposing it held fourteen collines, would 
have made the original length about 9-5 inches. The breadth of the central plate, a, 
is about 2-5 inches. The posterior talon is firmly attached to the last plate, which 
displays four large circular digitations (not three, as rendered in the figure) ; and yet, 
although thus far worn, there is no indication on the talon of the presence of an 
advancing tooth. The disks show well-marked faint crimping and disposition to central 
expansion and angulation, with an abrupt bending forwards of their horns. The tusk 
found along with this tooth has been already referred to at page 9. 

It may be stated, as regards relative dimensions with the other last true molars, that 
the marked discrepancy between the members of C and D Series as regards thickness of 
plates is fully as great, if not more conspicuous than betw een the members of A and 
B Series. 

Summary. — 1. Whether or not all the members of A Series represent the last true 
molar, it is clear to me that they belong to the same type or form. At all events it 
would appear clear that the upper molars, Nos. 86, 87 & 95, claim to be considered as 
belonging to the last of the dental series. The latter, however, as compared with the 
teeth (PI. V. fig. 1) which I have assigned to the second true molar of the smallest form, 
give a very small proportion indeed for second and third true molars ; but considering 
that the enamel and plates of No. 95 are remarkably thin as compared with the upper 
teeth, it is just possible that it belonged to a small individual, male or female. 

2. The teeth represented in B Series have certain claims to be separated from the 
foregoing. In dimensions and outline they agree. I must, however, allow that there 
is a remarkable difference in the thickness of the plates and enamel, as in the absence of 
sculpturing on the latter ; but otherwise it would be difficult to draw distinctions. The 
only likelihood that they belong to the same form as A Series is by discarding the thick 
plates as a cause of separation, which Dr. Falconer ' has done, believing that the upper 
Zebbug molar referred to in A Series and the lower Zebbug teeth of B Series are indi- 
vidual instances of what he considered to be the upper and lower last true molars of his 
Elephas melitensis. In this opinion as regards the thin and thick plates I am disposed to 
concur, applying the rule to them that obtains in the case of the Mammoth and Elephas 
antiquus. Consequently the last true molar of the smallest form may have ranged 
between 5 and 6 inches in length and held ordinarily fourteen ridges, i. e. twelve plates 
and two talons — which in comparison with the Asiatic Elephant would place them with 
its last milk-molar, which holds the same ridge-formula in about the same space. 

3. The materials of C Series being for the most part entire renders the determination 
of their ridge-formula and crown-constituents a comparatively easy proceeding. If 
No. 42 (PI. XL fig. 10) is to be accepted as a penultimate true molar, there is every pro- 
bability that it was the predecessor of C Series. 

' Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vi. p. 291. 



F 



30 MR. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

The configuration of the latter varied, no doubt, individually, as obtains in all known 
species, some crowns being longer and narrower and holding an additional ridge. The 
worn disk, however, might have always been much the same ; and although the enamel 
was thick as compared with the penultimate molar, it was in no way, as regards C Series, 
remarkable, the ridge-formula of which seems to have varied from fourteen to fifteen 
ridges or twelve plates and two talons, which were contained in from 6*5 to 8 inches. 

4. The two imperfect but highly suggestive members of D Series seem to stand to 
those of C Series as the thick- and thin-plated molars of A and B Series, only that the 
latter do not show the decided larger dimensions we find between D and C Series. Again, 
just as the second true molar, PI. XI. fig. 10, was correlated with the last true molars 
of C Series on the score of dimensions, so we find a proportional agreement between the 
large molars of C Series and the large upper and lower penultimate molars, PI. III. 
figs. 1 and 2. 

Now such discrepancies suggest the question as to whether we are to assume the 
previous existence of two fonns of Elephant, a small and a large, each displaying cha- 
racters in last true molars similar to what obtains in other species of Elephant, or to 
consider the wide differences of the plates specific characters. If we adopt the latter, 
then the forms indicated by the last true molars would be doubled, which, considering 
the ridge-formula and crown-constituents, cannot be well admitted. Hypothetically I 
am disposed, from a consideration of the molars and what obtains in other members of 
the genus, and from what will appear when I come to consider other portions of the 
skeleton, to believe that the C and D series and the largest penultimate true molars, 
PI. III. figs. 1 and 2, belonged to full-grown individuals of the largest form, and that in 
dimensions their teeth equalled and sometimes exceeded the ordinary dimensions of the 
penultimate true molar of Elephas antiqxius, which usually held the same ridge-formula 
in from about 8"5 to 9'5 inches. 

From the foregoing data the ridge-formulas of the molar series are deducible 
apparently as follows \ — 

Large Form. 



Milk-Molars. 




True Molars. 


5:8: 10-11. 




10-11:12:14-15, 


Milk-Molars. 


Small Form. 


s 

True Molars. 


5:7: 10-11. 




10-11 : 12 : 14. 



III. Cranium. 

I have no evidence of the configuration of the dome of the cranium in any of the 

Maltese fossil Elephants. Besides abundant remains of fragments of the skull, including 

the petrous portions of the temporal bone which contained the internal ear, there is a 

condyle of the lower jaw (PI. VIII. fig. 6). It is of the right side, and evidently belonged 

' The two talons are included. 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHAI^TS. 37 

to a full-grown individual. As compared with recent species it shows measurements 
slightly less than that of an Asiatic Elephant, with the last milk and first true molar in 
wear. I shall now proceed to describe the maxillae of the molars just referred to ; but 
beforehand, by way of comparison between the same points in recent species, it may be 
stated that the lower maxilla in the Asiatic and African Eleph9,nts appears to differ in 
the following particulars : — 

1. Commencing at the condyle, we find a decided neck in the Asiatic, whereas in the 
African the slope is continuous more or less to the angle without any sudden constriction 
at the condyle. 

2. The outline between the angle and condyle bulges out, or is more convex, in the 
Asiatic than in the African, where the margin is narrower ; so that, if a line be drawn 
transversely near the base of the coronoid process, it will furnish a relatively greater 
breadth in the former. 

3. The rostrum is more pointed in the African, and the chin and upper jaw are more 
produced, whilst the diasteme, from being nearly perpendicular in the Asiatic, is at a 
much lower angle in the African. 

4. The coronoid generally is more erect in the African, whilst it is higher, and its 
apex overhangs more or less in the Asiatic, forming a concave anterior border. This, 
however, is not constant, as demonstrated by the specimen No. 2846 of the lower jaw 
of an African Elephant in the Koyal College of Surgeons. 

5. The dental foramen is larger and more gaping in the Asiatic, and opens out just 
under the condyle, whilst it is situated lower down in the African. 

6. The mentary foramina are usually two in the African, and situated just below the 
front of the tooth in wear, and invariably at some distance from the border of the dia- 
steme, near which they are placed in the Asiatic. 

7. The symphysial gutter is generally more open and shallow in the African than in 
the Asiatic or in the Mammoth. 

The only entire portion of the brain-case is a left exoccipital from Benghisa Gap. It 
is almost, if not quite, identical in size, and has also many characters in common with 
one described by Busk '. Its dimensions are : — extreme height 2 inches ; breadth at 
the constricted part above the condyle 1-1 inch ; condyloid articular facet 1 by 0-4 inch ; 
surface of the ex-basioccipital synchondrosis 0-6 by 0-4 inch. The cerebellar fossa 
is very concave, with no well-marked hollow for the lateral sinus. The opening of the 
paramastoid cells is seemingly not so large as in the Zebbug specimen, and is separated 
from the cerebellar fossa by a ridge which slopes gradually, not abruptly as in the 
Zebbug bone. The posterior aspect is flat, especially internally. The margin of the 
jugular sulcus is very sharp, above which is the thickest part of the bone, it being 
0-4 inch. The surface close behind the edge of the jugular sulcus is even, as in the 
other, and the ex-basioccipital synchondrosis projects weU in front. With scarcely an 

' Trans. Zool. Soo. vol. vi. p. 272, pi. 52. fig. 42'. 



38 ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

exception it will be found that this specimen and the other agree ; and moreover, as he 
has pointed out, the same obtains in the African. As to the age of the individual, from 
the large paramastoid cells it would appear that the owner was not an unborn calf, and 
probably the penultimate milk-tooth of the smallest form was in use. 

1. The portions of left upper and lower jaws, Nos. 91 & 90 (PL II. figs. 1 & 2), to 
which reference has been made in the preceding account of the milk-series, are too 
imperfect for any comparative purposes of importance. The ramus of the lower jaw 
gives the following : — The depth of the jaw at the middle of the third or penultimate 
milk-molar and from the alveolar border is nearly 2 inches, and the maximum thickness 
at the same point is about 1-3 inch ; in a ramus of the Asiatic Elephant ' presenting the 
third milk-molar in full wear (here it is just being invaded), the former is 2-4 inches, 
and the latter 1-6 inch. 

2. The suggestive fragment of a left ramus, lower jaw. No. 41 (PI. I. fig. 12, and its 
reduced profile view in PI. VI. fig. 2), is a cast of a specimen I found in Gandia Fissure 
with other remains ascribable to the largest form. It contains a nearly worn-out milk- 
tooth ; the left ramus has been broken off close to the symphysial canal, which, however, 
is entire and extends posteriorly through the socket of the succeeding tooth, which must 
have been nearly in full wear. There is no trace of the preceding molar, whilst the con- 
cave anterior aspect of the alveolar socket of the successor is preserved, giving a depth of 
2-3 inches, and indicating, by the breadth of the pressure-scar (0-8 inch) on the posterior 
aspect of the fragment of the tooth in position, that the former was rapidly replacing it. 

The following are the dimensions of the jaw : — Height of the ramus at the alveolar 
border in front 2-7 inches; height at the last ridge 2-5 inches; from the edge of the 
tooth in front to the middle of the gutter 2'2 inches. The diasteme inclines nearly 
vertically, with a sharp undulating border curving outwards. Although the rostrum has 
been broken ofi", it is quite apparent that it never could have been prominent ; and there- 
fore as regards these two characters the jaw presents a resemblance to the Asiatic. The 
symphysial canal is broad and shallow, and therefore more like the African Elephant's. 
The antero-posterior length of the gutter above is 2-5, and the inferior junction 2 inches. 
The mentary foramina, as in the African, are large, and situated about half an inch fi-om 
the free margin of the diasteme. 

The comparison with recent species gives these instructive data. The dimensions of 
the lower maxilla of a very young African Elephant agree with the above almost to a 
nicety, only that the diasteme in the former, although of the same length, is by no 
means so perpendicular. The stage of growth is represented by the permanent incisors 
just appearing at the entrance of their alveoli. The antepenultimate milk-tooth is worn 
to its common base ; and six ridges of the succeeding molar are in use, the breadth of 
the base of the skull at the occipital condyles being 4 inches, which would indicate an 
individual as large as the owner of the atlas, Plate XIII. figs. 1 & 1 a. 
' No. 2668, Osteological Catalogue, Eoyal College of Surgeons, 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 39 

Now the youngest possible stage of dentition ascribable to fig. 12 is that where the 
penultimate is rapidly disappearing, and several ridges of the last milk-tooth are in full 
wear. This condition is closely represented in No. 2667, Eoyal College of Surgeons, 
showing the cranium of an Asiatic Elephant where the eight anterior ridges of the last 
milk-molar are in wear, with a fragment of the preceding still remaining. A condition 
similar to the last is further shown in the well-articutlaed skeleton No. 1602 in the 
University Museum, Oxford, to which I shall have occasion to allude frequently in the 
sequel. This specimen gives a height of 3 feet 8-5 inches at the shoulder. In the first 
the diasteme is 4-3 inches, and height of the alveolar border in front 3-8 inches, thus 
indicating a jaw of much larger dimensions than fig. 12. 

There is an interesting comparison to be drawn between the above and the fragment 
(No. 21310) of a lower ramus of the Elephas antigiius in the Palaeontological collection, 
British Museum. The penultimate milk-molar is in full wear, holding eight ridges in 
a space of 2-7 inches ; evidently the last milk-tooth was also invaded. The height of 
the ramus at the alveolar border in front of the former is 3-3 inches. From the front of 
the penultimate molar to the middle of the gutter 2-7 inches, height at the middle of 
the molar 2-9 inches, thickness at the same point 1'8, length of the cylindiical canal 
1-9, height of the alveolus of the three milk-molars 2-8. The diasteme is apparently 
not so perpendicular as in the fossil. 

Supposing Plate I. fig. 12 is of the same stage of growth, it represents a still more 
advanced stage of attrition, and therefore the ramus would be progressing iu size ; yet 
in depth and thickness of the jaw, length of diasteme and symphyslal gutter, the former 
is considerably the larger, but not more so than should obtain in two Elephants 
difiering considerably in size. The comparison, however, does not make the owner of 
Plate I. fig. 12 a pygmy as compared with that of 21310, B.M. 

3. The left lower ramus No. 96 (Plate VI. fig. 4) has lost its condyle ; and the diasteme 
is broken ofi" close to the front socket a, which is nearly 3 inches in length, with a 
septum, b, 0-6 inch thick, dividing it from a posterior alveolus, c, about 3-6 inches in 
length. The greater portion of the coronoid is wanting ; and the jaw in general has 
been considerably denuded ; so that there are few reliable measurements obtainable. 
The contour of the lower border is decidedly like the African Elephant, and precisely 
like figs. 1 & 3, to which reference will be made presently. Whatever molars may have 
occupied the empty pits, it is clear, from the great thickness of the septum b, that the 
posterior was in germ. The breadth of the jaw, about the middle of the front alveolus, 
is 1'6 inch, thus greatly exceeding Plate II. fig. 2 ; indeed, as regards the dimensions of 
the alveoli, the ramus, PI. VI. fig. 4, might have represented an advanced stage of growth 
to any of the foregoing, and such as would accommodate the last milk-molar of the 
smallest form in full wear with the first true molar not yet appearing above the jaw. 
In all points possible for accurate determination, the above and jaw No. 2668, Eoyal 
College of Surgeons, above noticed, come close. Here the penultimate is in full wear, 



40 ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

with none of the coUines of the last milk-molar invaded. I can well believe, therefore, 
that fig. 4 belonged to a more advanced stage of growth in a much smaller Elephant. 
Moreover, from the alveoli being long and narrow, it is also probable that the jaw 
would not have held the last of the milk-series of the largest form. The posterior 
portion of the ramus is not sufficiently entire to show whether or not the sulcus (I shall 
refer to it presently in the old jaw of the smallest form) was present; and the lower 
anterior portion is far too much injured to allow of comparisons. It would seem, how- 
ever, that, like the Asiatic, the dental foramen opened immediately under the condyle, 
as we shall see presently obtains in the aged jaw, PI. VI. fig. 1, which, like the one in 
question, is from Benghisa Gap, so fruitful in remains of the smallest form. 

4. The portion of a left ramus. No. 85 (PI. VI. fig. 3), containing a fragment of a true 
molar of the smallest form, has unfortunately been injured at the part where a great 
amount of interest is centred. The jaw altogether is much mutilated. The cylindrical 
canal is partially preserved, and about 2 inches of the right ramus. The diasteme, 
however, is destroyed, and the ramus broken across in two places ; and although it has 
been reunited, there is evidently some loss of substances, so that the distance between 
the alveolar border in front and the gutter is uncertain. What remains of the tooth 
comprehends the last six ridges. The alveolus, however, is enth-e ; and at its front are 
the pits for the insertion of the two-pronged anterior fang, and behind them a single 
hole for the root of the fourth plate, as usually observed in penultimate and last true 
molars. Altogether the socket of the tooth gives a length of about 6 inches. The 
posterior talon is flat and concave, showing evident marks of pressure ; whilst behind is 
a large cavity on the floor of which are traces of the dentine and fragments of enamel 
of a germ molar. All the ridges of the molar, excepting the last, were in wear. 
The following are the dimensions of the jaw : — 

The extreme length from the posterior margin of the ascending ramus to the edge of 
the symphysis is very little over 9 inches. This is allowing for a slight loss at the 
fracture near the latter. 

Length of the alveolar border, from the anterior margin of the ascending ramus to 
the diasteme, 4-8 inches. 

Height of the alveolar border at the outer edge of the ascending ramus 3 inches. 
Height of the alveolar border in front, near the diasteme, 3 inches. 
Transverse diameter at bulge of ramus, below the coronoid, 3 inches. The mandi- 
bular portion has much of the straight prolonged outline of the African ; and from what 
remains of the ascending ramus, its outline seems to have been much after the latter and 
figs. 1 & 4. The symphysial gutter is shallow, and the chin truncated, with only a very 
small rostrum. Most probably, from the fang-sockets m front of the alveolus, there was 
a fragment of the first true molar also in wear. As compared with PL VI. fig. 1, this 
jaw and its molar socket might fiiirly represent the second true molar of the smallest 
form in full wear. The measui-ements of the jaw accord well with that of an Asiatic 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 41 

Elephant holding the fragment of a third, and having nine ridges of the fourth milk- 
molar invaded. 

5. I have stated my views as to the teeth in rami Nos. 100 & 101 (PI. V. figs. 1 a & b) 
being considered penultimate true molars. Both rami are broken ofl just in front of 
the diasteme and at the angle behind. Their coronoid processes were also removed, and 
the contours of the jaws very much destroyed by the rough usage they received when 
first deposited in Benghisa Gap ; consequently they present few, if any, very reliable 
measurements. From the base of the coronoid to the commencement of the diasteme is 
4'4 inches, which is rather greater than PI. VI. fig. 3, and equal to that of the jaw 
(PI. VI. fig. 1) holding the last true molar. The fragment of diasteme, especially on the 
left, and the rapidly incurving of the chin would indicate a steep slope to the former, 
and a truncated aspect to the latter. At the angle posteriorly on the right side there 
is a deep sulcus, which may be the termination of the sharp border and hollow we shall 
see is pronounced at b, PI. VI. fig. 1. This, however, is not to be looked on as a reliable 
character as far as PI. V. fig. 1 is concerned, seeing that the specimen has been severely 
injured just at the angle of the jaw. 

6. The right ramus. No. 95 (PI. VI. figs. 1 & 1 a), when discovered was nearly entire ; 
although from rough usage received when fresh, the condyle had been removed, and the 
jaw fractured, and its fore part bent inwards, so that there is a void between the molar 
and the alveolus anteriorly. The diasteme was injured; and the symphysial canal was 
imperfect, in consequence of the opposite ramus having been broken off close to it. The 
molar, however, as before noticed, is entire ; and there are no traces in the jaw of a pre- 
decessor or successor ; indeed so crowded is it by the long narrow crown, that the pos- 
terior portion of the latter reaches almost to the entrance of the dental foramen, leaving 
no space for the capsule of a germ molar. 

The following measurements of the jaw were procured immediately after the mandible 
was removed from Benghisa Gap. Since then, from the exceedingly friable nature of 
the specimen, the greater portion of its anterior extremity has been destroyed during 
transit from Malta. 

The extreme length, from the posterior margin of the ascending ramus to the edge of 
the symphysis, is about 10-6 inches. This admeasurement is somewhat vitiated in con- 
sequence of the fracture. 

Length of the alveolar border, from the anterior margin of the ascending ramus to 
the diasteme 5 '5 inches. 

Breadth of the ascending ramus in a line with the alveolar border 4-5 inches. 

Height of the alveolar border at the outer edge of the ascending ramus 3-5 inches. 

Height of the alveolar border in front near the diasteme 3 "8 inches. 

Length of the diasteme 5-8 inches. 

Vertical height of ascending ramus to the neck of the condyle 6 inches. 

Transverse diameter at bulge of ramus below the coronoid apophysis 3*5 inches. 
VOL. IX. — PART I. November, 1874. G 



42 MR. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OP 

Length of crown surface in wear 3-2 inches. 

Length of the symphysial gutter 2-2 inches. 

The injuries unfortunately have materially destroyed many important characters of 
this instructive jaw; however, the following are apparent. In the outline of the lower 
border, with reference to the ascending ramus and prolonged fore part, there is a 
decided resemblance to the jaws, figs. 3 & 4 of the same Plate, and, consequently to 
E. antiquus and the African Elephant. The diasteme not being preserved, we can only 
surmise from the fragment c, in front of fig. 1, that, like the Asiatic, E. antiquus, and • 
fig. 2, it was nearly vertical. The symphysial canal is shallow ; and the chin is trun- 
cated, without a trace of a beak or rostrum of any size, just as we have seen obtains 
in all the preceding. The coronoid apophysis rises perpendicularly, with slight beetling 
over of its crest; and the dental foramen opens just under the neck, which is also a 
general character of the Asiatic species. 

In Mr. Busk's description of the characters of the jaw of his Elephas melitensis, he 
points out a shallow sulcus' on the narrow posterior border of the ascending ramus behind 
the dental foramen. This character is well seen in the African skull, 2845 Royal College 
of Surgeons, forming a sharp border along the margin of the ascending ramus, and is 
also very apparent at b, fig. 1, forming a pronounced hollow on the posterior margin. 
Unfortunately none of the other jaws I have referred to the small form of Elephant, 
excepting PI. V. fig. 1 h, have the portions of their ascending rami preserved, so as to 
confirm the character ; but the fact of its presence in a ramus from Zebbug and Ben- 
ghisa Gap would seem to place beyond a doubt that it is a regular condition, at all 
events in the smallest of the Maltese Elephants. With reference, therefore, to the 
comparative characters of the above jaw, there is apparently a strange commingling of 
the characters of the Elephas antiquus and the two recent species, which is further 
illustrated by the bones to be described. 

As regards relative dimensions — in length, thickness, depth along the alveolar border, 
and height of ascending ramus, the above and a lower jaw of the Asiatic Elephant, No, 
2667 in the Royal College of Surgeons, come very near each other. The latter contains 
the last milk-molar in nearly full wear, with a fragment of the preceding still in use, 
which, according to the ordinary specimens, would indicate an individual not over 5 feet 
in height, if quite as much, and of the dimensions of the Elephas melitensis of Falconer 
and Busk^. 

7. The very interesting but, unfortunately, imperfect lower ramus No. 35 (PI. IX. 
fig. 1), the molar of which I have doubtfully referred to the last of the dental series of 

' Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vi. p. 236. 

' As regards Dr. Falconer's) estimate of the height of the pygmy fossil Elephant of Malta, he says " it stood 
between a large tapir and the small unicorn rhinoceros of Java " (Palseont. Mem. vol. ii. p. 299). Mr. Busk 
computes the height of his intermediate-sized dwarf Elephant at about 55 inches (Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vi. 
Table v. opp. p. 306). 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHAKTS. 43 

the smallest form, is in such an imperfect condition as to scarcely admit of any very 
accurate measurements. 

The breadth of the ascending ramus, in a line with the alveolar border, is about 
2'6 inches. 

The height of the alveolar border at the outer edge of the ascending ramus is 2-8 
inches. The vertical height of the ascending ramus, to the neck of the condyle, is 
4'5 inches. 

There is one point, irrespective of size, in which this jaw seems to differ from any 
other specimen in my collection, viz. in the bulging of the ascending ramus posteriorly 
so apparent in the Mammoth and Asiatic. This is very evident by comparing the above 
with PI. VI. figs. 1 & 4. The jaw, moreover, in comparison with the short narrow tooth, 
is very deep — much deeper, indeed, than that of the recent species, where the penulti- 
mate milk-tooth is in full wear, and the individual is fuUy 4-5 feet in height ; whereas 
another (No. 28, 11a) in the Royal College of Surgeons, with the antepenultimate and 
part of the penultimate milk-molars in use, is also proportionally very much smaller, 
although the height of the animal is said to have been 3 feet. 

8. The fragment of a left lower ramus. No. 42 (PI. XI. figs. 10 & 10a), containing a 
penultimate true molar, referred to the largest form, has been broken across imme- 
diately behind the coronoid apophysis, and obliquely in front of the tooth, but in such 
a way that a fragment of the posterior part of the cylindrical canal remains just as 
observed in the rami PI. V. fig. 1. 

The anterior border of the coronoid has been recently injured ; but there is no diffi- 
culty in supplying the deficiency ; so it will be apparent that the process is high, rising 
•fairly erect, with some overhanging of the front, which is thick as in the recent species. 
The diasteme (PI. XI. fig. 10«) is decidedly almost vertical. The lower and ^side por- 
tions of the jaw have been much injured ; and therefore the following may be somewhat 
less than had obtained. The height of the jaw at the commencement of the diasteme is 
5'8 inches, at the base of the coronoid process in front 3-7 inches ; height of the coronoid 
process 3"3 inches. 

The surface of attrition is 4-6 inches ; but it is just possible that a small fragment of 
the preceding tooth was also in wear. 

9. The first upper true molar of the largest elephant (PL VIII. fig. 5) was found in 
a skull which had also the lower jaw and teeth in place. Unfortunately the latter were 
destroyed during the process of removal. I ascertained, however, beforehand, that the 
height of the ramus in front of the lower molars, as compared with the same in the jaw 
in PI. VI. fig. 1, stood as 4"5 to 3'8 inches. Consequently the former belonged to the 
largest form, as further borne out by the ridge-formula and other characters of the 
teeth ; whilst PI. VI. fig. 1, we have seen, held the last true molar of the pygmy 
elephant. 

o2 



44 ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOaT OF 

The fragment No. 74 of the collection, of a lower jaw, contains portion of a last milk- 
tooth in use, and the germ of the succeeding one in place : both are imperfect ; but from 
the height of the collines of the latter, I should be inclined to regard this specimen as 
■representing the above stage of growth. The fragment furnishes no useful measure- 
ments as far as the jaw is concerned. 

10. The portion of a cranium No. 86 (PI. IV. fig. 1) holds what appear to be the 
two last true molars of the smallest form. As far as comparisons go, it is slightly larger 
than No. 87, another but less perfect portion of a skull found close to it in Benghisa 
Gap. The former has been considerably injured and rolled ; and, excepting the relative 
distances between the molars, and a fragment of the left jaw showing the malar attach- 
ment of the zygomoid process and a portion of the floor of the orbital and temporal 
fossae, there is nothing of importance to record excepting the dental characters, which 
have been fully discussed. 

The molars are placed obliquely, approximating in front and diverging behind. The 
intervening space in front is 1'4 inch, at the middle 1-3 inch, and posteriorly 2-5 
inches, the extreme breadth of the jaw at the middle of the crowns being 4-7 inches. 
From the roof of the palate to the crown surface of the teeth is 2 inches. The length 
of the palate is 7'5 inches. The height of the jaw from the alveolar border to 
the floor of the orbit in front is 2 inches. The roof of the latter is not clearly 
indicated. 

11. No. 87 furnishes no important data beyond its teeth, the fragment of the 
skull having been much injured. The breadth of the jaw across the cro^vns at the 
middle is 4 inches. From the posterior nares to the front of the right tooth is 4-3 
inches. 

The dimensions of these two jaws, as compared with recent species, are precisely in 
accord with the lower. No. 95 (PL VI. flg. 1); so that the upper jaw of 2667, Royal 
College of Sui-geons, holding a fragment of the penultimate, with six ridges of the last 
milk-molar, in wear, not only gives almost identical measurements as regards the breadth 
of the jaw, but shows the same sui-face in wear. They difier, however, to a marked extent 
in regard to the " distance between the floor of the orbit and the alveolar border," which 
is 3-3 inches in the recent specimen. Now, seeing that there is a very pronounced 
difference in the two recent species in this respect, just as they diflfer in the contour 
of the calvarium; it might therefore be assumed that the pygmy Maltese Elephant 
partook of the shorter admeasurements of the African, and, like it, presented a more 
prominent upper maxilla, as evinced by the relatively shorter measurement in the above 
situation. 

12. A fragment of the jaw of a large elephant from Mnaidra Gap (No. 107, collec- 
tion) is unfortunately of very little value for comparative purposes, unless to show that 
the owner was a fair-sized elephant, the proportions roughly estimated being about 



THE MAIiTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 45 

equal to those of an Asiatic Elephant's lower jaw holding the second true molar in 
full wear. 

Summary. — The above data with regard to the cranium support the inferences drawn 
from a study of the molars. As regards characters, it seems that the posterior contour 
of the lower jaw, in the smaller form at all events, partook much of that of the African, 
but was similar to the Asiatic in the chin, which was truncated, with a high diasteme, 
and scarcely any rostrum. As regards dimensions, if the comparison between the jaws 
and recent species is of any value, it appears that the lower mandible of the smaller 
form attaraed the dimensions of that of the Asiatic where the last milk-molar is in full 
wear, and that the lower mandible of the largest form often equalled that of a full- 
grown but small individual of the recent Elephants holding the second true molar, 
which would ordinarily give a height of nearly 5 feet to the former, and about 7 feet to 
the latter. 

III. Stylo-htoid. 
A remarkably interesting specimen, to all appearance of an adult state of growth, is 
represented by PI. XV. fig. 10 (natural size). It is the left stylo-hyoid of a very small 
elephant, and was found in Benghisa Gap. As compared with similar bones of the 
recent species in the British Museum and Royal College of Surgeons, the above differs 
widely in dimensions. Of a skeleton of the Asiatic Elephant, No. 707/* of the Osteo- 
logical Catalogue of the British Museum, where the last milk-molar is in full wear, 
and the tusk protruding 7 inches beyond the alveolus, the entire length is 5-5 inches ; 
the cranial facet is 0-5 by 0-2 inch, the latter in fig. 10 being 0-5 by 0-3 inch. The 
greatest breadth of fig. 10 at a is 0-7, that of the above being 1 inch. Altogether in 
comparison there is a marked difl^erence in dimensions; and when we know that fig. 10 
could not have belonged to a foetal individual, it will be conceded that its owner muot 
have been a diminutive form of Elephant. The specimen difiiers from the two instances 
above recorded in the prominence of the ridge at a, the relatively shorter neck at b, a 
larger cranial facet, and the rounding of the long arm, which is flat in the Asiatic 
Elephant. 

IV. Vektebkal Column. 

The mature bones referable to the vertebral column are divisible into two groups 
easily determinable on the score of size. I shall describe only such as indicate by the 
complete consolidation of epiphyses that they belonged to adult, if not aged, elephants. 

1. The only specimen of an atlas is represented in PI. XIII. figs. 1, la, & lb, which, 
in comparison with the fragments in the Zebbug collection, assigned by Busk to the 
Elejjhas melitensis and E. falconeri, gives the following data. I have also placed in the 
Table measurements of the atlas of a very young Asiatic Elephant, by way of contrast, 
to show the diminutive dimensions of the owners of the Maltese atlases. 



46 



ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 





Height. 


Breadth. 


Anterior 
facet. 


Posterior 
facet. 


Vertebral 
canal. 


Odontoid 

canal. 


Antero- 
posterior 
of trans- 
verse 

proceps. 


Breadth 
of condy- 
loid cup. 


E. melltensis (Busk) 

(Tr.Z. S.vol. vi.p.238.) 
E. falconeri (Busk) 

(Tr.Z. S.vol. vi. p. 251.) 
Plate Xm. fig. 1 

No. 2723, R. C. S.3 

(Asiatic.) 


inches. 
3-5 (?) 

30 

3-8 

3-8 


inches. 

5-0' 

6-2 

6-0 


inches. 

2-5 X 1-8 
1-6 X 0-8 
2-1 X 1-3 
1-9 X 1-4 


inches. 

1-5 X 1-0 
1-8 X 1-0 
1-6 X 1-5 


inches. 

1-3 X 1-8 

2-0 


inches. 

1-0' 
0-7 X 1-1 
10 X 1-3 


inches. 

2-4 
2-3 


inches. 

3-3' 

4-2= 
4-5 



The three views of the atlas (PI. XIII. figs. 1,1a Scb) are given chiefly with the inten- 
tion of showing the mode of insertion of a, the upper arch of the transverse process, and 
also the general contour of the lower border, and outline of the vertebral and odontoid 
canals, the same being observed in E. antiquus, also in the African Elephant, as pointed 
out by Busk in connexion with the fragments from which he established characters 
referable to his U. melitensis in contradistinction to the fragment* he has assigned to 
the E. falconeri, which, he considers, displays the peculiarities of the Asiatic. In con- 
sideration of the difl'erence in size between fig. 1 and the fragments ascribed to E. meli- 
tensis and E. falconeri of Busk, were it not for the obstacles just stated, I should be 
inclined to attribute the discrepancies to individual differences in size, seeing that rela- 
tively there is less difference in dimensions between the extremes than obtains in indi- 
viduals of the recent and other fossil species. 

The portion of a spinal column (PI. XI. fig. 9) was found close to the jaw and 
molars (PI. IX. figs. 1 & 2, and PI. II. fig. 10). Here seven of the upper dorsal verte- 
brae are included in a space of 9 inches, and present all the characters of an aged indi- 
vidual. Unfortunately they were much injured during the process of removal, from 
the very stiff stalagmitic matrix in which they were embedded, their neural arches being 
lost ; the bodies, however, are fairly preserved, of which the first and fourth dorsal are 
shown (natural size) in PI. IX. fig. 3 & 4. These and the other vertebrae in PI. XI. 
fig. 9, as compared with the far more perfect seventh cei-vical and middle dorsal de- 

' Are computed. 

* There is a skull of an Asiatic Elephant in the Royal College of Surgeons, London, showing the penultimate 
milk-molar nearly in fuU wear, with a breadth from the outer margins of each condyle almost identical with 
fig. 1. 

' Unfortunately the skull of this very young elephant has not been preserved ; but, by computations made 
from the long bones, I reckon its height to have been about 4 feet at the shoulder. The atlas has the centre 
of the arch unossified, and the lower arch, with the two centres of ossification, joined by cartilage, with no 
epiphyses on the transverse processes, the vertebral foramen for vessels being incomplete. This atlas is 
slightly larger than that of the articulated skeleton in Oxford University Museum, with its third and fourth 
milk-molars in use, the height at the shoulder being nearly 4 feet. 

* Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vi. p. 253. 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 47 

scribed by Busk', give rather smaller dimensions, but nothing in any way remarkable. 
I have, moreover, bodies of detached vertebrae, mostly from Benghisa Gap, somewhat 
lai-ger than the Zebbug specimens, whilst that of PI. X. fig. 5 is considerably smaller 
than any of the above. 

Ribs. — The heads of the ribs (PI. IX. figs. 6, 6a, & 7) ofi'er several very cogent proofs of 
the small dimensions of one form of the Maltese elephants. The articular epiphyses in 
fig. 6 are completely consolidated. The same parts, with the tubercle, of fig. 7 have 
been injured ; but a fragment of the former remains, and shows sufficiently, in common 
with the second rib, that both belonged to adult, if not aged, elephants. The comparison 
between fig. 6 and the same rib of Elephas melitensis of Busk^ furnishes the following 
data : — 

(1) Largest diameter of head (fig. 6) 0'8 inch : Zebbug (fig. 8), 1 inch. 

(2) Short diameter of head (fig. 6) 0'7 inch: Zebbug, 0-85 inch. 

(3) Distance between ianer border of head and outer surface of the tubercle (fig. 6) 
1'7 inch: Zebbug, 2 inches. 

The two agree in outline, with the exception that the neck of the Zebbug specimen is 
longer. As shown in fig. 6 a, there is a deep pit, which is also present in the Zebbug 
and the Asiatic, and mayhap in the African, but not so pronounced. As regards a rib 
of a very aged individual of the Asiatic in the Royal College of Surgeons, this fossa is 
relatively smaller. With reference to other characters, in comparison with the second 
rib in recent species the same narrow anterior margin is common to them ; but I think, 
as far as fig. 6 is concerned, that the outer surface of the tubercle is broader than in 
the Asiatic Elephant. With reference to fig. 7, its nearly horizontal neck is cha- 
racteristic of the third rib, to which I have little doubt it belonged. Moreover there 
is every evidence of its claims to be considered not only the bone of an adult, but, 
as far as the description and figure go, I am much inclined to associate it with the 
equally imperfect specimen ascribed by Busk to his E. falconeri^. Both display pre- 
cisely the same characters; and the absence of the pit and rotundity between the 
head and tubercle is only what obtains in other species. The particular characters 
assigned to the Zebbug specimen are precisely what obtain in the above, and,' in con- 
junction with the decided horizontal neck, seem to me to place both together. I would 
therefore consider them either the third or fourth ribs ; and as far as the dimensions of 
fig. 7 are concerned, all might have belonged to the same individual. Mr. Busk does 
not give the dimensions of the Zebbug specimen ; but, judging from the figure, I should 
imagine that it is slightly smaller than fig. 7*. 

' Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vi. pi. 46. figs. 9 & 10. = Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vi. pi. 45. fig. 8. 

' Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vi. pi. 51. fig. 37. 

' The second and third ribs of 2723 b, Eoyal College of Surgeons (refeixed to with the atlas) have no epiphyses, 
but, as far as dimensions go, are about the same as figs. 6 & 7 ; and its dorsal vertebrae are of about the same 
dimensions as those of fig. 9, PI. XI., only all the epiphyses are easily detached. 



48 ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

2. The largest vertebrae in my collection represent the cervical (PL XI. fig-. 7) and 
the first dorsal, shown in PI. X. fig. 1. The upper cervical of fig. 7 is possibly the 
third, and has the body more or less perfect throughout, with the loss of every thing 
else save a portion of the transverse process. It is convex anteriorly and concave 
posteriorly, and gives the following measurements : — 

inches. 

Height of body .4-5 

Breadth of body 4-0 

Thickness of body 1'6 

Breadth across at the transverse processes .... 9'0 

The other is somewhat larger, and may be the fourth or one of the succeeding 
vertebr<E of the neck ; its body only is preserved, and affords about the same admea- 
surements as the last. 

The first dorsal (PI. X. fig. 1) has only its body and the costal facets preserved. 
It shows the same characters as the above ; only the posterior aspect is less concave : 
indeed, as proportions go, the three may have belonged to the same individual ; more- 
over they were found close together. 

The dimensions of the first dorsal vertebra are as follows — height 4-2 inches, breadth 
4"5 inches, thickness 1'8 inch. 

Three middle dorsal vertebrae of an elephant of about the same size are sho\vn in 
PI. XI. fig. 8. Here the transverse processes and intervertebral substances are completely 
ossified, and show the owners to have been aged elephants. As compared with recent 
species, these cervical and dorsal vertebrae equal specimens of the Asiatic Elephant in the 
Eoyal College of Surgeons, the Guy's Hospital Museum, and the Army Hospital Museum 
at Netley, the heights of which skeletons vaiy from 6 '5 to 7 feet at the withers. 

My collection displays other detached vertebrae of adult elephants somewhat smaller 
than the above, with an average height of 3 inches, breadth of 3'5 inches, and thickness 
of about I'S inch. 

PI. X. fig. 4 represents, possibly, a middle dorsal vertebra, showing a rather pecu- 
liar triangular-shaped body, with its rib-facets and transverse processes entire. The 
anterior costal facet is 1-7 by 1 inch, the posterior 1-7 by 1-5 inch, and thickness 1-6 
inch ; the spine is 5 '5 inches. Supposing this to be the ninth dorsal, as it appears to be, 
it would represent an Asiatic Elephant of the height of the skeleton 2677 a, Royal 
College of Surgeons, which is comjjuted to have been about 6 feet in height. Several 
caudal bones in the collection agree with the relative dimensions of the vertebrae. 

Eihs. — The two heads of ribs (PI. X. figs. 2 & -3) well represent aged individuals. 
The former is most probably a fifth,, and displays the two facets a and b, which, as far 
as dimensions are concerned, might have articulated with the vertebrae PL XI. fig. 8. 
The other (fig. 3), with its single circular facet, evidently belonged to a posterior 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 



49 



dorsal vertebra. There is another single facet on a head of about the same dimensions, 
besides fragments of the bodies of ribs ; all are in keeping with the largest vertebrae. 

V. Pelvis. 

Although abundant fragments of pelvic bones were met with in the ossiferous 
deposits, in conjunction with spinal vertebrae and long bones, showing in several 
cases that entire carcasses had been introduced, it was difficult to obtain portions 
sufficiently preserved for determination. For example, the femurs from Mnaidra Gap 
(PL XIV. figs. 1 & 2) lay apparently in situ, as their acetabula were found close to the 
heads; and the same was observed in other situations, more particularly in Benghisa 
Gap, which produced so many remains of the smaller forms. After numerous failures, 
however, I at last succeeded in saving the portion of a left os innominatum, represented 
in PI. XV. figs. 9 & 9 a. It was found in the latter deposit in conjunction with what 
had evidently been at least the greater part of a skeleton. The fissures crossing the 
acetabulum indicate fractures occasioned during removal, and, being in a weak part of 
the bone, have more or less followed the course of the original lines of junction of its 
three elements. 

W^hen the above has been carefully compared with the specimen figured and described 
by Mr. Busk' as portion of the pelvis of E. falconeri, the following dififerences will 
appear in their dimensions. 



PI. XV. figs. 9 & 9 a. 



Zebbug ilium. 
(Tr. Z. S. Tol. Ti. pi. 50. fig. 31.) 



Width of acetabulum (inside) 

Length of acetabulum 

Radius of cavity 

Breadth of cotyloid notch 

Width of contracted part of ilium above the acetabulum 



inches. 
2-5 
2-3 
1-2 
0-5 
2-4 



inches 

21 
2-3 
1-1 
0-5 
2-0 



Summary. — 1. The two specimens, whilst coming close together in general dimen- 
sions, differ pointedly as regards the outline of the acetabulum, which is nearly circular 
in fig. 9, and ovoid in the Zebbug bone. 

2. The former differs from the latter, and apparently also -from recent species and 
the Mammoth, in being more globular, with its sides forming a bee-hive contraction 
towards the brim, with a beetling of the upper margin, as seen in the profile view, fig. 9a!. 

3. The cotyloid notch in the African opens by a narrow fissure on to a flat surface 
close to the obturator foramen, the same parts being relatively larger in the Asiatic 
and in the two above mentioned. 

4. The contour of the obturator foraaien differs in the African from that of the 
Asiatic and Mammoth in having the largest end of the oval uppermost, the reverse 
being the case in the latter and seemingly also in the fossils just described. 

' Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vi. pp. 242, 264, and pi. 50. fig. 31. 

VOL. IX. — PAKT I. November, 1874. H 



50 MR. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

5. The triangular surface on the back of the acetabulum is generally concave from 
side to side, with well-defined borders in the two recent ; only it is more expansive in 
the Asiatic, where the triangular space has an elevated and somewhat rounded ischial 
side, with a small sharp pelvic border, which is not high, whereas the African is more 
like an isosceles triangle, and is deepest towards the pubic margin, which is again 
higher than the last and rounded, the ischial being sharp, with a gradual slope on the 
pubic side. I am thus particular to note these seeming discrepancies ; I do,ubt, how- 
ever, if they are regular, inasmuch as the comparison between this space in very large 
and small pelves of the Asiatic shows considerable differences ; the data therefore are not 
very reliable. As regards fig. 9, its characters therefore would come close to the 
Asiatic, whereas the Zebbug bone is a good deal more in keeping with the African. 

6. Comparing the two acetabula with those of young of recent species, it will be 
found that neither fig. 9 nor the Zebbug bone are by any means so large as those of 
individuals of 4 feet in height ; however it is just possible that the head of the femur, 
like the shafts of all the bones, were not only absolutely but relatively shorter and 
broader than in other species : at all events, the owners of the above were very small 
elephants as compared with theii' living representatives. 

VI. Scapula and Humerus. 

1. The smallest adult scapulae in my collection are represented by the fragments 
PI. XII. figs. 2 & 2 a, and 3 & 3 a. Neither shows any indications of youth ; and, with 
the humerus fig. 1, they were found close together in Benghisa Gap. The smaller (fig. 8) 
is of the right side, and, as far as the dimensions of its glenoid fossa and neck are con- 
cerned, agrees very closely with the same parts in the articulated skeleton of a young 
Asiatic Elephant in King's-College Museum, where the third and last milk-molars are 
in use, and the height at the shoulder about 4 feet. The girth of the neck of the bone 
is 8 '3 inches. The outline of the fossa is broad, and oblong, like the African, and not 
so narrow as usually observed in the Asiatic. 

A fragment belonging to evidently a smaller individual, is described and figured by 
Busk ' as portion of the scapula of his JE. melitensis. 

2. The specimen, figs. 2 & 2a, is considerably mutilated, the spine, blade, and portion of 
the inferior border being lost ; but the articular surface is nearly entire. The ciixumference 
of the neck was about 9 inches. As regards comparative dimensions, the above and the 
scapula of the disarticulated skeleton of a young Asiatic Elephant (2723 b)" in the Royal 
College of Surgeons are nearly equal, the latter being somewhat larger. The sides of 
the fossa in fig. 2 a are parallel, and its outline much the same as in fig. 3 a and the 
Zebbug fragment. 

3. The portion of a right humerus (PI. XII. fig. 1) and a fragment of the centre of 

' Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vi. p. 244, and pi. 48. figs. 23 & 23 a. 

^ The same referred to in connexion mth the atlas and other bones. 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 51 

its shaft, showing the condyloid ridge together with the head of the left humerus, were 
all discoA'ered together in Benghisa Gap, in conjunction with scapula PL XII. fig. 3. 
The more perfect of the two humeri (fig. 1) has lost its tuberosity; enough remains, 
however, to enable me to institute some interesting comparisons between it and the head 
of the humerus from Zebbug. In the first place, as to the dimensions of the humerus 
in question, — this I ascertained, before removal from its matrix and previous to the 
inevitable loss of the major portion of the shaft and condyles, to be about 14-5 inches, 
which is smaller than what Mr. Busk accords to his E. melitensis, and 2J inches larger 
than the maximum length oi E. falconeri^. It is requisite to state that the epiphysis is 
completely consolidated in my specimen, indeed more so than the figure might indicate, 
as in the latter the artist has shown a line which is merely a crack in a thin coating of 
cement let into a decayed portion. There are two very evident characters common to 
the humerus of E. melitensis of Busk and that now under consideration, and at once 
conspicuous in comparison with the humerus of other elephants, viz. the proportionally 
narrow compressed head, and the pronounced shallow and open bicipital groove. More- 
over the deltoidal crest, which is low down in the African, is also so situated in my 
specimen. The humerus on which Mr. Busk has established the pygmy species E. fal- 
coneri was previously alluded to by Dr. Falconer as belonging to "an early adult indi- 
vidual." The proximal epiphysis is lost ; but the distal is consolidated, and the specimen 
is 9 inches and may have been, according to Busk, 12 inches in length when entire ^ The 
diflference in relative dimensions between the latter and the two preceding is decidedly 
remarkable, but in no wise out of keeping with instances among recent species. 

1. One of the largest fragments of a long bone referable to the Maltese elephants is 
shown in PI. XI. fig. 1. It is the mutilated proximal end of a right humerus found in 
Mnaidra Gap. The entire limb had evidently occupied the position where the above was 
found ; but only about 1 J foot of the upper end and a fragment of the distal extremity 
were saved. The great tuberosity and a small portion of the head posteriorly aie lost ; 
but the antero-posterior admeasurement of the latter is preserved. This and the breadth 
are 8 inches and 6 inches respectively. The distal extremity admitted of the deter- 
mination of the length of the outer condyle (by tape) and the breadth of the olecranon- 
pit, which were 6-2 and 2 inches respectively. Besides the more open and shallow groove 
for the bicipital in the African, as compared with the Asiatic and Mammoth, there are 
other characteristic differences between the humeri of the two recent species. Perhaps a 
large number of African specimens would show the head to be less globular, as seems to 
obtain in the individual in the British Museum ; if so, we should expect a less circular 
glenoid cavity of the scapula. Now, as regards fig. 1, if this should be the case, I opine 
it would assimilate more closely to the African ; but with such imperfect materials it 

' See Table, Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vi. p. 306, and plate 18. fig. 22. 

' According to Dr. Falconer's estimate, as shown in figs. 1,2, & 3, pi. 14, Palaeont. llemoirs, he computes the 
original length of this specimen to have only been 9-6 to 10 inches. See vol. ii. page 303. 

h2 



52 MR. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

is dangerous to hazard an assertion. As to the probable dimensions of the owner of 
fig. 1 ; according to the condition of the epiphysis it must have been an aged elephant, 
and, by comparison with recent species, stood about 7 feet at the withers. 

2. Another head and fragment of a shaft of the left humerus of an old elephant is 
shown in fig. 2. It lay in Mnaidra Gap, with its scapula in close apposition. Of the 
former only about 6 inches remains. However, the antero-posterior length of the head 
is entire ; but the tuberosity is gone, and there is a recent fracture obliquely across the 
head, the shaft having been broken across 3 inches below the latter. Of the scapula, only 
the fragment (fig. 3) of the anterior portion of the glenoid cavity remains. The antero- 
posterior length of the scapular portion of the head (by tape) is 7 inches, the breadth 
posteriorly being 3'4 inches. Portion of the anterior surface is lost ; but fortunately 
the opposing surface of the scapula furnishes the required datum, which is 3-2 inches. 
With the exception of the rather flattened head of the African, there is not enough to 
enable me to go into further comparisons. As to the age of the individual, there can be 
no question that the bone belonged to a full-grown elephant, seeing that, although there 
is a recent fracture across the head, the epiphysial connexion is consolidated and gives 
every indication of the characteristics of an aged animal. Moreover, if the outlines of 
the articulated surfaces of their heads are reliable as to dimensions, I find that this 
humerus, and that of the Sumatran Elephant in the British Museum are about equal, 
although the arc of the curve in the latter is much more circular. It seems likely, 
therefore, that figs. 1 & 2 belonged to the largest form, although they differed indivi- 
dually in size, as might readily be expected, at all events to a certain extent. 

3. Another head in the collection, from Gandia Fissure, although much mutilated, 
gives an antero-posterior length very much the same as the last. 

4. Another head of a left humerus of a still smaller adult elephant is shown in fig. 4. 
The bone has been broken across ielow the epiphysial junction, with the loss besides of 
the great tuberosity. The antero-posterior length (by tape) is 6 inches. Breadth 
posteriorly about 3 inches, at the middle 4-5 inches, and anteriorly 2-5 inches. 

5. Another head gives a rather larger antero-posterior admeasurement, but is like- 
wise too imperfect for further comparisons. It is important to note these gradations, 
however imperfect the specimens may be otherwise, as they prove that, however much 
the Maltese elephants may have difiered in specific characters, there was a very regular 
gi-adation in dimensions between extremes. 

Young and immature Scapula and Humerus. 

Of these the humerus is represented, first, by a head and fragment of a shaft, secondly 
by an entire specimen excepting the epiphyses. The first ofiers only one character of 
importance, viz. the great shallow bicipital groove, in this respect resembling the adult 
head, PI. XII. fig. 1. In the absence of the epiphysis it is of course impossible, to 
indicate the exact outline of the head, the contour of the surface of which is traceable 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 53 

together with the elevated prominence for the tuberosity, and the large hollow for 
the tendon. This specimen and the outline of the proximal articular surface contrast 
veiy favourably with a similar bone described by Busk as that of the adult humerus 
of E. falconeri '. There are differences, however, which seem to separate them from 
PI. XII. fig. 1. Indeed, in the above the anterior border is far more hollow under the 
head than obtains in PI. XII. fig. 1 ; and the size, at all events of my specimen, is cha- 
racteristic of the young of a larger elephant, therefore may probably have belonged to 
the largest form. 

2. The next humerus (PI. XXI. figs. 9 & 9a) is interesting in having been found with 
the ulna and fragment of radius (figs. 10 & 10 a), besides other bones shown in the Plate 
and referable to the same individual. This humerus and the fragment of the adult bone 
of the smallest forms (PI. XII. fig. 1) seem to agree as far as their comparison will 
admit ; and in general outline fig. 9 is also like the young humerus described and figured 
by Busk I 

The following are the characters of figs. 9 & 9 a. First, the contour of the posterior 
border shows a considerable concavity under the head, as in the preceding specimen, 
and more so than apparently obtains either in PI. XII. fig. 1 or in the humerus of 
E. falconeri^. 

There is a well-marked depression on the inner side of the posterior angle. 

The supinator ridge is more oblique and like the African ; but it runs up and joins 
the posterior border, as in the Asiatic. 

The inner condyloid lidge is rounded and thick, the latter being 0'7 inch at the 
epiphysis of the inner condyle. The deltoid ridge and the bicipital groove {b, 9 a) are 
unfortunately too much decayed to admit of comparison. 

3. The fragment of the scapula PI. XXI. fig. 8 very possibly belongs to humerus 
fig. 9 ; the epiphysis is gone, the head, neck, and a small portion of the body being the 
only parts preserved. 

The circumference of its neck is 3 iaches. 

4. I now come to point out the interesting fragment of a scapula shown in PI. IX. 
figs. 5 & 5a. It is in all respects similar to the portion figured and described by Busk* as 
doubtfully belonging to E. falconeri. In this uncertainty I fully concur, and cannot, 
after much trouble, find that either has any possible aflfinities to the proboscidian 
scapula, or, indeed, to any recent fossil mammal with which I have had opportunities of 
comparing them. 

The observations made by Busk in regard to the Zebbug specimen apply verbatim to 
figs. 5 & 5 a, and show that, to whatever species they belong, they present a community 
of characters quite peculiar and distinctive. 

• Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. yi. p. 258, cut 16. 

' Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vi. p. 280, pi. 52. fig. 50. ^ Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vi. pi. 49. fig. 26. 

' Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vi. p. 254, pi. 47. figs. 14 & 14a. 



54 ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

VII. Eadius and Ulna. 

The radius is represented in the collection by three proximal extremities and four 
distal epiphyses. 

1. A head is shown half natural size, PI. X. fig. 7, and its upper aspect natural size, 
fig. 7a. This bone had evidently belonged to an aged individual, seeing that the neck 
is enlarged by rugosities and the bony exostosis often noticed in the largest specimens 
of other species. Although the ulnar margin is not quite entire, it was evidently pretty 
even ; and the general outline of the humeral aspect, whilst neither exactly like any of 
the recent or fossil species vidth which I have compared the specimens, is decidedly 
more like the African and JE. antiquus than the Indian and Mammoth. The external 
portion of the articular surface (a) is more concave than apparently in other species. 
The characters of the shafts of the two recent Elephants, if always regular, would seem 
to differ considerably. Unfortunately I have no entire specimen of the Maltese 
forms. The above, however, shows the pronounced anterior ridge or shin (fig. 7 b) so 
conspicuous in the African, where the same part is rounded in the Asiatic. Again a 
promuient ridge in the African and fig. 7 rises at c close to the inner side of the head, and 
runs obliquely to near the external malleolus, when it becomes confluent with the former ; 
whereas in the Asiatic the surface is flat below the condyloid face, where a rounded 
ridge runs down the middle having tectiform slopes on either side, but not nearly so 
abrupt as in the African and fig. 7. There are seemingly other important diff'erences 
between specimens of the Asiatic and African radius ; however I have not Maltese 
materials wherewith to compare them. The above specimen, in relation to dimensions, 
nearly equals that of the Sumatran Elephant in the British Museum, and therefore would 
represent a rather small-sized Asiatic Elephant. 

2. Another head and fragment of about 3 inches of the shaft is considerably injured ; 
it shows however the even (not undulating) outline of the ulnar facet. In size it is 
somewhat smaller than fig. 7, and has a humeral facet 2-4 inches by 1-6 in the antero- 
posterior direction. 

3. A much smaller proximal end and about three and a half inches of shaft, with the 
epiphysial junction nearly consolidated, gives a facet of 2 inches by 1-3 in the antero- 
posterior direction. Here the shaft is rounded near the head in front like the Asiatic ; 
but this may be the character of an immature bone. With reference to the solidification 
of the proximal epiphysis, it appears that the latter may be completed when the distal 
end is quite easily detached ; and, judging from skeletons of the Asiatic, the former 
obtains before the animal has cast its milk-teeth. 

The central portions of the shaft are all too imperfect for comparison ; but there are 
four detached distal epiphyses evidently belonging to fairly matured animals, if we are 
to judge from the determined outlines of the facets— the honeycombed and pitted 
upper surfaces clearly indicating that their owners were not aged, although they might 
have been full-grown elephants. 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHAJSTTS. 55 

1. The radial and ulnar distal apophyses (PI. XIII. figs. 2 & 3) evidently belonged to 
the same individual. I shall describe them as being the smallest bones of the forearm, 
referable to the radius and ulna of the smallest Elephant. Fig. 2, left radial epiphysis, 
shovv's a deep concavity for the lunare, which^n turn will be shown to present a corre- 
sponding convexity in contradistinction to more shallow and even surfaces in the largest 
specimens. The Asiatic seems to display the former characters, and the African the 
latter. The projection for the scaphoid, usually prominent in the adult recent and in 
the following larger fossU specimens, is not observed at a in fig. 2, the surface being 
.xounded instead of angular. 

2. With reference to the right ulnar epiphysis (fig. 3), it is seemingly remarkable for 
the concavity and smallness of its cuneiform aspect. The radial facet (a) is 1 by 0-7 
inch in breadth. As compared with recent species, there are no specimens at all equal 
to the small dimensions of the above, with at the same time their epiphysis in any wise 
so matured, which shows fig. 3 to have belonged to a nearly full-grown small Elephant. 
The cartilaginous epiphysis of the young Asiatic (No. 2723, R. C. S.) agrees well as to 
relative dimensions, the height of the latter individual being 4 feet. 

3. Another radial epiphysis, in every respect similar to fig. 2, but somewhat larger, 
displays the pronounced hollow on its lunare aspect to a greater extent. The difi'erences 
in dimensions are noteworthy, the lunare facet in fig. 2 being 2-4 inches by 1-8, whereas 
in the above it is 2-8 by 2 inches — thus indicating Sin individual of the dimensions of 
707 H, Asiatic, in the British Museum, which, I calculate, stood about 5 feet high. 

4. A still larger distal extremity, with a less determiaed lunare convexity and hollow, 
gives an articular aspect of 3 by 2-3 inches. 

Finally, PI. X. fig. 6 shows the largest specimen, the lunare aspect of which is 3-4 
by 2-8 inches. The angle for the scaphoid {a) is pronounced in this specimen as in the 
two preceding, forming a well-defined border on the imier side, of 1-2 by 0-5 inch. As 
compared with PI. XIII. fig. 2, the articular aspect is seemingly less hollowed out, with 
a less prominent convexity, which is repeated, as just observed, in the largest lunaria. 
The distal extremity of the Sumatran is somewhat larger than fig. 6, which might 
therefore represent an elephant 6-5 feet in height. 

Besides the distal uhiar epiphysis just referred to, there is the upper fragment of a 
shaft referable to an immature individual, and represented on PL X. fig. 9 (half) and 9 a 
(natural size). As compared with recent species and the specimens described by Busk 
from Zebbug ', it presents a few important characters. The olecranon-spine is sharp in 
the Asiatic; and, as far as the single instance in the British Museum admits, it would seem 
to be more or less rounded in the African ; the same obtains in an uhia of H. antiquus ; 
in fig. 9 it is very sharp. Again, from the undulating contour of the head of the radius, 
the radial sulcus is seemingly wider in the African than in the Asiatic ; and this explains 
the larger outer condyle in the Asiatic ; moreover the concave external side of the 
• Trans. Zool. Soc. vi. p. 245 & 260, plate 48. figs. 24 & 25, plate 49. fig. 28. 



56 ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

spine is more pronounced in the African ; and in «, fig. 9, it is deeper than in either. 
As to the radial pit (5), the loss of the epiphysis somewhat vitiates the outline ; but it 
is decidedly deep and apparently not so open as in the African. 

On comparing the above carefully with the fragment from Zebbug, described by Busk ' 
as portion of the ulna of his E. melitensis, I find little, if any, discrepancies worth men- 
tioning. The measurements of the specimens agree in a remarkable manner ; I must 
observe, however, that the pit or fossa in front of the inner condyle, so pronounced in the 
ulna of recent species and seemingly indistinct in the specimen of E. melitensis described 
by Busk, is very deep and prominent in fig. 9. The anterior aspect of the shaft is 
concave, at least as far as the fragment shows, which is to about the commencement of 
the lower third. The external aspect just under the head is more hollowed out than 
the internal ; and although the above is not quite an adult condition, it most probably 
belonged to an animal nearly full-grown and of small size, equivalent to the computed 
dimensions of the owner of the humerus (PI. XII. fig. 1) and the radius and ulna (PI. 
XIII. figs. 2 & 3). 

Young and immature Radius and Ulna. 

The ulna and the fragments of the proximal end of the radius (PI. XXI. figs. 10, 
10 a) were found in situ with the humerus fig. 9 and other bones represented in the 
plated The larger radius (fig. 15) was' broken during removal, and there is a small 
portion of the centre of the shaft wanting ; it is, however, sufficiently preserved for com- 
parison with the young radii figured and described by Busk ^. Of course the prominent 
ridges of the old bone are not defined ; but the outline of the humeral facet (fig. 15 a) 
resembles that of the old bone (PI. X. fig. 7 a). In this young bone the anterior ridge 
rises in the upper third, and there is no remarkable flattening under the head as in the 
African. A transverse section at the middle of the shaft (5) gives the outline shown by 
Busk in the young radius from Zebbug* ; and the distal epiphysial junction is similar to 
another \ These discrepancies, however, are questionable specific distinctions, and cannot 
be safely utilized without further data. At all events the above radius, as compared with 
an African foetal bone shown by Busk ^, might be considered as representing a young 
elephant with its middle milk-teeth in wear and of a diminutive size as compared with 
other elephants. The comparison moveover between fig. 15 and the fragment « of a 
radius attached to ulna, fig. 10, indicates a good-deal older individual. 

' Trans. Zool. Soc. pi. 48. figs. 24 & 24a. 

' The fragment of skull (PI. I. fig. 18), the fore-foot bones (PI. XXI. figs. 1 to 7), also scapula (flg. 8), 
humerus and ulna (figs. 9 & 10), the fragment of vertebral arch (fig. 11), the rib (fig. 12), tibia (fig. 13), larger 
tibia (fig. 14), and radius (fig. 15) were aU found jammed together under a large stone in Benghisa Gap. See 
my "Work on Malta, page 189. 

' Trans. Zool. Soc. vi. p. 280, pi. 47. figs. 18, 19. ' Ibid. p. 281. no. 19. 

' Ibid. p. 281. no. 18. » Ibid. fig. 40, p. 277. 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 57 

The young ulnse of the collection (PL XXI. figs. 10, 16, & 17) furnish a few important 
differences individually, and also in relation to the above and the Zebbug specimens. 
I think there is every liklihood that the humerus and forearm-bones (figs. 9 & 10) 
belonged to the same individual. The olecranon-ridge, like that of the much older bone 
(PI. X. fig. 9), is remarkably sharp, like the Asiatic, whereas the same in figs. 16 & 17 is 
blunt and rounded as in the African ; and, considering relative dimensions, they seem to 
point to specific characters. With reference to the ulna fig. 10, which, with the exception 
of its distal epiphysis and the usual morsel on the top of the olecranon, is entire, com- 
pared with the uterine ulna of the African Elephant ' just mentioned it is half an inch 
shorter. With reference to the humeral aspect (fig. 10 a) it will be observed : — 1st, that 
the curve for the head of the radius is not quite so shallow as in the African ; 2nd, that 
in proportion the outer facet is m%ich smaller than in either of the recent species 
and Mammoth, but more like that of PL X. fig. 9 a and the same part in the H. meli- 
tensis of Busk ^ Altogether, with the exception of the anterior hollow for the shaft of 
the radius, so pronounced in fig. 9, the two are much alike. 

With reference to all these young ulnee, including the Zebbug bones referred by Busk 
to E. melitensis and E. falconeri, there are several important comparisons to be drawn, 
which appear to me to point towards the presence of at least two different forms. 

1. The posterior angle of PL X. fig. 9 and PL XXI. fig. 10 is sharp, whereas it is 
rounded in figs. 16 & 17. 

2. The anterior aspect of the shaft in PL X. fig. 9 is hollowed out down the middle, 
which is not the case in any of the others excepting PL XXI. fig. 16. 

3. The radial pit is very deep in PL X. fig. 9, and comparatively shallow in all 
the others. 

4. Just under the pit from which the radial sulcus proceeds in the matured bone, 
we find the same part concave at c in fig. 16 and flat in figs. 10 and 17. 

5. The external humeral facet is not remarkably small in PL X. fig. 9 « ; bul it is 
relatively small in PL XXI. fig. 10 a, and perhaps in figs. 16 and 17. In none, however, 
is it so much aborted as shown by Busk to be the case in his E. falconeri I 

6. But fig. 16 seems to diflfer from all in the radial sulcus (c) running more obliquely 
down the front of the shaft, whilst its distal epiphysis (16 a) indicates a much larger 
articular surface than that of the foetal African Elephant just referred to. Again fig. 17 
is a still larger bone than either. 

In conclusion, it is just possible that figs. 16 and 17 may belong to the large, and fig. 10 
to the small form ; at all events, as compared with each other and much older bones, 
they apparently add to the proofs of the existence of two species of Maltese fossil 
Elephants, which is further shown by the older small and large radii and ulnse, which, 

' Trans. Zool. Soo. vi. p. 275. no. 36. Its length is 4-1 inches and breadth of head in front 1-2 inch, tlie 
antero-posterior length of its internal side being 1-5 inch. 

^ Ibid. vi. p. 245. =Ibid.pl.49.iig.28a. 

VOL. IX. — PAKT I. Novemier, 1874. ^ 



58 MB. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

considered on the score of dimensions and characters, seem to go hand in hand with 
these young hones. 

VIII. Femue. 

The differences between the femurs of the African and Asiatic Elephants have been 
pointed out by Mr. Busk in respect of their connexions with the Maltese forms'; the 
only question becomes how far a series of specimens of the African Elephant would 
substantiate the characters represented by the only available instance in the British 
Museum. The prominence or otherwise of ridges dependent on age must of course be 
always taken into account, and also the length of time the individual has been in 
captivity. I apprehend, moreover, that the age for the consolidation of the epiphyses 
(of the extremities in particular) is much influenced by conditions of life. The African 
Elephant's skeleton (708 /i) in the British Museum, although that of a full-grown 
animal, with the penultimate true molar in wear, has the epiphyses of the long bones 
detachable, although the individual is said to have been killed in its native haunts ; 
the same obtains in the case of the Chuny ; indeed it would seem that even in a wild 
state the consolidation is not ordinarily completed until the last true molar cuts the 
gum ; consequently the bones I am now about to describe must in general be considered 
as belonging to aged individuals. 

The specimens of femurs of adult Elephants in my collection seem to me to be 
capable of division into two series. 

A Series. — The larger is represented by several specimens, differing somewhat in 
dimensions, as follows : — 

Specimen a showed a portion of the upper part of a right femur found in Mnaidra 
Gap, the head of which gave a circumference of 15 inches, with a breadth across the 
latter and great trochanter of 9'5 inches. Here the epiphyses were completely con- 
solidated. 

Specimen J, right side, from the same situation, was found entire, but unfortunately 
came to be disturbed and broken before I could take the exact length of the bone, of 
which the head and lower condyles are shown in PI. XI. figs. 5 & 6 ; however, I sur- 
mised it may have been about 33 inches, or, in other words, of almost the precise mea- 
surements of that of the Sumatran Elephant in the British Museum. Thus the diameter 
of the head (fig. 5) was 4-2 inches, least transverse diameter of the shaft 2 '9, antero- 
posterior diameter at the same point 2-3, least circumference 9, transverse diameter of 
head with trochanter 9, transverse diameter at the line of the lower epiphyses (fig. 6) 5-8, 
transverse diameter of condyles 5, middle of patellar sulcus 2-4 inches. 

Specimen c. The next, as regards dimensions, are the portions of right and left 
femurs, of evidently the same individual, shown in PI. XIV. figs. I & 2. The head of 
fig. 2 is not shown in the Plate ; and the lower condyles and portion of the shaft of fig. 1 
were not discovered. Close to the above lay the entire tibia (PI. XV. fig. 1), with its 

' Trans. Zool. Soc. vi. p. 248. 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 59 

.astragalus (PI. XVI. fig. 1) attached to the distal extremity by calcareous matter ; so 
that by almost actual measurement I computed the aggregate length of these two limb- 
bones to have been about 41 inches — that is, supposing them to belong to the same 
individual. Reverting to PI. XIV. fig. 1, although the epiphysial junction is traceable 
on the head and trochanter major, still the bone, on comparisom with the same in recent 
species, must be considered to have belonged to a full-grown individual ; indeed the 
epiphyses are far more consolidated than obtains in the African specimen (708 ^, B.M.) 
and the Chuny. 

Besides what the representation affords, the following measurements refer to fig. 1 : — 
circumference of the head 12 inches, girth of neck 9'5, girth at a 12, at h 7'7, and at 
c 8'5 inches; transverse diameter of articulating surface of head, by tape 6"7, and by 
compass 4 inches. 

Specimen d, the right lower extremity (PI. XIV. figs. 2 & 2a) enables us to determine 
the probable length of the femur fig. 1. The one in question was entire, but was broken 
across within eight inches of the distal extremity during removal. The antero-posterior 
length of the outer condyle (by tape) is 7'8 inches, and of the inner 8'6, the girth at 
the epiphysial junction a being 14'5, and at h 8'8. These three femurs are identical 
as regards characters, although they difier considerably in dimensions ; fig. 1, in all its 
measurements, equals the same parts of 707A, B.M., with the last milk-tooth in wear and 
all the epiphyses of the long bones disunited. Thus, from fig. 1 upwards to the largest, 
there are gradations representing three feet difference in the height of individuals ; and 
yet, after all, other points being equal, that is no remarkable disparity as compared with 
individual differences in recent species. But although agreeing in all these respects with 
immatui'e bones of the latter, it is highly probable, as will be shown presently, that the 
Maltese fossil Elephants showed relatively broader bones than in either of the living 
Elephants and the Mammoth. 

B Series. — The right femur (Plate XIV. figs. 3 & 3a) was discovered in Benghisa Gap. 
The shaft had been greatly crushed and flattened by compression between blocks of 
stones when deposited in the gully; but the condyles are not much injured, and, with 
the exception of the head and neck, its length is entire. Mr. Busk computes the femur 
of his Elephas melitensis to have varied between 18 and 20 inches ; I have just surmised 
that the thigh-bone of the largest form attained a length of 33 inches. Making 
allowances for the loss of the proximal end, we may believe that the one in question, 
which is 20-5 inches as it now stands, was 22 or 23 when entire. Now these difi'erences 
in dimensions in old bones make the extremes differ very much in size, more especially 
the largest and smallest, the latter of which, according to Busk's computation, showed 
a femur of only 1 foot or 13 inches in length'. As regards fig. 3, there can be no 
question whatever that it belonged to an aged individtial, seeing that the condyloid 

' Trans. Zool. Soc. vi. p. 2C5, and pi. 50. fig. 30. As far, however, as I can make out, the determination of the 
femur of this very diminutive form rests entirely on specimens by no means entire, and without their epiphyses. 

I 2 



60 ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OP 

epii)hyses are completely consolidated ; moreover the solution of continuity at its upper 
extremity is through solid bone. The inner and posterior aspects of both condyles are 
somewhat abraded, so that the outer condyloid pit or fissure appears, in fig. 3 a, a little 
wider than natural. Unfortunately the shaft has been too much crushed to permit of 
any reliable data being obtained. The antero-posterior length of the outer condyle 
(by tape) is 6'5 inches, and the internal 7*4 ; girth at the epiphysial junction a, 11-5, 
and breadth 4*2 ; transverse diameter of condyles 3'6. 

Siuninary. — A comparison between the members of A Series and the same bone of 
the African and Asiatic affoi'd the following characters : — 

1. The saddle-shaped depression between the trochanter and head, and the length of 
the neck, in the Mammoth and Asiatic Elephant as compared with the large trochanter 
major and short intervening hollow of the African are remarkably apparent in PI. XIV. 
fig. 1, just as the character of the intercondyloid pit and convergence of the condyles 
more resemble the African than the Asiatic'. Again, the digital pit, which is deep in 
the Asiatic and the Mammoth, is shallow in fig. 1, and also in the African. The 
condyles of the two latter also agree in being more unequal in length and having a 
narrower interspace than the Asiatic and E. primi genius, whilst a section across the 
condyles of the Maltese specimens at the epiphysial junction displays a concave base 
and large heavy internal angle (PI. XL fig. 6) of the Afi-ican as compared with the 
more equilateral sides of the Asiatic. 

2. Turning to the shaft, like the African our fossil has the posterior aspect of the 
shaft flat ; however, the rudimentary trochanter minor on the posterior and internal 
angle is quite developed, the same being apparently wanting in the African ; there is, 
moreover, a decided rudimentaiy third trochanter. Altogether the femur may be said 
to partake, as regards its head, of the Asiatic, whilst the trochanteric pit, shaft, and 
condyles resemble the African. 

(B Series.) With reference to the femur (PI. XIV. figs. 3 & Sffl), unfortunately there 
is little in a sufficient state of integrity to admit of accurate comparisons, excepting the 
condyles. These do not seem to diff'er from the large form and E. africanus ; the patellar 
sulcus (fig. 3 a), however, would seem to be deeper than 2 a. Again, in the large form 
and also the Asiatic and Mammoth, the anterior surface, just above the condyles, is 
narrow as compared with the African ; and the femur (fig. 3) suddenly deepens at the 
point b, forming a digital pit and flat surface, whereas at h in fig. 2 it is shallower with a 
rounded surface. 

Young and immature Femora. 
1. The specimen shown by PI. XXI. fig. 18 represents the proximal extremity, and, 
as far as characters are concerned, seems to me an exact resemblance of the adult femur 
Plate XIV. fig. 1. 

' See these distinctions in Cuvier, Ossem. Fossil, pi. xi., and Blainville, Osteograph. vol. iii. pi. vi,, and 
British-Museum specimen 708 h. 



THE MALTESE EOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 61 

Although the head and great trochanter are wanting, it is apparent that the contour 
of these parts, as in the above, resembles the Asiatic Elephant rather than the African, 
as seen by the relative breadth of the head and the shallower digital pit. Again, like 
the African, it is flat on the posterior aspect ; and the rudimentary trochanter minor a, 
as in the old bone, forms a rough prominence on the posterior and internal border. 
Further, looking at the epiphysial surface and its outline as compared with those of E. 
falconen of Busk\ it seems to me that the pronounced hollow caused by the pre- 
trochanteric fossa in them has no such character in fig. 18, which, in the outline of its 
head at the same point, resembles the adult bone PI. XIV. fig. 1, and the foetal 
African femur in the British Museum, figured by Busk^. As to the outline of the 
same part in E. melitensis (Busk)', the bone in question is still more dissimilar, except 
that both have their anterior surface rounded. Therefore, whatever form PI. XIV. 
fig. 1 belongs to, the same type, I apprehend, is PL XXI. fig. 18. 

2. The next specimen represents about three and a half inches of the distal end of a 
left femur belonging to a larger individual than the last. It has the rounded shaft and 
general characters of a young bone. Instead of having the flat surface anteriorly close to 
the epiphysis at b, as shown in PI. XIV. flg. 3, it is rounded as at b in fig. 2 of the same 
Plate ; whilst the lower epiphysial surface shows a longer outline for the internal con- 
dyles, as obtains in the adult and in the African. I therefore cannot disassociate this 
fragment from that of PI. XIV. figs. 1 & 2 and the last, or, in other words, from the 
large form. 

IX. Tibia. 
The materials for determination under this head are confined entirely to the large 
form. 

1. The almost perfect left tibia (PI. XV. fig. 1) most probably belongs, as just stated, 
to the femur PL XIV. fig. 1, inasmuch as both lay close together, and when approxi- 
mated to the condyles of the right side (PL XIV. figs. 2 8c 2a} they fit exactly, so as 
to lead to a belief that a skeleton was deposited in the flesh. The specimen (PL XV. 
fig. 1) is entire as regards length, but was injured during removal, yet not to the extent 
to prevent the preserving of the following data: — Breadth of upper condyles is 5'3 inches, 
breadth of external depression 2'5 by 2-4, breadth of internal depression 3*1 by 2*5, girth 
at middle of shaft 7. The astragaloid aspect is 3-2 by 2'6. The latter is somewhat injured 
and imperfect; but fortunately the distal extremity of the right tibia (figs. 2 & 2«) 
supplies the defect. 

2. The latter represents a profile and lower view, to which was attached in the same way 
as in fig 1 an astragalus of precisely the same dimensions ; indeed, in all probability, 
all belonged to the same individual. 

3. Fig. 3 represents the proximal articulation of a right tibia somewhat smaller than 

' Trans. Zool. Soo. vi. p. 267. ' Ibid. p. 277. no. 38 a. ' Ibid. p. 267. 



62 



ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGT OF 



the two just noticed. There is a recent transverse fracture of its shaft, by which about 
an inch has been broken off; however, I ascertained the following admeasurements 
beforehand — entire length 13 inches, girth of middle of shaft 5'6, breadth of lower 
articulating surface 2 '8. 

These three tibiae belonged unquestionably to adult elephants; and it will appear 
that the largest (figs. 1 & 2) belonged to an individual somewhat larger than that of 
fig. 3. From the closer proximity of the femoral condyles in the African than in the 
Asiatic and Mammoth, there is consequently a smaller intercondyloid fissure ; we should 
therefore also expect a corresponding convergence of the tibial cups, and that the 
dividing ridge will be narrower. Now all the characters of the African are apparent in 
the fossils just described. Moreover, in comparison with the Asiatic, it would appear 
that the tibia of the African is relatively shorter, at least as far as the single skeleton in 
the British Museum is compared with an Asiatic of about the same relative age. A small 
concavity between the spine and external cup, close to the head, is apparent in certain 
specimens of the Asiatic, but is wanting in the single African and in the fossils. As to the 
distal extremity, excepting a greater obliquity of the fibular facet in the African and the 
fossils than in the Asiatic, there do not seem any marked differences in the outlines 
of the astragaloid surface, further than, perhaps, that the African has it more oval than 
the Asiatic, whereas the surface fig. 2« has an outline intermediate in form and more 
like that of the Mammoth. 

The spine is rounded, and the anterior angle of the shaft is barely traceable to the 
inner malleolus; consequently the middle and lower third in fi-ont are well rounded. 
On the posterior aspect there is a deep concavity below the head ; and both outer and 
inner angles are pronounced on each side: the former can be easily followed to the 
outer malleolus, whilst the latter is scarcely so well defined, but still traceable. These 
peculiarities I shall revert to presently in discussing the characters of the young bone : 
they are present in the Asiatic tibia ; but, if any thing, the internal is the more defined. 
As compared with the same bone in the following, it would seem that, although much 
less in length, its facets are even larger than those of the Sumatran, B.M. By com- 
parison, I find the tibia of the latter and the admeasurements of Plate XV. figs. 1 & 2 
to stand thus : — 





Length. 


Breadth 
across 
head. 


Antero- 
posterior 
diameter 
and breadth 
of outer cup. 


Antero- 
posterior 
diameter 
and breadth 
of inner cup. 


Girth 
at mid- 
shaft. 


Distal 
breadth 
and antero- 
posterior 
diameter. 


Fibular 
facet. 


Sumatran, B.M 


inches. 

21 

14-2 


inches. 

5-5 

5-8 


inches. 
2-0 X 2-5 
2-2 X 2-5 


inches. 
3-0 X 2-5 
3-2 X 2-5 


inches. 
7-5 
7-2 


inches. 
3-2 X 2-4 
3-3 X 2-6 


inches, 

2x8 
2x1 


Maltese (PI. XV. flgs. 1 & 2) 



Even the youthful specimen (707/i, B.M.) with which the fossil is exactly comparable 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 63 

as to length, has much smaller articular surfaces ; and therefore the former, belonging to 
an adult, would represent a somewhat small elephant, which the largest Maltese form 
was unquestionably ; indeed I doubt much if it exceeded 7 feet in height, at least as 
far as the data I have collected indicate. 

Young and Immature Tibice. 

Of these my collection presents four specimens, besides a very perfect left tibia 
from Zebbug, presented to me by the owner of the property in which the cave was 
discovered. The specimens vary considerably in dimensions, and evidently not only 
represent diiferent stages of growth, but also distinct forms. 

A Series. — The two shown in PI. XXI. figs. 13 & 14, as before noted, were found 
close together in Benghisa Gap, under a large fiat block of sandstone, and impacted 
among red soil with the associated remains shown in PI. XXL from fig. 1 to fig. 15 in- 
clusive, all of which clearly evince that the exuvise of no less than three distinct indi- 
viduals were huddled together in a small space not over 2 feet square. 

The Zebbug and larger Benghisa specimens (PI. XXI. fig. 14), the smaller (fig. 13) 
being much eroded externally, agree in every respect, excepting that the former is 
much larger ; both evidently belong to young individuals. 

1. They agree with old bones just described in having a deep concavity posteriorly 
below the upper epiphyses (PI. XXI. fig. 14) with the outer and inner ridges well shown ; 
but whilst the internal is traceable to the inner malleolus, the outer is lost near the 
middle of the shaft, making the lower and external portion of the latter rounded. 

2. There is a distinct flattening on the inner side of the head in all the specimens ; 
but the outer side in these two is also much flatter than in the old bones and in the two 
next to be considered. As to the outlines of the epiphysial aspects (fig. 14 a), I refi-ain 
from expressing any thing like a decided opinion, further than that the upper seem to 
me to have somewhat broader surfaces for the external condyles than obtains in the two 
other young bones ; at the same time it would seem that the outer is relatively broad 
also in the adult, as seen in PI. XV. fig. 3. Should this be the case, the above would be 
like the African, and the following like the Asiatic. 

B Series. — The two next young bones are unfortunately imperfect, there being only 
the head and a portion of the shaft. But although the one is nearly twice as large 
as the other, they agree in characters which are distinctly diflerent from the two just 
described. 

1. The pronounced point in their diagnosis is the broad shallow hollow posteriorly 
below the head. 

2. The ridges, although distinct, are not prominent as in the above and the (jld 
bones. 

3. The external ridge terminates just below the concavity, whilst the internal would 
appear to be continued further down, probably to the ankle. 



64 MR. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

4. There is a very decided flattening of the inner side of the head, witli a far more 
rounded and convex external aspect, both of which are very apparent when the four 
bones are placed side by side. With respect to the two latter features it may be stated 
that the same obtains in the adult bones (PI. XV. figs. 1 & 3), which, however, in 
regard to the hollowing below the head behind are distinctly more like the former. 

5. The external condyloid aspect is seemingly narrower than in the former ; but I 
feel, in the absence of more perfect materials, that I should be verging on hyper- 
criticism to pronounce a decision on a point which gives so distinctive a character to 
the same parts in the two recent species. 

As compared with the immature bones described by Mr. Busk, I find that the two 
former agree with his pi. 47. figs. 16 & 17, and the latter with his figs. 15, 20, & 21. 
He alludes to the nutrient foramen being placed higher up in the latter. This there is 
no means of proving, from the loss of the parts in which it exists ; but in the Zebbug 
specimen in my possession, equivalent to PI. XXI. fig. 14, it is placed in the lower third, 
and therefore in the position assigned to it by Busk. 

X. Fibula. 

1. The largest specimen of this bone is represented by the distal extremity (PI. XV. 
fig. 4). As regards dimensions, it is in accord with the tibia (figs. 1 & 2) and astragalus 
(PI. XVI. fig. 1), so much so that in all likelihood all belonged to the same individual, 
as they were found together. This distal end of the fibula has much the character of 
the African, the lower margin being slightly concave. Here the obliquity on the tibia 
just indicated is repeated on this fibula. 

2. The smaller distal extremity (PI. XV. fig. 5) is one of two perfect specimens 
(right and left) found near each other in Muaidra Gap ; they do not dififer whatever in 
dimensions, and probably belonged to the same individual. Here we find the lower 
margin deeply notched as in the Asiatic. The tibial facet is not shown in the figure, 
but is well defined on the bone, and is scarcely so oblique as in the last, and measures 
2-3 inches in breadth by 0'8 inch. Both figs. 4 & 5 represent the characters of old 
bones, although the latter has been broken across at its lower epiphysis. The former 
represents an individual of the largest dimensions above stated ; the latter, one having 
an astragalus of the dimensions of PI. X. fig. 10, which will be shown to have some 
characters in common with the Asiatic and Mammoth rather than the African. 

3. An entire detached fibula was discovered in Benghisa Gap, belonging doubtless to 
the smallest form ; the epiphyses were completely consolidated ; and, like the others, it 
displayed all the characters of an old bone. The entire length was 8-6 inches, girth of 
the proximal end 2-5, girth of the mid-shaft 2, girth of distal end 4-4, breadth of distal 
end 2-6. A detached distal end of another fibula from the same situation measured 
2'2 inches in breadth. 

Summary. — Supposing, as Mr. Busk computes, the femur of Falconer's Elephant to 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 65 

be 13 inches in length, the above would be much too large; and if we allow femur 
PL XIV. fig. 3 a length of 22 inches, the proportion would be in excess on the side of 
the femur. 

The femur and fibula of the Oxford-University and King's-College Museum specimens 
are 21 & 10 inches respectively; so that the maximum femur of E. falconeri, being 
given at 13 inches, would in proportion allow of only 6 inches to its fibula ; and seeing 
that neither of the former was quite 4 feet, I am inclined to think Mr. Busk's estimate 
may be low for the femur of this pygmy, which, however, may have had shorter thigh- 
and leg-bones in proportion, just as I have pointed out in the tibia of the large form. 

Patella. 

A Series. — 1. Four specimens referable to the larger form were discovered in Mnaidra 
and Gandia, and one belonging to the spiall form in Benghisa Gap. With reference 
to the former, the patella PI. XV. fig. 8 is of the left side ; the maximum breadth of 
its inner facet is 1'8 inch, and of the outer 1"3, the greatest thickness being 2-2. 

2. Another of the same side is more oval in outline; its length is 3"7 inches, breadth 
of inner facet 1'6, and outer 1'4, the greatest thickness being 2. Both these and a 
third in the University of Malta, from Gandia Fissure, as compared with any of the 
femurs above described, seem to represent animals equivalent to the o\vners of the 
largest bones in my collection, i. e. to an elephant fully 7 feet in height. As compared 
with that of the Sumatran (British Museum), they are rather larger, seeing that its 
patella is 3-6 inches in length, the outer facet being 1-3, and inner 1'5. 

3. The right and left femurs (PI. XIV. figs. 1 & 2) had their patellae evidently attached 
when deposited in Mnaidra Gap, seeing that between the condyles and the heads of 
their tibise there lay two patellae, of which the right is shown in PL XV. fig. 7, and 
displays the same sharpness of the outer border as compared with the thickening of the 
internal, and thus characteristic of the last described, whilst the left, like fig. 8, is oblong. 
Its articular facets show, the outer 1'2 inch in breadth, and the inner 1-5, thickness 1'9, 
which are about the dimensions of the patella of the elephant in Guy's-Hospital 
Museum and in the Netley Hospital, both representing the adolescent stage and indi- 
viduals about 6 '5 feet at the shoulder. I am aware that this comparison does not tally 
with the relative lengths of the respective femurs ; but the data furnished seem to show 
that the large Maltese form had altogether shorter and stouter extremities than, at all 
events, the Asiatic species. 

B Series. — The perfect little patella fig. 6 being found so close to femur PL XIV. 
fig. 3, in Benghisa Gap, and being also of the right limb, renders it highly probable 
that they belonged to the same animal. The breadth of its external facet is 0'8 inch, 
and internal l^l, thickness 1'4. 

The characters of the patella in the two recent species are not difiisrent ; but, as far 
as materials extend, it would appear that the bone is relatively broader in the African. 

VOL. IX. — PAKT I. November, 1874. K 



66 ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

If this should tura out to be the case, at all events the last described is more like the 
Asiatic ; but perhaps the left is never so broad as the right. 

XI. Cakpus. 

Scaphoid. — In an articulated skeleton of a youthful Asiatic Elephant in the Mu- 
seum of the Army Hospital, Netley, the first true molar is coming into wear, and 
about 1 foot of the incisor is protruding beyond the alveolus. The height of the 
animal seems to have been about 6 -5 feet at the shoulder. The scaphoid in this 
instance shows distinctly the two points of ossification separated by a central mass of 
cartilage, the length of the bone being 2'8 inches. Again, in a disarticulated Ceylon 
Elephant (707 A, B.M.), showing the last milk-molar in full wear, and a computed 
height of 5 feet at the withers, we find precisely the same condition of the scaphoid, 
which is 2'6 inches in length. Thus, whilst showing the unossified stage in the recent 
animal, they offer comparisons in this respect with the Maltese scaphoids, which, 
although of the same dimensions, show no traces whatever of the foetal condition. A 
comparison between the same bone in the African and Asiatic furnishes the following 
data, at least as far as a single instance of the former enables me to determine. The 
outlines are different as regards the contour of the posterior border, which forms a 
hog's-back outline in the African and Mammoth, and is more or less perpendicular in 
the Asiatic, where it is relatively narrower at its middle. Again, the radial facet, as 
shown by Blainville', is nearly perpendicular in the latter and Mammoth, and nearly 
horizontal in the African. The trapezoidal and magnal facets form a triangle in the 
African, and are slightly concave. In the Asiatic and Mammoth the same are apparent 
on the magnal aspect; but the entire articular surface is quadrilateral and slightly 
convex about the middle, and oval at the summit, which is rather concave. These 
facets in both recent animals and Mammoth rise up the side of a protuberance on the 
lunare aspect, forming in the African a contmuous articular surface where the facets of 
the different bones are not so defined as in the Asiatic and Mammoth. In my collec- 
tion there are two adult scaphoids somewhat differing in size, outline, and arrangement 
of their facets. 

1. The largest (PI. XVII. fig. 10) is entire, with the exception of the anterior 
portion of the radial and almost the entire lunare facets, also a portion of the posterior 
inferior angle. The specimen has also sustained two fractures obliquely across its 
middle, which, however, do not interfere with the outline of the bone. The importance 
of this integral part in the motivity of the foot is calculated to be infiuenced by the 
animal's habits, as would of course the more anterior long bones ; hence the necessity of 
a careful survey of these portions of the extremities. The following are the dimensions 
of the one in question : — Entire length 3"2 inches, greatest breadth (at the middle) 2'6^ ; 

' ' Osteographie,' Atlas, iii. pi. v. 

° This specimen agrees with the dimensions of the scaphoid of the youthful skeleton (2677 a, E. C. S.), the 
dimensions of the Sumatran (B. M.) being 3'7 by 2o inches. 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHAIS'TS. 



67 



the breadth of the radial facet is 1 inch. The distal articular surface in this specimen 
differs from any of the recent and the next specimen in the following particulars : — The 
conjoined surfaces for the trapezoid, trapezium, and magnum form a single rounded 
facet, which is 2-1 inches in the antero-posterior diameter to 1 mch m length. 

Unfortunately the antero-posterior measurement is somewhat vitiated m consequence 
of the posterior angle being broken off; but I apprehend it was nearly, if not quite, 2*1 
inches ; and there being no line of demarcation between the facets, it is impossible to 
define each. The pronounced eminence on the Ixrnare or external aspect, and its large 
articulating surface, being absent, we might surmise that this scaphoid, owing to the 
diminished size of the magnal facet, was more erect than obtains in both recent 
species and in the Mammoth. T find, however, on comparing this surface in old and 
young bones of the Asiatic that the relative differences between the length and breadth 
are reversed, so that, as a character, the above is not to be relied on. The upper 
lunare facet is too much abraded for description ; the lower lunare, however, is well 
defined anteriorly, forming by its sharp and prominent angle an articular surface 1'8 by 
0-6 inch. The maximum thickness of fig. 10 is 1 inch. 

Now, as regards its connexion with recent species, in outline it is like the African 
and Mammoth's ; but in the form and direction of the radial surface it seems more like 
that of the Asiatic and Mammoth ; whilst it differs from the three in the contour and 
extent of the distal facets. 

2. An almost perfect right scaphoid from Benghisa Gap is shown in woodcut fig. 4, 

Fig. 4. 




Scaphoid. Nat. size. 

which represents a smaller Elephant, but stiU an adult. It differs from fig. 10 in the 
following characters :— The radial surface (r) has the horizontal aspect of the; African ; 

e2 



68 ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

but the contour of the posterior border (b), instead of (as in fig. 10, the Mammoth, 
and African) forming a hog's back, has a hollow at c, and the margin is much thinner. 
Again, like the Asiatic, there is a flattening at a, which is round in the others ; and the 
lunare facets (^Z) are larger in proportion than in fig. 10. But in the lower border 
being rounded and the facets covering the side of an eminence in the form of a triangle 
(t), as in the recent species and in the Mammoth, with a decided determinable facet 
for the trapezoid and magnum, we obtain features which at once distinguish this 
scaphoid from fig. 10. The following are the dimensions of the woodcut — entire 
length 2-8 inches, extreme breadth 2-4, radial facet 1-3 by 0-8, aspects for trapezoid 
and magnum (by tape) 2-2 by 1-4, upper lunare facet 0-8 by 0-5, lower lunare facet 
0-9 by 0-9. 

The relative dimensions of this scaphoid as compared with recent species would 
show an animal a little over 5 feet in height; the specimen being somewhat larger 
than that of 707 A (British Museum) just referred to. 

Lunare. — This bone is represented in my collections hy four entire specimens, which 
difier in size and characters as follows : — 

1. The largest (PI. XVIII. fig. 1) is equal in size to that of the Sumatran Elephant 
(British Museum). Its dimensions are — maximum length 3-8 inches, breadth 3-3, 
thickness 2, radial facet 2-5 by 2-5, ulnar 1-4 by 0-7, cuneiform facet 1-6 by 0'5, upper 
cuneiform facet 1-2 by 0-2'. The scaphoidals are abraded; the magnal is 2-7 by 2-6 
inches. 

2. Another (b), somewhat smaller, of the right foot, from Benghisa Gap, has its 
length 3-6 inches, breadth 2-9, thickness 1-7, radial facet 2-4, ulnar 1 by 1, cuneiform 
(abraded), scaphoidal (upper) 1-4 by 0-4, lower 0-8 by 0-3, magnal 2-7 by 2-6. 
Although these two lunaria are closely allied, as regards size and in proportion they 
might have fairly appertained to the two scaphoids just described, inasmuch as each 
pair were found close together in two separate localities ; indeed, moreover, as the sca- 
phoids differ, so do the former to some extent. Thus fig. 1 difiers from B in its ulnar 
facet being more perpendicular, the radial and magnal surfaces are not so concave, 
the latter surface is also narrower. Fig. 1 has consequently an African's character, 
whilst B is decidedly more like the same bone in the Mammoth and Asiatic. I doubt, 
however, if these discrepancies are altogether maintainable throughout a series of each ; 
and therefore, although noteworthy, they are to be considered merely provisional ; it is 
strange, however, that two lunaria so nearly of the same dimensions should diflfer in 
characters to the extent observable in the two Maltese bones just described. 

3. The next lunare (represented, PI. XVIII. fig. 4) is very hke the last described, 
but it is much smaller, and bears a very close relationship in this respect to the distal 
ends of the radius and ulna PI. XIII. figs. 2 & 3, not only in size, but in the con- 
figuration of their articular surfaces, just as the less shallow and less convex radial 
aspects of PI. XVIII. fig. 1 consort with the opposing surfaces of radius PI. X. fig. 6. 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 69 

It is noticeable, however, that in PI. XVIII. fig. 4, there is a protuberance at the apex 
of the bone internally, which is not nearly so prominent in the preceding lunaria. The 
determined hollowing of the upper surface of this specimen resembles that seen in 
full-grown individuals of the Asiatic — to wit, the Sumatran. The dimensions of fig. 4 
are — maximum length 3 inches, breadth 2-5, thickness 1-4, radial facet 2-2, ulnar facet 
1-3 by 0-6, cuneiform facet 0-9 by 0-3, lower magnal 2-3 by 2-1. The ulnar facet is 
oblique. 

4. The diminutive lunare PI. XXI. fig. 1 will be described with the other members 
of the same foot ; sufiice it at present to say that in the particulars just stated it is of 
precisely the same type as PI. XVIII. fig. 4. 

Cuneiform. — Of this important element of the carpus my collection afi'ords no less 
than seven specimens, which differ considerably in size, and for the most part in 
characters. 

A Series. — 1. The largest is represented in PI. XVIII. fig. 2. It is a right cunei- 
form from Gandia Fissiu'e, so prolific of the remains of the largest form of Elephant. 
The extremity is wanting, including nearly all the pisiform and external portions of the 
ulnar and unciform surfaces ; the body, however, is preserved, and gives the foUowmg 
admeasurements — extreme breadth 3'1 inches, thickness 2 inches, ulnar facet (antero- 
posterior) 2-3 inches, upper lunare 1-5 inch, lower lunare 1-6 by 0-5 inch, antero-pos- 
terior of unciform 2-7 inches. This cuneiform, although of the opposite side, and from 
a different situation, might, as regards dimensions, have belonged to the owner of the 
lunare PI. XVIII. fig. 1. 

2. The left cuneiform shown in PI. XVIII. fig. 5, although considerably smaller 
than the above, is, as far as I can make out, identical in character, and may therefore 
be supposed to belong to a much smaller individual of the same form. It has lost 
about the same parts as in fig. 2 ; but the following measurements are prociu-able : 
the extreme breadth is 2-4 inches, thickness 1-4 inch, ulnar facet (antero-posterior) 1-8 
inch, upper lunare 1-1 inch, lower lunare 1-4 by 0-3 inch, unciform facet (antero-pos- 
terior diameter) 2"1 inches. 

3. Another, but still more mutilated, fragment of a left cuneiform from Gandia 
Fissure, of the exact dimensions of the last, completes the list of specimens attributable 
to the same type. In comparison with the same bone in recent species, figs. 2 & 5 are 
relatively much thicker, more especially at the external margin of the pisiform facet, 
where the maximum grossness usually obtaius ; and seemingly the latter is greater in 
the Asiatic than in the African. The above have narrow upper and lower articular sur- 
faces, with large concavities and convexities, as obtains also in the Asiatic and not, to 
all appearance, in the African. The lunare facets, like all the small lateral attachments 
of the foot-bones, are subject to considerable irregularities, sometimes occupying the 
entire margin, in others a portion only. The latter is the case in these fossils ; but in 
the African (708 h, P.M..) and the cuneiform of an old Asiatic Elephant (no. 2543) in 



70 ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

the Eoyal College of Surgeons it covers the entire lower margin. It is probable there- 
fore that the three belonged to one species, the largest being that of an adult, the two 
smaller being immature bones ; and this is borne out to some extent by the smoothness 
of the exterior of the latter as compared with the rugosities and irregularities of fig. 2 '. 

In all apparent differences between the cuneiform of the Asiatic and African Ele- 
phants, such as the greater breadth of the ulnar and cuneiform surfaces of the African 
as compared with the narrow aspects of the Asiatic, there is a remarkable contrast 
between those just described and the following, which display the characters of the 
African. Moreover, by the much narrower internal border at a, figs. 7, 8, & 9, the 
lunare face is diminished in height, so that when placed side by side with figs. 2 & 5 
there is no difficulty whatever in distinguishing the former from the latter. Whether 
it is a regular point of distinction or not, on examining various cuneiforms of all ages 
of the Asiatic Elephant, I find that the fifth metacarpal facet near the extremity is not 
observed, excepting in bones of aged individuals. Unfortunately none of the largest 
specimens are sufficiently preserved at the apex to show this surface ; however, it is 
preserved in fig. 8, and even in the very diminutive cuneiform, fig. 7. 

B Series. — 1. The largest specimen (fig. 9) shows the ulnar surface of a right cunei- 
form. The apex has sustained a recent injuiy, and the lunare facets are abraded ; other- 
wise the specimen is entire, and affords the following: — extreme length (about) 3 inches, 
breadth 2-5 inches, ulnar surface (antero-posterior) 2-2 by 2 inches. The pisiform 
facet is in the form of a right-angled triangle, with the base uppermost ; height 1 inch, 
breadth 1 inch, unciform surface (antero-posterior) 2-2 by 2 inches ; thickness at the 
middle of the pisiform facet 1-4 inch, and at middle of the lunare side 1 inch. 

2. An imperfect bone of the same side, showing only a portion of the ulnar surface, 
is of the same or slightly larger dimensions. The smaller right cuneiform (fig. 8) has 
its pisiform facet and point considerably abraded, preserving, however, the body entire, 
with, as just stated, the fifth metacarpal facet on the border of the apex. This speci- 
men, although probably of the same type as the two preceding, has relatively a rather 
deeper concavity at a, on the internal ulnar surface ; indeed so contracted is the height 
of the bone in this situation that there is no room for the lunare facets ; and the margins 
are sharp instead of even; but with these exceptions it agrees with fig. 9. The 
following are its admeasurements : — entire length 2-5 inches, breadth 2 ; ulnar sur- 
faces — antero-posterior diameter 1-6, transverse 1-9 ; unciform aspect — antero-posterior 
diameter 1-9, transverse 1-8; thickness at middle of pisiform facet 1-1, thickness at 
middle of lunare side 0-4. 

3. Like the preceding, fig. 7 was also found in Benghisa Gap, so prolific of remains 
of the smallest form. Here the pisiform facet is abraded ; but the fifth metacarpal 
impression is very distinct, and the extremity is completely ossified— a feature of im- 

' These cuneiform bones agree in characters with specimens in the Palsontological Collection, British 
Museum, referable to the Mammoth and Elcphas antlquus. 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 71 

portance, seeing that it is rarely entire in recent species until the milk-teeth are shed ' . 
The entire length is 2 inches, breadth 1'4, ulnar sui-face (antero-posterior diameter) 
1 by 1-5, unciform (antero-posterior diameter) 1-3 by 1-2, thickness at middle of pisi- 
form facet 0'8, thickness at middle of lunare aspect 0'4. The narrowness of the border 
scarcely allows space for an articulating facet. The characters, therefore, of this dimi- 
nutive wedge-shaped bone are precisely like figs. 8 & 9. It may be remarked that the 
cuneiform in the very young skeleton in the Oxford University Museum is 2'5 inches. 
Thus, in proportion, the owner of the above must have been very little over 2 feet in height, 
and as compared with the very small, yet perfect, foot-bones (PI. XXI. figs. 1-7) shows a 
still smaller Elephant. The claims of fig. 7 to be considered a mature bone rest, as just 
stated, on the ossification of its apex and the determined outlines of its facets, neither 
of which is ever seen in young bones ; and most assuredly ia no other instances of such 
a small cuneiform are their characters preserved ; indeed, ia examples of those of recent 
species of double its size we find the' surfaces and apex quite detachable. 

Summary. — From the above it would seem that they represent at all events two 
distinct forms of cuneiform — one, the larger, assimilating to characters referable to the 
Asiatic, whilst another has several points, seemingly, in common with the African, 
the two forms showing much variability as to dimensions. 

PisiPOEM. — In the skeleton no. 2677 a, Eoyal College of Surgeons, to which many of 
the bones just described bear relative proportions, its pisiform equals the largest 
(PI. XVIII. fig. 3), but with this difference, that the former has the distal epiphysis 
detachable, and the same is not only completely consolidated in the fossil but also in 
the much smaller pisiform, fig. 6. Blainville figures this bone in the African and 
Asiatic Elephant^ as showing the cuneiform facet triangular and the ulnar horizontal 
ia the former, whilst in the latter, he states, the first is oval and the second oblique. 
These distinctions do not appear in the recent specimens I have examined, where the 
difierences are confined to the general outline of the bone, the Asiatic being more spiral, 
■with a large concavity on its posterior aspect — which character is common also to all 
the Maltese pisiforms, amounting to four perfect and two imperfect specimens. The 
two largest (right and left), possibly portions of the same animal, were found in con- 
junction with lunare fig. 1 in Mnaidra Gap. 

1. The left is shown in fig. 3. 

The cuneiform facet is relatively narrower than obtains apparently ia either receat 
species ; and the outline of the bone is more like the African than the Asiatic, especially 
in being less hollowed out posteriorly. Again, the ulnar facet is more oblique than in 
any of the living Elephants. The cuneiform surface is flat and oval, its length is I'l inch, 
and breadth 1, the ulnar (antero-posterior diameter) beiag I'l by 0-5. This specimeu 
is also about equal to that of the Sumatran in the British Museum. 

' The apex of this bone in the skeleton no. 707/;, B.ll., is cartilaginous, the bone being 3 by 2-6 inches. 
' Atlas, vol. iii. pi. 5. 



72 ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

2. The pisiform of a smaller Elephant is fairly represented by two perfect cuneiforms 
(right and left) from Mnaidra Gap. They were found close together, and probably 
belonged to the same individual. In outline and facets they seem to agree with the 
last, differing only in their smaller size. The right is shown, PL XVIII. fig. 6, with 
its distal epiphysis comiiletely consolidated. The distal half of another specimen, of 
the same size, and a third, a little larger, display the same character, only that the 
external surfaces of all are smooth, and do not show the rugous appearances which 
characterize the large specimens and old pisiforms of the recent species ; the cuneiform 
facet of fig. 6 is 0-8 by 0-6 inch, and the ulnar 0-6 by 0-4. This bone equals that of 
the young elephant 707 Ji, British Museum, and therefore may have been equivalent to 
the cuneiform, fig. 9, whilst, I repeat, it differs from the recent specimen in having its 
distal epiphysis completely consolidated, whereas in the above it is detachable ; indeed the 
latter obtains even in the pisiform of the Asiatic, with its first true molar in wear. 
These two pisiforms therefore represent a large and a small Elephant, in accordance 
with the preceding foot-bones. 

Teapezoid. — No trapezium turned up ; but an entire right trapezoid was found in 
Mnaidra Gap, and unfortunately was much injured during attempts to remove it from 
the hard stalagmite. PI. XVII. fig. II, shows its second metacarpal [a) and trapezial 
facet (J). The scaphoid facet, which is convex in the African and somewhat concave in 
the Asiatic, is seemingly more concave in the fossil, and might suit the pronounced 
concavity pointed out in the smaller scaphoid. The second metacarpal facet is I inch 
in breadth, the trapezial is 0-8, the second metacarpal is 1-2, the magnal l-I. The 
extreme thickness of the bone is (about) 1-5 inch. The specimen is in keeping rela- 
tively with the scaphoid shown at p. 67, and therefore belonged to a small elephant. 

Magnum. — This bone is represented in my collection by no less than five specimens, 
some of which, however, are but mere fragments. AH are remarkable, as compared 
with recent and fossil species, in being relatively narrow'er laterally, as will appear from 
the following comparisons between them and magna of nearly the same length in the 
Asiatic species. In the first place they admit of being divided into two series, on the 
score of dimensions and characters. 

A Series.—!. The largest magnum (PL XVII. fig. 13) shows the trapezoidal aspect. 
It has been considerably abraded on the dorsal surface, and also externally, but is 
otherwise pretty entire. 

2. Another of the right side, and of the same dimensions, has lost part of the lunare 
surface. 

B Series. — 1. With the exception of the loss of the lower internal angle, the speci- 
men shown in fig. 14 may be said to be almost entire. 

2. Another specimen, differing little in size from the last, is also of the left foot. 
Its anterior surface is completely destroyed; but the posterior articular aspect is pre- 
served, and furnishes the data requisite to complete the loss of substance in fig. 14. 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 



Table of comparisons between the magnum in the Maltese and recent Elephants. 



, 


Length. 


Breadth. 


Lunare 
aspect. 


Second 

metacarpal 

surface. 


Third 

metacarpal 

surface. 


Unciform 
facet. 


Trape- 
zoidal. 


Extreme 
thickness. 




inches. 

3-5 
3-4 

2-7 


inches. 

2-8 
1-8 
1-4 


inches. 

2-6 X 2-5 
2-8 X 1-8 
2-3 X 1-4 


inches. 

2-3 X 1-7 

2-2 

1-7 X 0-4 


inches. 

2-4 X 1-7 

1-2 

1-9 X 1-3 


inches. 
2-3 X 1-5 

2-5 X 1-5 

1-7 X 1-0 


inches. 
2-4 X 1-0 

2-3 X 1-0 

l'9xl-2 


inches. 
2-4 

2.4 

2-0 


(Brit. Mus.'). 
A Series (PL XVII. fig. 13) . . 

(Maltese.) 
B Series (PI. XVII. fig. 14) . . 

(Maltese.) 



Besides the narrow lateral dimensions, in which all the Maltese magna seem to differ 
from recent or fossil species, there is a small protuberance on the posterior margin 
(fig. 14, a) of the second metacarpal facet, which is common to all and also the African, 
but not apparently to the Asiatic. But the members of A and B series consort with 
their respective lunaria, inasmuch as the large lunare (PI. XVIII. fig. 1) has a shallow 
magnal aspect as compared with the deeper concavity on fig. 4, and just precisely we 
find equivalent opposing surfaces in PI. XVII. figs. 13 & 14. At all events, looked on 
as mature bones, we are justified in accepting them as representatives of a large and a 
small form. 

Uncifokm. — This bone is represented in my collection by five nearly perfect and one 
fragmentary specimen. These are divisible into small and large, and seem to agree 
with the preceding, as far as relative dimensions are concerned. 

A Series. — The largest specimens amount to three, which are about the same size. 
One is represented, PI. XVII. fig. 12, and might, as far as the dimensions of its 
cuneiform aspect extend, have belonged to the same individual as the largest cunei- 
form (PI. XVIII. fig. 2). It is about equal also to that of the Sumatran (B. M.) and 
the unciform of the articulated skeletons in the Museums of the Army Hospital at 
Netley and Guy's, London, all of which show the same dental conditions, and are 
between 6-5 and 7 feet in height. The articular aspects of the fossils show slight 
differences in the degrees of convexity and hollowing out ; and the inclined surface for 
the apical portion of the cuneiform is not so abrupt in them as in the Asiatic ; neither 
would it appear that the surfaces for the third and fourth metacarpals are quite so 
concave as in the Asiatic. In these respects they are more like the African^. 

' The magnum (16065 in Brit. Mus.), referable to the Mammoth, from Miss Baker's collection, made in North- 
amptonshire, is even smaller than the Sumatran ; and although doubtless belonging to a young Elephant, the 
facets are bold and well defined. Had the bone been subjected to calcareous infiltration, it would assuredly 
have been undistinguishable as regards characters and dimensions from the largest Maltese specimen referable 
to adult individuals. 

= BlainviUe (vol. iii. p. 42) states that the unciform in the Asiatic has no facet for the third metacarpal, and 
in consequence it differs from the African. As far as 708 h (African) in the British Museum, and many 
Asiatic and Mammoths' ossa magna, also the Maltese are concerned, this facet is present. 

VOL. IX. — PAKT I. November, 1874. l 



74 



MR. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 



B Series. — 1. A smaller-sized unciform, differing also in character, is shown in fig. 9. 
It is of the left foot, and its upper surface is abraded ; and a transverse fracture when 
the bone was fresh had displaced the metacarpal surfaces, so that little more than its 
general dimensions can be relied on safely. At a glance it will be seen that it is 
broader relatively than fig. 12. Now, as we have seen that the smaller cuneiforms 
(PI. XVIII. figs. 7, 8, & 9) show this peculiarity as compared with the largest (figs. 2 
& 5), the above may be regarded as belonging to the same type or form. 

2. Another left unciform (b) is considerably smaller than fig. 9, but displays the 
like broad cuneiformal aspect. It is important to show their differences in comparison 
with each other and recent species ; I therefore give the dimensions in the following 
Table :— 



Table of comparisons between the unciform in the Maltese and recent species. 



Specimens. 



Length 

and 
breadth. 



Cuneiform 
surface. 



Fifth 

metacarpal 

facet. 



Fourth 

metacarpal 

facet. 



Third 

metacarpal 

facet. 



Magnal 
facet. 



Thickness. 



Large (Maltese) 

Large (Maltese), PI. XVII. fig. 12. 

Large (Maltese) 

SmaU (Maltese), PI. XVII. fig. 9 . 

Small (Maltese) 

2677 a, R. C. S. (Asiatic) 

Sumatraa Elephant (B. M.) 



inches. 
3-4 X 3-2 
3-3 X 3-2 
3-4 

2-5 X 2-4 
2-1 X 2-0 
3-4 X 3-3 
3-7 X 3-2 



inches. 
3-4 X 2-6 
3-3 X 2-4 
3-0 

2-4 X 2-4 
1-8 X 1-8 
3'0x2-4 
3-5 X 2-4 



inches. 

1'5 
2-2 X 1-4 

1-3 
1-8 X 1-0 
1-3 X 0-7 
2-2 X 1-4 
20 X 1-6 



inches. 

2-2 X 2-2 
2-1 X 2-2 

l-8xi-4 
1-4 

2-2 X 2-2 
2-5 X 1-8 



iiicheB. 

2-3 X 0-7 
2-3 X 0-7 

1-8 X 6-4 
1-3 X 0-5 
2-4 X 0-6 
1-8 X 0-6 



inches. 
2-6 X 1-2 
2-5 X 1-2 
2-0 X 1-1 
2-2 X 0-8 

2-7xi-5 
2-3 X 1-5 



inches. 
2-5 
2-4 
2-4 
2-0 
1-5 
2-7 
2-4 



It will be seen in this Table that the largest Maltese unciform represents an animal 
nearly as large as the Sumatran (B. M.); whilst the smallest would indicate an 
Elephant somewhere, as Dr. Falconer has remarked, about the height of a large 
Javan one-horned Rhinoceros, with characters differing as regards the configuration of 
its cuneiform and unciform from the larger form. 

Portion of a Left Fore foot found in situ. 

Among the very variable materials discovered by me in different localities, one of 
the most heterogeneous assemblages of Elephantine remains are those figured for the 
most part in PI. XXI. They were discovered in Benghisa Gap, firmly packed in red 
soil, and below blocks of water-worn stones, and lay in a space of not more than 
2 feet either way. Along with the bones shown on PI. XXI. figs. I to 15, were also the 
skull and tusks (PI. I. fig. 18). The suggestive conditions in which the remains were 
found have been discussed at some length in my work'. I shall therefore proceed to 
the description of a portion of a left fore foot found along with the other boneS. The 
following specimens raise the question at once, whether or not they are to be con- 
sidered full-grown, immature, or young bones. 

• ' ' NUe Valley and Malta,' p. 189. 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHAKTS. 75 

When the lunare, unciform, first, second, fourth, and fifth metacarpals shown in 
PI. XXI., are compared with the foot-bones PI. XVI. fig. 3, PI. XVIII. fig. 7, PI. XIX. 
figs. 6, 7, & 9, and PI. XX. figs. 2, 3, 14, & 16, and in consideration that the epiphyses 
of the metacarpals are consolidated, and that the prominences on the carpal bones are 
bold and well defined, I see no possible conclusion to arrive at than that they represent 
portions of the fore foot of an adult pygmy form of Elephant. Even allowing for the 
preservative influence of calcareous infiltrations in filling up and consolidating solutions 
of continuity and preserving the outline of a cartilaginous surface, there is not only 
the matured aspect of the carpal, but, I repeat, the epiphyses of the metacarpal bones 
are completely solidified. 

The left lunare (PI. XXI. fig. 1) might, as regards characters, be considered that of 
the young of specimen B, or even of the still smaller lunare shown in PI. XVIII. fig. 4. 
Here there is the same large sloping ulnar facet, the excavated border for the scaphoid, 
the deep concavities for the radius and magnum, and the knob at the apex of the 
bone which characterize the above as compared with that of the largest form 
(PI. XVIII. fig. 1). Strange to say, the last is from Mnaidra, and the three others 
were obtained from Benghisa, so fruitful of remains of the small form. The following 
are the dimensions of fig. 1 — length 1'8 inch, breadth 1'7, thickness 0*9, radial surface 
1-5 by 1-1, magnal surface 1-5 by 1-5, ulnar 0*7 by 0-6, cuneiform 1-2. The scaphoidal 
is abraded. The dorsal surface, as in PI. XVIII. fig. 4, is more hollow than in the 
other two larger bones; but these may be, as well as several other characters, only 
mere individual differences. 

Unciform. — There are two specimens precisely alike, and which undoubtedly belonged 
to the same individual. The right is considerably eroded by decay ; but the left (PI. 
XXI. fig. 2) is perfect. In outline, and the characters pointed out on the upper sur- 
faces of PI. XVII. figs. 9 & 12, it seems to resemble the latter more than the other. 
The following are its dimensions as compared with them — maximum length 1'9 inch, 
breadth 17, cuneiform aspect 1-8 by 1-3, fifth metacarpal facet 0-8 by 0-6, fourth 
metacarpal facet 1-2 by 1-1, third metacarpal 1-1 by 0*3, magnal 1'4 by 0-5, thick- 
ness 1*4. 

First Metacarjjcd. — The difficulties in distinguishing certain of the long bones of the 
fore and hind feet from each other, more especially among the diversified and often im- 
perfect materials in the collection, are here shown. The characteristic bone (PI. V. fig. 4) 
might have as likely been a first metatarsal of the larger form as a first metacarpal of 
the smaller, but for its diminutive compeer (PI. XXI. figs. 3 & 3«), which was found 
close to the lunare and unciform (figs. 1 & 2), and the following metacarpal bones, all 
of which belong unquestionably to the same left foot. The characters I shall describe 
as diagnostic of PI. V. fig. 4, are here repeated. Moreover the epiphyses of fig. 3 are 
consolidated; and the outline and facets are so pronounced, that there is no getting 
over the belief that it is a matured bone. The knob on the lower aspect of the proximal 

l2 



76 ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OP 

end and the ginglymoid distal facet, together with the oval and concave trapezial 
sui-face, are all pronounced as in any old bone. The dimensions of this very pygmy 
first metacarpal are sufficiently shown in figs. 3 & 3a, to which may be added the 
anterior facet somewhat eroded; it is 0'6 inch in height by 0'5 inch in breadth. The 
stumpy little bone, PI. XIX. fig. 9, has much the same characters as the above, and 
might represent the first metacarpal; its facets, however, are imperfect. It may be 
stated that in the Oxford University specimen, and also the very young individual in 
King's College Museum, this bone is 1'2 inch in length, with its extremities carti- 
laginous and shrunken. 

Its comparative characters, as far as discernable, are : — 

1. Like the African, it is short and stout. 

2. Like both recent, its trapezial facet is oblong and concave. 

3. Like the African, it has a hollow distal articulation. 

4. The lower surface of the bone is rather sharp, like the Asiatic ; but in none of 
the Maltese first metacarpals are the lower surfaces exactly like either of the recent 
species, being blunt, but not fiat or tectiform. Take it all in all, this bone, like PI. V. 
fig. 4, has greatly the African character. 

Second Metacarpal. — PI. XXI. figs. 4 & 4 a represent an entire specimen. Here the 
epiphyses are clearly consolidated, even to the formation of the usual rugous ridges of 
an old bone. It is rather flat on the dorsum of the shaft, which, as before observed, 
characterizes the old from the young bone in recent species ; it is, moreover, slender, 
and has perhaps more of an Asiatic character. Besides the dimensions in the figure, 
the breadth of the mid-shaft is 0-7 inch, the distal articulation is I'O by 0-8. 

This metacarpal shows the usual obliquity of the distal extremity seen in the second 
bone of the fore foot, with the internal surface of the shaft sharp and little rounded, 
and external flat and deep, the lower surface being rather rounded, narrow, and 
sloping inwards to form the sharp inner border of the carpal facet. 

The length of the second metacarpal in the above-mentioned recent young Asiatic 
Elephants is 2*3 inches respectively, whereas the length of fig. 4 is r9 inch. 

Fourth Metacarpal. — A careful comparison between figs. 5 & 5a and the other 
diminutive specimens referred to this toe in the hind foot (to wit, PL XIX. fig. 6) 
and the perfect fourth metatarsal figured and described by Busk' gives the follow- 
ing : — The above is relatively much broader than fig. G, the shaft of which is rounded 
and has little of the internal flattening which distinguishes this bone and that of 
Elephants in general; moreover the sharp external border of fig. 5 is rounder in 
fig. 6, the articular surfaces are much broader ; they agree in length however. In all 
respects fig. 5 and the Zebbug bone agree ; only the latter is smaller, which is quite in 
keeping with its being a bone of the hind foot. The following are the dimensions of 
fig. 5 not shown in the Plate ; — height of mid shaft internally is 0'6 inch ; the distal 
' Trans. Zool. Soo. yi. p. 271, pi. 51. figs. 40 a & 6. 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHAKTS. 77 

articular aspect is 1 by 1. The length of the same bone in the two skeletons just 
referred to is 2-5 inches in the Oxford-University, and 3 inches in the King's-College 
specimens ; but young bones of the age of the latter are so shrivelled at their extre- 
mities that it becomes difficult to obtain the original dimensions. At all events, neither 
of the above is by any means so small as those three bones, and in particular fig. 5, 
which is only 1'8 inch in length. 

I believe the perfect little sesamoid, fig. 7, which was found under fig. 5, belonged 
to it ; regarded as elephantine and a mature bone, it is unique. 

Fifth Metacarpal. — The specimen, fig. 6, may be said to represent an almost perfect 
miniature of the bones shown in PI. XIX., more especially fig. 12. Portion of the 
distal facet has decayed away; but otherwise this very small left fifth metacarpal is 
entu-e. The proximal facets are shown at a. The phalangeal and the sesamoid facet 
is 0"7 by 0'5 inch in breadth. The outer surface is rough like an old bone. The fifth 
metacarpal in the Oxford specimen is 2 inches, and King's-College Museum 1'7 inch 
in length, whereas the above is only 1 inch in length. 

Now, with reference to these small foot-bones, all of which seem to bear so pointedly 
towards the establishing of a dwarf form of Elephant, it comes to be a question how 
far they admit of a connexion with the fragments of skull, teeth, tusks, and long bones 
with which they were associated ; and this, in comparison with recent species, is easily 
answered. It is clear that neither the humerus (fig. 9), ulna (fig. 10), tibia (fig. 13), 
nor any of the other exuviae surrounding them, excepting perhaps the portion of the 
skull (PI. I. fig. 18), could have pertained to the owner of the above fore foot. More- 
over, seeing that the two examples of recent calf Elephants adduced stand respectively 
about 38 to 40 inches in height, and that Mr. Busk computes his Elejohas falconeri at 
between 30 and 36 inches, we may fairly suppose the above ranged between the two last 
figui'es, which would, in proportion to the recent specimens, give the same measure- 
ments. In no Elephant's bones I have examined, where the milk-molars are in use in 
the jaws, are the epiphyses united; indeed, as far as the specimens (mostly, however, 
domesticated individuals) in museums of Great Britain extend, the condition of the 
metacarpal bones just described is not attained until the second true molar is fairly 
invaded ; and even then the epijihyses of the larger members of the extremities are not 
consolidated. How far the abnormal habits and food, as compared with the feral state, 
have to do with the period of union is not quite apparent ; moreover, in the primordial 
state of these pachydermata union may have taken place earlier in life than at present. 
Suffice it, however, to say that, allowing the fragment of upper molar in the jaw 
PI. I. fig. 18 to belong to the last of the milk-series, and that the first true molar 
was in full wear then, we might suppose that the members of the left fore foot just 
described belonged to the same individual. 

General Summary. — It will be apparent from the foregoing that the bones of tlie 
carpus admit of the following : — 



78 ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

1. The Scaphoid (PI XVII. fig. 10, and woodcut fig. 4) represent two distinct forms, 
differing in characters and size ; and whilst the larger differs in a few points from the 
other and recent species, it agrees in general outline with the African, whilst the other, 
representing a considerably smaller foot, displays the configuration and several points 
distinctive of the Asiatic and Mammoth. 

2. The Lunare furnishes a greater diversity as to dimensions. The larger (PL XVIII. 
fig. 1) might have belonged to an individual nearly, if not altogether, 7 feet in height, 
whilst specimen B is in fair keeping with the smaller scaphoid, and fig. 4 belonged 
to a much smaller individual, and PI. XXI. fig. 1 to a perfect pygmy. Again, whilst 
the largest (fig. 1 ) shows characters of the African, specimen B and fig. 4 show those 
of the Asiatic and Mammoth, which is seemingly the case with the pygmy lunare 
(PI.. XXI. fig. 1). 

3. The Cuneiform seems to follow the same rules, although with less variability in 
character. Thus the largest (figs. 2 & 5), seemingly large, and the small individuals of 
one form show a decided Asiatic character, the larger consorting well with the lunare 
(fig. 1) ; whilst the smaller cuneiforms (figs. 9 & 8), with their relatively broader upper 
and lower surfaces, assimilate to the African type, and agree in regard to some with 
lunare figs. 4 & 9, which might have belonged to the same individual, having been 
found togetlier. The pygmy bone (fig. 7), indeed, like that of an adult, shows the 
African characters. 

4. The Pisiform repeats the characters of a large and smaller form ; and, as far as 
any marked characters extend, both seem to approach the African species. 

5. The Trapezoid evidently belonged to the smaller form. 

6. The Magnum agrees in being relatively narrower in all the Maltese than in recent 
species, and shows varieties as regards dimensions, there being large, intermediate, and 
pygmy forms. 

7. The Unciform shows large, small, and pygmy forms, evidently differing in breadth 
of the upper aspect, as shown by PI. XVII. figs. 9 & 12, the former being relatively 
broader. There is, besides, the pygmy unciform shown in PI. XXI. fig. 2, which is 
like PI. XVII. fig. 12. 

Allowing for individual differences in regard to age and sex, or even allowing race- 
characters, I think in the foregoing data in connexion with the carpus, there are good 
evidences of three, at all events of two, distinct forms of Elephants. The largest may 
have attained the height of about 7 feet, whilst the smallest bones indicate an Elephant 
apparently not much over 3 feet in height. Allowing, therefore, for variability to the 
fullest extent permissible with what is known of other species, the extremes here shown 
clearly point at least to two species. As regards these distinctions, it seems to me, as 
far as the carpus is concerned, that very little can be deduced from characters peculiar to 
either ; indeed this may be said more or less of the two recent species ; and although I 
have noted what appear to be discrepancies in the contour and configuration of facets, 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 79 

it must be bome in mind that in the case of the African the above characters rest on 
what a single specimen displays. Again, we must allow for disparities in specimens of 
the Asiatic, seeing that the majority of instances are obtained from individuals long 
domesticated, and therefore subjected to the constraint which would doubtless influence 
the aspect of the bone, more especially its articular facets. 

XII. Tarsus. 

Astragalus. — This bone is represented in my collections by seven specimens, belonging 
to at least five individuals. As regards dimensions, they are divisible into three distinct 
sizes — a large, a median, and a pygmy, which differ in the following particulars. 

A Series. — 1. The largest astragalus of an Elephant I have examined from Maltese 
deposits, is shown in the collection by a fragment (a) from Gaudia Fissure. It consists 
of only about 2 inches of the inner portion of a right astragalus, divided perpendicu- 
larly by probably a pickaxe. There is preserved the inner antero-posterior length of 
the tibial facet, which is 3-4 inches by callipers, and 3-8 inches by tape. 

2. Two nearly perfect specimens (right and left), the former represented in PI. XVI. 
fig. 1, were discovered by me in Mnaidra Gap, each adhering firmly to the distal extre- 
mity of the tibise PI. XV. figs. 1 & 2, to which they undoubtedly belonged. The dimen- 
sions are : — antero-posterior tibial surface 3 inches by 3-5 inches, navicular facet (by 
callipers) 3 inches broad by I'S inch; the arc (by tape) is 3-5 inches. Outer calcaneal 
facet has an antero-posterior surface of 2-2 inches, and transverse of 2-3 inches ; the 
inner is 2-5 inches by 1-1 ; the peroneal is 1-4 inches in antero-posterior by 0-8 inch. 

3. Although smaller than the two just described, and as regards dimensions might be 
classed with B series, there are two perfect specimens (right and left, evidently of the same 
individual) from Mnaidra Gap ; the left is represented in PI. XVI. fig. 2. The admea- 
surements of its facets are : — tibial 2-5 by 2-6 inches in breadth ; naviculare 2-9 inches 
broad by 1-5 inch ; arc, by tape, 3 inches ; peroneal facet 1-4 by 0-7 inch; internal cal- 
caneal, antero-posterior 1-9 by 0-9 inch transverse; external calcaneal, antero-posterior 
1-9 by 2-2 inches transverse. The interosseous pit does not, as in the recent and fossil 
species, traverse the entire breadth of the under surface, but ends in a deep cavity about 
the middle, so that the two calcaneal facets are not divided by a fossa. This character, 
moreover, is common to the three forms of astragalus from Malta. The posterior border 
is curved in all the Maltese forms, with a projecting angle at the internal extremity. 
The same obtains to a less extent in the Indian, Mammoth, and E. antiquus, but not 
apparently ia the African and B. meridionalis, the margin being almost even in them. 
Both in recent and in all other fossil species I have examined, with the exception of the 
astragali of B and C series, the tibial facet is nearly surrounded in front and internally 
by a sulcus, which in some specimens insulates the articular surfaces altogether ; in 
others the valley terminates near the uiner and posterior angle. Now, while the latter 
obtains in the above Maltese specimens, they differ from any recent or fossil I have seen 



so ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

in the circumstances that the anterior sulcus ends short of the peroneal facet, as seen in 
figs. 1 & 2, moreover it is not so broad in them, and ends abruptly instead of shal- 
lowing out towards the external extremities ; so that the undulating anterior margin of 
the tibial facet, observed in the recent species and in the next two series, is wanting in 
A series. 

As regards dimensions, the largest of these astragals do not represent an animal quite 
7 feet in height ; the admeasurements of fig. 1 almost equal the young Asiatic species 
(2677 a, Royal College of Surgeons); and the fragment A belonged to an Elephant nearly 
as large as the Sumatran in the British Museum, whilst fig. 2 was probably that of a 
younger individual of the large species. 

B Series. — The left astragalus of my collection, PL X. fig. 10 (and figured by Mr. 
Busk in his monograph '), differs considerably from any of the above. It was found in 
Benghisa Gap in conjunction with other remains here described as belonging to the 
smaller form. Although of the dimensions or thereabout of PL XVI. fig. 2, the two differ 
as follows: — 1. The tibial surface is even in fig. 2, and concave in that under notice. 
2. In fig. 10 the tibial surface is relatively broader in the antero-posterior, and shorter in 
the transverse admeasurement. 3. There is a much deeper naviculare facet, which, for 
the size of the bone, may be said to be enormous. 4. The inner and posterior tuberosity 
is projecting far beyond the posterior margin of the tibial surface. 5. The anterior 
sulcus is narrower than in the other Maltese forms, and runs out at the external 
extremity, instead of terminating abruptly short of the fibular facet. 6. The inter- 
osseous fissure almost divides the two calcaneal facets, the internal of which is not 
raised so much above the level of the others. 7. The anterior border of the tibial facet 
is undulating, as in the recent species and Mammoth. These features give quite a 
different aspect to the bone than is observed in any recent or fossil astragalus which 
has come under my notice. The greater portion of the fibular facet has been attrited ; 
otherwise the specimen is perfect and affords the following admeasurements : — 

Length of antero-posterior diameter H-1 inches, breadth 3-3 inches, height 2-1 
inches ; tibial facet 2-5 inches (antero-posterior) by 2-2 inches ; naviculare facet 3 inches 
(transversely) by 2 inches, by tape (arc) 3-7 inches ; outer calcaneal facet 1-9 by 1-3 
inch; inner calcaneal facet I'S by 1 inch^ 

C Series. — The question in regard to the astragalus I am now about to describe 
being considered that of an adult has been sufficiently answered by Mr. Busk I I may 
state in addition that the same bone, belonging to the skeleton of a young Indian. 
Elephant (2723) in the lloyal College of Surgeons, has the inner calcaneal facet nearly 

' Trans. Zool. Soc. vi. p. 270. 

" The skeleton of a young Indian Elephant in the Museum of King's College, with the two milk-molars in 
full wear and four ridges of the last milk-molar invaded— the height at the shoulder is 4 feet, the tibial facet 
of the astragalus is 2-5 inches in antero-posterior and 2-6 inches in transverse diameter. 

' Trans. Zool. Soc. vi. p. 269, and p. 270. no. 30 a i h. 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 



81 



divided by cartilage, with an enormous shallow valley extending the entire breadth 
of the lower surface, whereas the one in question is very much smaller in dimensions. 
Again the pit on the peroneal face, wanting, apparently, in all astragals of very young 
elephants, is here fully developed. The sulcus, as in the large forms, terminates in a 
deep pit near the centre ; and the external calcaneal facet shows no trace of the fcBtal 
condition. With the exception of an injury to the central portion of the tibial surface 
the bone may be said to be perfect, and is represented in Plate XVI. fig. 3, and also by 
Busk\ Like the last the anterior sulcus traverses the anterior margin of the tibial 
facet ; but it is broader and shallower, and there is a similar undulation of the margia ; 
the posterior internal angle, however, is not nearly so pronounced, and resembles that of 
A series. But in all the recent astragals I have examined this tuberosity is stouter 
than in any of the Maltese, and is not ossified in the recent specimen 2723, Eoyal College 
of Surgeons. The pygmy, however, displays the curving outline above noticed on the 
posterior border of the tibial facet. 

The saddle-back hollow on the upper surface, so patent in the last described, is not 
apparent in this, neither the proportionally large navicular facet ; so that, with the 
characters common to A series, it is more allied to them and the recent species than to B 
series. The small astragalus belonging to no. 2723, Royal College of Surgeons, compared 
with fig. 3, gives the following dimensions. 





No. 2723, 
Eoy. Coll. Surg. 


PI. XVI. fig. 3. 


Eemarks. 


Breadth 


inches. 

3-0 
2-3 

1-7 X 2-4 
2-4 X 1-3 
1-6 X 1-3 
2-0 X 0-6 
1-2 X 0-7 


inches. 
2-2 

2-0 

1-7 X 1-7 

1-9 X 1-0 

1-4 X 0-8 

l-5x(V7 

1-3 X 0-6 


In 2723 the humeras is 16-5 inches, 
whilst the tibia is 11 inches, and the 
transverse length of the astragalus is 3 
inches. The Oxford-Museum Elephant 
has a femur 22-5 inches, tibia 12 inches, 
and astragalus 2-6 ; about the same di- 
mensions are shown in the skeleton in 
King's-CoUege Museum, the three being 
about 4 feet in height. Mr. Busk com- 
putes the femur of E. falconeri at 13 
inches, which, with PL XVI. fig. 3, 
would be small ; but, as before observed, 
the femur was evidently not that of an 
old animal. 


Antero-posterior length .... 
Tibial facet 


Naviculare facet 


External calcaneal 

Internal calcaneal 

Peroneal 





Besides the immature specimen figured and described by Busk from Admiral Spratt's 
collection ^ I obtained from Mnaidra Gap another example of the same diminutive 
form. But the tibial surface only was preserved, and measured 1-3 inch in the antero- 
posterior diameter, and 1-5 inch in the transverse diameter, showing an astragalus of 
still smaller dimensions ; I am not certain of the age of the owner, however, seeing that 
the bone was imperfect. 



VOL. IX. — PAET I. 



' Trans. Zool. Soc. vi. p. 269, and p. 270. no. 30 a & h. 
' Trans. Zool. Soc. vi. p. 269, pi. 47. fig. 14. 

November, 1874. 



M 



82 MR. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

The complete state of ossification of fig. 3, as compared with very much larger astra- 
gals of recent species, shows that it was the matured bone of an elephant e\'idently not 
much over 3 feet in height. 

Calcaneuji. — There are two types or forms, in three specimens, two of which are 
precisely alike, whilst a third is slightly larger and diff'ers from them in the followmg : — 

A Type. — PI. XVI. fig. 4 represents a right calcaneum with the greater portion of 
the astragaloid and the entire cuboid and peroneal facets denuded. It is an old bone, 
however, the epiphyses being completely consolidated. As none of the articular surfaces 
are preserved, there is little to add to the admeasurements given in fig. 4. The height is 
3 inches ; total length about 4' 6 inches. The peculiarity, as distinguished from the other 
two and also the same bone in the Asiatic and Mammoth, is the broader upper surface of 
the heel, which, in this respect, assimilates to the African and E. meridionaMs ; but there 
is a Mammoth's calcaneum in the Beechey collection, British Museum, like the last. 
As to the curving or " saddle-back" of the heel, this would seem to be more decided 
in the three Maltese specimens than in any of the recent, where, however, ordinarily it is 
well developed, excepting in one massive heel-bone of E. meridionaUs, where the upper 
surface is quite straight. From an inspection of numerous recent and fossil calcaneums, I 
find the groove in the front tuberosity for the tendon of the tibialis is always pronounced 
in old bones, and scarcely developed in young heel-bones of individuals of recent species 
much larger in dimensions than any of the Maltese elephants, which is, of course, another 
indication of the specimens in question having belonged to full-grown individuals. 

As regards the dimensions of the owner of fig. 4 — although doubtless it belonged 
to an adult, and, as compared with recent species, to one of the height of that assigned 
to the rather small tibia PL XV. fig. 3, with which it was associated in Mnaidi-a Gap, 
this individual probably did not exceed 6 feet in height, consequently might stand as a 
small-sized male or ordinary female of perhaps the largest form. 

B Type. — 1. The calcaneum PI. XVI. fig. 5 (right limb), and a less perfect specimen of 
the opposite foot were both discovered in Benghisa Gap, in conjunction with other bones, 
including the lunare and cuneiform, PI. XVIII. figs. 4 & 9 ; all are doubtless referable to 
the smaller Elephant. The epiphyses are completely consolidated, and the bone uninjured, 
with the exception of the loss of a portion of the internal astragaloid facet. As just 
observed, it displays the narrow upper surface of the heel of the Indian and Mammoth 
so pointedly as to at once distinguish it from the last. Here the interosseous pit, as in 
the Maltese astragals, is broader about the middle than in, at all events, any recent bones 
I have seen. Again, the cuboidal facet is apparently more extensive in the fossil, stretch- 
ing across the bone, and is not so oval, which peculiarity agrees with the opposing 
surface of the cuboid, as will be shown presently. The saddle-shaped heel seems to 
be more decided in this instance than in the last specimen, and to as great an extent as 
in the Indian, the arc of the circle being fully 0-7 inch'. The peroneal facet is also 

' This might, like the large articular facets of the other foot-hones to be noticed in the sequel, have added to 
the activity of the animal ; a high heel would throw more weight on the anterior portion of the foot. 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 83 

less oblique than iii the recent species. With reference to the astragaloid facets, and 
particularly the inner, which is the last to become ossified in the genus, there are seem- 
ingly no differences between the adult recent and the extinct. The figure of Blainville 
showing, as Busk remarks, the inner facet in both the astragalus and calcaueum divided 
into two, in what must have been a full-grown African Elephant, seems an accidental 
irregularity, as that of 708 h, British Museum, sho\\'s no division whatever. The dimen- 
sions of fig. 5 ae ars follows : — 

Length 3-9' inches, height 2-7 inches, upper articular surface 2-6 by 3-0 inches, outer 
facet 2-4 inches by 1-3, inner facet 1-9 by 1 inch, peroneal 1-4 by 0-7, cuboidal2 by 0-8. 

2. The less perfect specimen (b) of the left foot of a somewhat larger individual is 
precisely of the same form, the only determinable difference being a proportionally 
larger fibular facet, which is 1-5 by 1-1. The line of junction of the distal epiphysis is 
here more patent than in the other. 

Navicui-ARE. — By way of comparison between old and young bones so as to enable 
me to determine the following imperfect specimens in my collection, I find, as regards 
the Indian Elephant, that, in common with the other parts of the skeleton, the 
naviculare of the adult has the facets more defined, with adventitious rugosities exter- 
nally, whereas the latter are wanting in young bones. This leads me to divide the 
Maltese naviculares into old and young, or large and small, of which there are three 
gradations and five specimens. 

The naviculare, like certain other foot-bones, is completely ossified in the Elephant 
at an early age, so that, but for such characters as the above, we might be apt to ascribe 
young bones to the small forms of Elephant ; and therefore I feel that much care is 
requisite in determining the two naviculars shown in PI. XVII. figs. 7 and 8. This is 
not the case, however, with the three larger specimens illustrative of the largest 
Maltese elephant, of which I shall now define the characters of its navicular from 
two (right and left) nearly perfect and one mutilated left specimen from Mnaidra Gap. 
The latter, however, is the largest of the three ; and its characters comply with the data 
just advanced, and indicate an individual fully 7 feet at the withers. The cup shows a 
well-defined brim, with the usual incidental rough exterior of the old bone in contradis- 
tinction to the absence of adventitious surfaces in the young and, perhaps, adolescent 
Elephants. The maximum thickness is 1 inch ; the calcaneal facet is 1 by 0-5 inch 
(precisely the same as obtains in the Sumatran, B. M.). From the abraded state of the 
bone, the other facets are not clearly defined ; but, in comparison with the astragals de- 
scribed, this naviculare might have belonged to the largest, and thus somewhat exceeded 
the next, which is represented in PI. XVII. fig. 1, being one of a pair which seemingly 
belonged to the same individual, as both were met with in very close proximity. 
Indeed, as regards relation, astragalus PI. XVI. fig. 1 and its compeer of the opposite 

' As compared with the King's-CoUege specimen referred to, these two heel-bones are considerably larger ; 
the length of the former is 3-2 inches. 

m2 



I 



84 MR. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGr OF 

side, and tibiae PI. XV. figs. 1 & 2, had every appearance of forming portions of the 
same skeleton. The two naviculars in question (right and left) agree in dimensions; 
but fig. 1 is the more perfect, and is in accord in eveiy respect with that of 2677a. 
Royal College of Surgeons. The linear dimensions of the bone in question are well 
shown in the figure. The calcaneal facet is 1-1 by 0-4 inch; whilst the arc of the cup, 
by tape, is 3-3 inches. The same admeasurement on the convex surface, which is 
considerably abraded so as to denude the facets, is 4 inches. The cuboidal facet has its 
outline preserved, giving a surface of 2 inches by 1 ; the others are not defined, con- 
sequent on abrasion. Thus, whilst the naviculars of the recent Indian (2677a, R. C. S.) 
and the above closely consort as to dimensions, the same may be said of the astragals 
referred to them ; indeed, to follow the comparison further, it may be repeated that the 
tibiae of the two diifer inasmuch as the former is 14 and the latter 17 inches in length, 
thus giving a shorter and stouter leg-bone to the fossil, just as obtains in the African in 
comparison with the Indian, more especially, however, in the dimensions of the toe- 
bones, as will appear in the sequel. 

3. The small right naviculare PI. XVII. fig. 7 has all the characters of a young bone ; 
I therefore hesitatingly refer it to the smaller form. The facets extend to the margins, 
as in the immature individual. The following are the dimensions of this specimen — 
breadth 2-6 inches, depth 1-7 (about), arc of the astragaloid facet 2, arc of anterior 
surface 2-8, thickness 0-8. The lower part of the bone being lost and a perpendicular 
fracture prevent further reliable measurements. 

4. The smallest naviculare (fig. 8) had precisely the same characters as the last, 
but is more imperfect; as far as relative comparisons go, it consorts well in dimen- 
sions with astragalus PL XVI. fig. 3 ; whilst fig. 7 is equal to that of the Oxford 
skeleton, being 2-5 inches in length, and therefore also very small, but much too large 
for astragalus PL XVI. fig. 3. 

Summary. — Taking the navicularia generally, they indicate cogently one form of the 
bone of the largest hind-foot bones I have yet described, and, doubtfully, intermediate 
and pygmy forms. 

Cuboid. — There are three specimens of this bone in my collection, two of which 
are fragments. They are divisible into large and small. 

1st. A Type.— The largest (represented in PL XVII. fig. 4) has lost its lower part, 
including nearly the entire calcaneal and fifth metatarsal facets, by accident— enough, 
however, remaining to establish its dimensions as compared with the bones just de- 
scribed. It is too large for the naviculare (fig. 1), and also exceeds the dimensions 
of the same bone of 2677 a, R. C. ,S. ; but it equals that of the Sumatran (B. M.) and 
the largest fossil naviculare. The maximum thickness of the fragment at the middle of 
the fourth metatarsal surface is 1 inch. It is the front aspect that is shown in the 
figure, the margin a being the internal or cuneiforme attachment. The naviculare facet, 
unlike that of the recent, is not isolated by a furrow, and is even only feebly indicated by 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 85 

a dividing ridge, below which is the horizontal facet for the calcaneum, the maximum 
breadth of which is 2 inches. 

2nd. A similarly mutilated, but much smaller, right cuboid from the same locality 
shows the. entire navicular and fourth metatarsal and also the internal surfaces, the 
portions containing the calcaneal and fifth metatarsal facets being lost. 

At a glance one might be disposed to place the last specimen among the young bones, 
only that the facets are pronounced ; however, if it is that of an adult, it must have 
belonged to a very small individual. Its characters are pointedly the same as noted 
in fig. 4. 

In the first place, as far as the outline is preserved, the two specimens show much the 
same configuration in contradistinction to the next specimen, from which they appear to 
differ in several particulars. For example the rounding-off"of the angles and general rough 
and irregular outline distinguish fig. 4 from fig. 5, the margins of which are far more 
prominent. Thus the two former may assimilate to the recent species ; but which in 
particular cannot, unfortunately, be ascertained, from the fragmentary condition of the 
specimens. The length of the internal side in fig. 4 is 2'4 inches ; and here, instead of 
the facets being two as usual in cuboids of recent Elephants, also in that of the next to 
be described, the entire upper half of the internal surface is occupied by the cuneiform 
articulation, with deep excavations on the lower part. The na^dcular facet is oval, 
instead of being quadrilateral as in fig. 5; its height is 1-1 inch, and the breadth 0-9. 
The fourth metatarsal surface is 1'2 by I'l inch. The latter dift'ers also from that 
of fig. 5 in its more oval outline and flat surface. 

It seems, from a comparison between the afore-mentioned skeleton of the African 
Elephant and numerous specimens of the Indian, that their cuboids diff'er consider- 
ably, whilst in the former the external is the longest side, the internal next, and the 
base the smallest. In the Indian the latter is also the smaller, but the two other 
sides are about equal. I do not know, however, how far the above would be borne 
out by an equal amount of instances of African cuboids, which, unfortunately, are not 
at present forthcoming in collections. 

B Type. — The perfect and very characteristic cuboid (fig. 5) would seem to differ in 
these respects from both recent species, presenting nearly the form of an equilateral 
triangle ; and although there are no adventitious rugosities on the sides, still the facets 
are so sharply defined on the anterior and posterior surfaces, that one can have little 
hesitation in pronouncing the bone to be that of a full-grown individual. The figure 
represents the naviculare facet below, with the calcaneal above, and its abnormality, 
to which I shall refer presently. The following are its dimensions — upper surface 
2-6 inches, internal 2'6, external 2'5, calcaneal facet (c) 2 by 1-2. The naviculare 
(to), owing to the more triangular configuvation of the bones as compared with recent 
species, is more erect than is apparently the case in them or in any fossil cuboid 
I have examined; its height is 1'6 inch, and breadth !•!. 



86 ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

I do not know how far it may be an individual peculiarity, but, as may be noticed in 
the figure (5), the calcaneal facet (c), which is perfectly horizontal in the recent and, as far 
as I have been enabled to observe, in the Mammoth, is in this particular instance divided 
into two facets (c, c) by a prominent ridge and broad fossa, which completely isolate 
the inner one from even the naviculare. Again, in cuboids of full-grown recent species 
and even in the young of the Indian, the naviculare and calcaneal surfaces are separated 
by a deep furrow, which is replaced in all the Maltese elephantine cuboids by ridges. 

The division of the calcaneal facet does not show a corresponding solution of con- 
tiguity in any of the heel-bones described. Again, the fossil displays a deeper inter- 
mediate hollow between the fourth and fifth metatarsal surfaces than is apparently the 
case in recent or the two just noticed. It is the symmetry of outline, however, of fig. 
5 as compared in some measure with fig. 4, but chiefly with all other cuboids belonging 
to living and extinct Elephants that I have examined, that gives to the specimen in 
question an apparently distinctive character. 

The anterior and posterior cuneiform facets occupy the margins instead of the entire 
upper surface, as in the two last; the former is 1 by 0-3 inch, tlie latter 0-7 by 0-2. 

Summary. — In compounding the various characters and dimensions of the above 
cuboids, as far as their conditions will allow, there seems to me no pronounced similari- 
ties in outline between any of the fossils and either recent or any extinct species. 
Whilst as regards dimensions fig. 4 might well represent an Elephant as large as the 
Sumatran in the British Museum, and fig. 5 an individual of nearly 5 feet, the other speci- 
men would not accord with the astragalus PI. XVI. fig. 3, but with an animal of rather 
smaller dimensions than the owner of PI. XVII. fig. 5, although the two latter seemingly 
differ in characters. At the same time, whilst we are bound to notice every little distinc- 
tion in such an inquiry as the one in which I am engaged, I feel that what appears to be 
a specific character may turn out to be only an individual abnormality ; and this I am 
quite prepared to accept in regard to what has been stated of fig. 5. At all events we 
may fairly conclude that the collection represents the cuboid of a large and a small form 
of Elephant. 

External Cuneiform. 

There are two examples (right and left) from Mnaidra Gap ; the na\-iculare surface 
of the former is represented in PI. XVII. fig. 2. Both refer to the largest forms, and, 
as regard dimensions, might have belonged to two individuals of nearly the same size ; 
the larger is evidently of the size of the owners of the largest astragalus, naviculare, and 
cuboid just described. 

The outline of the bone in the two recent species does not diflFer materially ; the 
usual irregularity of the lateral facets seems common to both living and extmct 
species. Thus the above and the Sumatran and an external cuneiform (36612) of a 
Mammoth in the Palaeontological Collection, B. M., have only one anterior facet for 
the second or middle cuneiform, and the lower cuboidal facet is concave in all; 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 



87 



whereas in the African (708 A) and an old foot of the Indian (2543, E. C. S.) there 
are two facets for the second cuneiform. 

1. The right cuneiform (PI. XVII. fig. 2) appertains most probably to naviculare 
fig. 1, both having been discovered side by side. Like it, the bone in question is 
scarcely equal to the same of the young Asiatic (2677 a), which is somewhat smaller 
than the other fossil cuneiform above-mentioned of the left foot from the same 
locality. 

2. The second specimen, like the last, shows all the characters of the mature bone, 
with its rough exterior and well-marked facets. The entire length and breadth are 2"8 by 
1'7 inch, thickness 0'8. As usual, the naviculare surface is concave and 2 by 1'4 inch, 
the same, or almost the same, being the dimensions of the metatarsal ; the latter, how- 
ever, does not show the exact boundaries of its articular surfaces, which Cuvier seems 
to consider diagnostic of the feet of the two living species '. 

Middle Cuneiform. 
The only representative of this bone in my collection is the perfect specimen repre- 
sented in PI. XVII. fig. 3. It shows the anterior surface of a left meso-cuneiforme 
fi-om Mnaidra Gap, where it was discovered in close proximity to the external cunei- 
forms just described, and in all probability belonged to the larger of the two. The 
apex (a) is here rounded, such as is usually observed in the young bone of the Indian 
and Mammoth, the adult (including the African) having it more or less curved. But the 

Mg. 5. 






No. 3. 



No. 2. 



Middle Cuneiform of the African (1), Asiatic (2), and Maltese (3) Elephants. 

dorsal surface rises to a point {b) internally, and is also distinct from either recent bones, 
which, again, difier more or less from one another. At all events, that of 708 /* (African, 

■ Ossem. Fossiles, tome i. pp. 497 & 572. 



88 



ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 



B. M.) is singularly shaped as compared with many Indian specimens of different ages. 
These differences are very apparent in the woodcuts. 

Again, in the fossil and Mammoth Sumatran and old Indian the anterior surface is 
concave, whereas in the A/rican (708 /;) it is rather convex. The facets for the internal 
and external cuneiforms seem to vary in extent and number in different individuals of 
recent species and in the Mammoth. 

The following are the dimensions of fig. 3 — thickness 0-8 inch, anterior facet 1'2 by 1, 
posterior I'l by I'l. 

Internal Cuneiform. 

The two left internal cuneiforms shown at PI. XIX. fig. 1, and PI. XVII. fig. 6, 
seem to differ from any recent or fossil equivalents I have examined in being relatively 
shorter and broader. Thus, whilst this bone does not appear to differ much in outline 
in the African and Asiatic, there are these disparities between them and the internal 
cuneiform of the Maltese elephants. This arises from the obliquity of the facets 
which contract the inner border, thus : — 

Fig. 6. 






No. 2. 



No. 1. No. 3. 

Internal Cuneiform of the Asiatic (1) and Maltese (2 and 3) Elephants. Nat. size. 

The greater obliquity of the navicular facet in the African as compared with the 
Asiatic is therefore a character also of the Maltese specimens, which, however, have it 
in excess ; moreover they differ from the recent in having these surfaces broader, with 
much less developed facets for the middle cuneiform. 

How far do they differ from one another \ As regards outline there may be said to be 
little, if any, point of distinction worthy of note, unless it be that PI. XVII. fig. 6 has 
a rounder and relatively narrower distal extremity {a) than that of PI. XIX. fig. 1 [a) ; 
therefore it is a more slender bone, and may have belonged to the smaller form. 

1. The specimen, fig. 6, was found in Benghisa Gap with other feet-bones referable 
to the smallest form. The total length is 1-5 inch, and greatest breadth 1-4. The 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 89 

naviculare surface is semilunar, with a narrow facet for the second cuneiform on 
its external margin; the former is 1-1 by 0-6 inch, and the latter 0-8 by 0-3. The 
distal facet is nearly circular, its height to breadth being 1 to 0-8 inch. The scar 
usually present on the external surface near the distal end for the second metatarsal 
facet is not seen in the above specimen, which I observe is also the case in certain 
instances in the Asiatic. The dimensions of the cuneiform, with the other tarsal bones 
just described, and compared with those of recent species, would indicate an Elephant 
of about the height of the Elephas melitensis of Falconer. 

2. The left cuneiform, PI. XIX. fig. 1 (from Gandia Fissure, so prolific of the 
remains of the largest form), establishes the presence of a fair-sized Elephant, and is in 
keeping with the largest foot-bones in my collection. The distribution and outline of 
its articular surfaces are very much like the preceding ; the scar for the second meta- 
tarsal is large, and situated lower down than usually observed. A portion of the upper 
and anterior margin has been broken off recently ; otherwise the specimen is entire, witli 
the exception of a fracture through the anterior border. The dimensions of the speci- 
men are as follows — entire length (about) 2 inches, greatest breadth 1-8, naviculare 
facet (about) 1-5 by 0-7, distal 1-4 by 1. 

Summary. — The tarsus furnishes the following data : — 

The astragalus indicates an Elephant nearly 7 feet in height, with two individuals 
not so high, but evidently of the same type or form. Another shows peculiarities 
distinct from the foregoing, and equal in size to the smallest of the large form ; whilst 
a pygmy form is seemingly established by the little astragalus, PI. XVI. fig. 3. The 
heel-bones display discrepancies and show two forms — one a small individual, perhaps, 
of the largest, and another (fig. 5) a full-grown individual of an intermediate form. 
The naviculare establishes a full-grown Elephant of the large form ; and, provided the 
smaller navicularia, PI. XVII. figs. 7 & 8, belong to the adult condition, we have the 
intermediate and pygmy forms also represented. In the cuboid the two larger forms 
are well displayed ; and the internal cuneiforms do so likewise, whilst the middle and 
external cuneiforms appear to belong entirely to the large form. 

XIII. Metacaepal, Metatabsal, Phalangeal, ajstd SESAiioiD Bones. 

I have carefully compared the metacarpal, metatarsal, and phalangeal bones of many 
examples of the Asiatic Elephant, including the continental and insular varieties, and 
find that there is very little difference in the outline even between young and old. 
Unfortunately there is only one example of the African Elephant's skeleton in London, 
and, as far as I know, in Great Britain ; so that the same cannot be asserted in its case ; 
however, in comparison with the former, and taking the relative ages of the two species, I 
find there are considerable differences between the bones of the feet of, for example, 708 H 
(African), B.M., and the Sumatran, B.M., or the very old bones of the articulated feet 
of the Indian (no. 2543, E. C. S.). I propose, therefore, to point out these differences, 

VOL. IX. — PART I. November, 1874. n 



90 MR. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

whatever their values may be worth, inasmuch as I find in the large assortment of foot- 
bones in my collection that several admit of being classed with the African and many 
with the Asiatic Elephant. 

Moreover there are difficulties to be encountered in deciding equivalent metacarpals 
and metatarsals as well as phalangeals of fore and hind feet of the recent species. What 
must this be when we are determining those of several fossil forms of divers dimensions, 
such as the objects now under consideration, many of which are imperfect 1 Consider- 
ing, therefore, the diversified and numerous materials in my collections, I think the 
safest and best way will be to describe the same toe of either foot in succession. 

My comparisons of an adult African with numerous examples of the fore and hind 
feet of the Asiatic show that the long bones of the latter are relatively more slender and 
symmetrical in form than in the former ; indeed, so pronounced is this, that I cannot 
subscribe to the opposite view entertained by Cuvier, who says that the fii'st, second, and 
fifth metacarpals are relatively greater in the Indian, and that the first metatarsal is 
smaller and more pointed in the African, and its second metatarsal much more slender 
in proportion ^ At least, as far as the African (708 h) compares with the Chuny and 
other Asiatic adult Elephants of the corresponding stage of growth, these bones seem to 
me relatively larger ; but much may be owing to whether or not the individual had led 
a wild or a domesticated life. 

First Metacarpal, first Metatarsal, and their phalanges. 

1 . These bones are apparently shorter in the African than in the Asiatic ; and there is 
less diff'erence in length between the first metacarpal and first metatarsal in the latter 
than between the same bones in the African, the first metatarsal being small as com- 
pared with the equivalent bone of the fore foot. 

2. In both recent species the trapezial facet of the first metacarpal is oblong, and the 
cuneiform-facet of the first metatarsal circular. 

3. The upper surface of the digital aspects of the first metacarpal and first meta- 
tarsal in the African is hollowed out, and the under surface of the same articulation is 
flat ; whereas in the Indian the former is almost convex and the latter concave. 

4. The lower aspect of the first metacarpal and metatarsal is sharp in the Asiatic, and 
flat in the African. A general remark in connexion with adult recent, as compared 
with the fossil, is, that in all skeletons and specimens of the former I have examined 
containing the second true molar in wear, the epiphyses of the toe-bones were detach- 
able, whereas in all I shall describe they are completely consolidated. In 70S /* (African) 
and the Sumatran, British Museum, and Chuny, Royal College of Surgeons, they are 
not united. 

A Type. — 1. The largest first metacai-pal, with possibly its digit, is shown in Plate 
XIX. fig. 2 & a & fig. 5. Both display the characters of the African, and, as regards 

' Ossemens Fossiles, torn. i. p. 671. 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 91 

relative dimensions, are in keeping with the largest fossil carpal bones, and about equal 
to the same parts of an Asiatic between 6 and 7 feet in height. 

B Type. — 2. A different form of bone (with its phalanx, fig. 5) is shown in Plate V. 
fig. 4 ; it is one of a pair found close together, and of the same dimensions. The oblong 
proximal facet is concave, whilst the distal is broad, expansive on the margins, and deeply 
grooved, and flat below, as in the African. The digit was doubtless well defined, and 
may be that shown in figure 5 ; it was found in the immediate vicinity. The inner side 
of the former is convex, and the outer hollow; length 1-8 inch, trapezial facet 1-2 by 
0-8 inch, digital facet 0-9 by 0-9 inch. This toe must have given a character to the 
foot, and permitted unusual pliability, just as was surmised of the saddle-backed dorsum 
of the calcaneum Plate XVI. fig. 5, referred also to the small form. That the above 
belongs to the fore foot is shown by the oval outline of the trapezial facet. 

3. The similar-shaped pygmy fore-foot bone, PI. XXI. figs. 3 & 3a, already described, 
demonstrates at all events the characters of PI. V. fig. 4, as compared with PI. XIX, 
fig. 2. Another, less perfect pygmy of the same form is seen in PI. XIX. fig. 9. 

The following I refer to the first metatarsal : — 

A Type. — I. The digit, PI. XX. figs. 1, la, and its phalanx b, fits very closely to 
the small internal cuneiform, PI. XVII. fig. 6. 

2. The still smaller specimen, PI. XX. fig. 2, and another of about the same dimen- 
sions, with circular, instead of ovoid, proximal facets, and perpendicular grooves on the 
distal aspects, are 1-2 inch in length. The height of the proximal facet is 1-1 inch, of 
the distal extremity 0-9 inch, cuneiform 0-8 by 06 inch, and digital facet 0-8 by 0-6 inch. 

Of these three, although fig. 1 is much larger than fig. 2, they do not differ in respect 
of outline ; and clearly the two belong to the metatarsi of an intermediate and a very 
small form ; the latter, however, is not by any means so diminutive as the first meta- 
carpal (PI. XXI. fig. 3), thus showing how very much variability there was in regard to 
the dimensions of the feet-bones. 

The terminal phalanges of the fii'st metacarpal differ doubtless individually to some 
extent. In the African it would appear to hold a semilunare and concave facet, which 
is irregularly hollowed out in the Asiatic ; they differ seemingly also in outline. 

The first-metatarsal phalanx of the African is shown in the accompanying woodcut 
(p. 92). A smaller but similar bone is represented on PI. XIX. fig. 8 ; and another, 
(fig. 14) has a very concave facet at a. I have placed the last with the fifth toe at 
page 105. 

This bone is rarely preserved on skeletons or in cabinets ; it is usually very small. 
In the African alluded to it is in the form of a small cone, with an oblique articular 
surface. Evidently it is subject to modifications in outline in the same species ; but the 
pointed character and smaller size, as compared with the fore foot, distinguish it. No 
doubt it is subject to considerable variability in both feet, although generally of sugar- 
loaf form. 

if2 



!)2 MR. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

Fig. 7. 




Ungual phalanx, first toe, hind foot, of the African elephant. 

Summary. — The foregoing data seem to indicate the presence of a large, intermediate, 
and very small form of Elephant, the former represented by PI. XIX. fig. 2 and PL 
XX. fig. 1, whilst the same bones in the smaller are shown by PI. V. fig. 4 and PI. XX. 
fig. 2. These distinctions seem to me fairly borne out by the articular facets for the 
trapezium and internal cuneiform, irrespective of dimensions. 

But supposing even that they belong to either foot, they all represent old bones, and 
display remarkable discrepancies as to the dimensions, more especially the first-toe bones 
PI. XX. figs. 1 & 2, and PI. XXI. fig. 3, as compared with PI. XIX. fig. 2. 

Second Metacarpal, second Metatarsal, and their phalanges. 

A comparison of the second metacarpal in the Mammoth, African, and Asiatic shows 
no appreciable differences. In old animals the upper surface is rather flat ; but in 
younger bones it is round ; the only point is, as formerly observed, that generally the 
Asiatic and Mammoth have the long bones of the feet and digits longer, more slender, 
and more symmetrical than the African. 

The second metatarsal in the latter and Mammoth has its upper surfaces rather 
more hollow and like the second metacarpus than obtains in any Asiatic I have 
examined. In all recent Elephants, and several second metatarsals of the Mammoth, 
the scar for the internal cuneiform is pronounced. There seems, moreover, as Cuvier 
points out, a decidedly larger surface for the external cuneiform in the Asiatic than in 
the African. 

The second metacarpal and second metatarsal proximal phalanges in the African are 
deeply saddle-backed at their distal extremities and relatively broader bones than those 
of the Asiatic, which have the same part even, with the obliquity of the surface out- 
wards, and a rugous scar on the inner side, where there is a hollow in the African. 
Of course the deep ginglymoid articular surface of the African produces a corresponding 
inequality on its phalanges. 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. . 93 

The only entire specimen in my collection, referable to the second metacarpal, is the 
very diminutive bone, PI. XXI. figs. 4 & 4a, described at page 76. 

The second metatarsal is represented by three entire specimens, referable to individuals 
of larger stature. There are distal extremities, however, of both metacarpals and meta- 
tarsals and entire phalanges referable to the large form, and which differ materially, 
not only in dimensions, but in the following characters : — 

1. Eevertmg to the fore foot, PI. XX. fig. 12 illustrates what I take to be the proximal 
and mid phalanges of the second toe, left fore foot of the largest form. Both bones agree 
in outline with those of the Asiatic, and represent an individual of about the assigned 
ordinary dimensions I have ascribed to the largest form. The entire length of the former 
is 1-7 inch, the proximal and distal articulating aspects being 1-5 by 1-3 inch and 1-3 by 
0-7 respectively. 

2. Two specimens of the mid phalanx, besides that m the figure, are somewhat 
smaller, and may have belonged to the same digit in the hind foot ; and, judging from 
the contours of their proximal facets, the distal aspect of the first phalanx of the hind 
foot presented the same appearance as that of the fore, and consequently followed the 
Asiatic Elephant, just as much as I shall now point out obtains in PI. XX. fig. 17, 
which represents the characters of the African. 

3. This characteristic phalanx will be seen, by fig. 17, to present a deep saddle-back 
distal articular surface, which is not the case in fig. 12. 

With reference to the former, there are four specimens, two of which differ con- 
siderably in dimensions, although otherwise they are all much alike, whilst two are 
evidently of the same skeleton. There is moreover a mid phalanx which fits exactly to 
fig. 17, and another which suits a larger specimen. These three phalanges are dis- 
tinguished from each other by the two largest having ovoid proximal facets, and there- 
fore probably belonging to the fore; whilst the two latter (right and left) are smaller 
and have circular facets, and may belong to the hind foot of the same form. The 
former is I'G inch, and the latter 1-3 inch in length. 

The distinguishing character, 1 repeat, of these first phalanges of the second toe, 
whether of the fore or hind foot, is the large, scoojied-out distal articular aspect, with a 
scar on its inner side, and a sharp protruding, ridge bounding it externally. 

As regards theii- characters in comparison with all recent and fossil species, I find the 
same bones in the fore foot of the Mammoth very similar ; and the same obtains in the 
African, 708/;. As to dimensions the young Ceylon Elephant, 707/; in the British 
Museum, with the last milk-molar in full wear, has the equivalent bones of the same 
dimensions as the last. 

4. The entire second metatarsal, PI. XX. figs. 5 & 5«, presents the following cha- 
racters. The specimen is entire, and differs from either of the recent species generally, 
but agrees with the next I shall describe, in having its shaft rounded instead of the sharp 
internal and flattened external border. The facets for the three cuneiforms are here by 



94 . ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

no means defined, as shown in fig. 5 a. The scar for the internal cuneiform is wanting, 
as not unfrequently occurs in the Asiatic species ; it is, however, present in a similar 
specimen of the right side, of slightly larger dimensions than the above. Moreover 
there is no ridge between the middle and external cuneiform-facets ; but the facet for 
the third metatarsal (b, fig. 5) is well shown on the upper and external margin, with a 
deep kregular-shaped pit, c, which intrudes on the posterior face of the bone which, 
but for the absence of any facet on its internal border, could with diflSculty be distin- 
guished from a fourth metatarsal. 

5. The perfect specimen of a left second metatarsal, PI. XX. figs. 3 & 3 a, at once 
assigns its position. The protuberant scar, b, for the internal cuneiform, and the ridge 
dividing it from that occupied by the external cuneiform, with a prominent facet for the 
third metatarsal on the external side, coupled with the diminutive dimensions of the 
bone, at once proclaim the presence of a very small form of Elephant, inasmuch as the 
epiphyses are completely consolidated. 

By way of comparison with recent species, fig. 3 and the second metatarsal of the 
Kings-College and Oxford-University Museum skeletons, are of precisely the same 
length, indicating an individual about 4 feet in height. 

Third Metacarpal, third Metatarsal, and their phalanges. 

The relative proportion of the third metacarpal in the African and Asiatic Elephants 

seems to me to be in favour of the bone being longer and more slender in the latter. 

It would appear, moreover, that the inner, outer, and lower surfaces are more flat and 

Iw tl// 0'»-'v«^ l^ss rounded in the African, its ettaetferm-facet being also much broader, and the aspect 

for the magnum not so concave. 

As regards the third metatarsal, the only seeming diff'erence is the more rounded 
internal surface of the African specimen. 

The first phalanx of the third metacarpal in the African is a stouter bone, with less 
of the compressed sides of the Asiatic; and its distal articular surface is less saddle- 
backed. And, of course, the second phalanx has a proportionally more even articular 
surface ; the proximal facet is nearly quadrilateral in the African, and almost oval in 
the Asiatic. The same characters are apparent in their equivalents of the liind foot. 

How far these distinctions will be borne out in a series of specimens of the African 
Elephant remains to be shown. 

The specimens in my collection and those from Zebbug, already described by Busk, 
represent much diversity in size ; and although it is extremely difiicult, indeed seemingly 
impossible, to assign to each then- proper position, I think, that all the following are 
referable to the third fore or hind digit. I shall arrange them in series according to 
dimensions. 

A Series. — The largest third metacarpal bones are represented by three specimens, 
differing very little in size, but more in characters. The largest (PI. XIX. fig. 10) gives 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 95 

the following dimensions — length 4*6 inches, breadth midshaft 1-8 inch, magnal facet 
1*6 inch in breadth, second-metacarpal facet 0-5 inch in breadth, fourth-metacarpal 
facet 1-2 by 0-7 inch, phalangeal facet 1"8 by 1-9 inch. The above and another speci- 
men differ from the third in having the sides of the shaft flat, whereas it is rounded in 
the latter. The upper and lower surfaces are flat, as in the African, to which they are 
further connected in having narrow shafts, broad unciform-facets, and less concave 
magnal surfaces, as compared with the Elephant of Asia. 

The relative dimensions of these specimens eqxial the same in an Asiatic Elephant 
about 6'5 feet in height. 

B Series. — Plate XIX. figs. 4 & 3 represent the inner aspects of third and fourth 
metacarpals of the right foot of doubtless the same individual, from Benghisa Gap. 
With reference to flg. 4, it not only differs considerably in size, but also apparently in 
the following characters, from the members of A series. It is less slender, the shaft 
is quadrangular, the inner side being broad and the lower flat inclining outwards. Its 
dimensions are: — length 34 inches; breadth, middle of shaft 1-6 ; height of shaft at 
middle internally 0'7 inch, ditto externally 1'2 inch; second-metacarpal facet 1'4 by 
0-5 inch, magnal ditto 1-7 by 1'2 inch, unciform ditto 1-7 by 0'5 inch, fourth-meta- 
carpal ditto 1*6 by 0'6, height of proximal extremity 1*8 inch, distal articulation 1-7 
by 1'5 inch. 

The above is considerably shorter than the same bone of 707/*, British Museum, and 
might therefore indicate an Elephant not over 4-5 feet in height. But relatively the 
facets and breadth of the shaft are not so much different, thus confirming previous data 
in regard to the long bones already noticed. 

C Series. — A specimen, unfortunately not entire, but clearly referable to the third 
toe, is shown in PI. V. fig. 3. Its facets have been injured recently, so that any data to 
be derived from them are lost. It is hollow on the dorsal aspect, like fore-foot bones 
generally. The second metatarsal, PI. XX. fig. 5, would relatively agree with the above, 
in which case it might represent the third metatarsal of the smaller form, and become 
the equivalent hind-foot bone to the type which C series represents. PI. V. fig. 3, 
moreover, as will be noted presently, agrees with PI. XX. fig. 6, which I assign to the 
fourth toe, hind foot; so that the three might fairly represent the third metacarpal 
and second and fourth metatarsals of an Elephant nearly 5 feet in height. 

D Series. — The members of this series are remarkable for their diminutive size, 
whether looked on as metacarpal or metatarsal bones. Their claims to be considered 
old bones are well established by the complete anchyloses of their epiphyses. The two 
shown in PI. XIX. figs. 6 & 7, and the very small but well-ossified patella PI. XV. 
fig. 6, were got close together in Benghisa Gap. 

From the usual characters of the toe in question, fig. 7 seems to me to represent tlie 
third metacarpal or metatarsal, whilst the broader shaft and facets place fig. 6 with the 
bones referable to the fourth toe. With reference to fig. 7, although considerably 



96 ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

eroded by decay, its length is entire and is 1*9 inch; breadth of mid shaft 1 inch; 
depth of ditto 0-6 inch ; distal articulating surface 1 by 0-9 inch, the same bone in 
the fore foot of the Oxford-University-Museum skeleton being 2'5 inches, and in the 
hind foot 2*1 inches, thus indicating an individual about 3 feet in height. 

To match this diminutive bone there is the first phalanx PI. XX. fig. 16, and almost 
difac simile represented by Busk '. The two are, indeed, so alike that, were it not for 
the one having been found in the Benghisa Gap and the other in Zebbug cave, they 
might, as regards dimensions and characters, have belonged to the same individual. In 
skeletons of recent Elephants of the stage of growth where their bones could in any 
way come up to the dimensions of those I am describing, they are so diminished by 
the shrunken cartilage of their extremities as to be scarcely true exponents of the 
original member. 

The remarkable contrast between these small foot-bones and the first, second, and 
fourth metacarpals shown in Plate XXI. figs. 4-6, and described at page 76, leads me 
to believe that the former (Plate XIX. figs. 6 & 7) might belong to the hind, and not 
the fore foot. 

I shall now describe phalangeal bones referable to the third metacarpal and third 
metatarsal bones composing A series, there being no specimens apparently assimilating 
to the members of B series. 

PI. XX. fig. 8 shows the three phalanges of the third finger as they were found in 
situ in Mnaidi-a Gap '. The dimensions of all the other numerous specimens are very 
nearly equal, although from different situations. The maximum admeasurements of the 
first phalanx, shown in PI. XX. fig. 8, which is the largest, are — length 2 inches, 
breadth (middle of shaft) 1-4, proximal articulation 1-7 by 1-2, distal articulation 1-3 
by 0-8 inch. 

Four specimens of the mid and ungual phalanges give about the same dimensions as 
are shown in the fig. 8. 

In comparison with the same bones in the Sumatran, B.M., the above greatly 
resemble them in outline : but as the metacarpal articulation of the proximal phalanx 
is almost quadrangular in the African, and almost oval in the Asiatic, there is a pro- 
nounced leaning towards the former in the fossil. Thus the Sumatran is 2-5 inches in 
length, but its proximal articular aspect is only 1-4 by 1-1. Relatively the digit was 
about the average dimensions I have assigned to that of the large form, whose height was 
about 6-5 feet at the withers. No doubt the largest form, indeed perhaps all the Maltese 
elephants, displayed, as surmised from the long bones of the limbs, a relatively greater 
bulk to height than is observed in recent species, and also in the Mammoth. 

A more slender first and second phalanx is represented in PI. XX. fig. 12, which I 
suppose may have been the corresponding bones of the hind foot of an elephant even of 

' Trans. Zool. Soc. vi. pi. 51. fig. 41. 

' Figs. 8 & 9 were found together, and probably belonged to the same individual. 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 97 

the size of the owner of the digit shown in fig. 8, the saddle-backed proximal facet and 
the contraction of the middle of the shaft being like the Asiatic ; while the less oval proxi- 
mal articular surface is like the African, as shown by the same comparison in the Sumatran, 
where this facet is 1-6 inch by 1-2 to a total length of 2, the same in the fossil being 
1'5 inch by 1 to 1-7. Here, again, the articular surfaces are relatively larger. The 
general characters, however, of this digit both in the fore and hind foot are seemingly 
more in keeping with the Asiatic than the African Elephant, provided that the specimen 
of the latter in the British Museum is typical with respect to the aspects of these bones. 
Summary. — Allowing a broad margin for individual differences in dimensions in the 
Maltese elephants, I think it must be apparent that the owners of the foot-bones just 
described could not well have belonged to the same species ; for even allowing A and B 
series to represent large and small individuals, neither can be permitted to claim the 
members of C series, which differed in size as much from A series as did the Hip])opotanms 
major and H. pentlandi from the existent H. liheriensis and extinct H. minuttis '. 

Fourth Metacarjial, fourth Metatarsal, and their phalanges. 

The unciform-facet seems to be generally convex in young and adolescent stages of 
the fourth metacarpal, and becomes almost flat in the aged. This is observable not 
only in the recent species, but seems to be the case also in the Mammoth and the fourth 
metacarpal referable to H. antiquus. The fourth metatarsal seems to be relatively 
larger in the African ; its tarsal articulating surface is more triangular, with more even 
sides, whilst the cuboidal facet is less concave than in the Asiatic. The distal articu- 
lating surfaces and contours of the shafts do not vary much. The Sumatran or insular 
variety would appear generally to differ from the continental, and also the African, in 
having all its articular surfaces more hollowed out and prominently defined. No bones 
in my collection differ more in dimensions than those referable to the fourth fore and 
hind toes. 

I shall divide them into what I may call types, in the order of their size and characters. 

A Type. — 1. The largest, an imperfect left metacarpal, has its distal extremity much 
abraded, with the greater part wanting, but preserves the following : — entire length 
4"4 inches (about), some abrasion at distal extremity ; breadth (midshaft) 1'8, height of 
proximal end 2, unciform-facet 2 by 1'8, facet for third I'S by '6, facet for fifth 1'3 by 'S. 
The unciform-facet is slightly convex. 

2. A rather smaller but more perfect specimen of the right side, in relative proportions 
equivalent to the third metacarpal (PI. XIX. fig. 10), is shown in no. 1, woodcut fig. 8. 
Its dimensions are as follows — length 4 inches, breadth (middle of shaft) 1-8, depth of 
ditto 1-2, anterior articular surface 2 by 2 inches, posterior articular surface (unciform) 

' This diminutive Riverhorse seems to have been contemporary in Malta with the H.pentlandi and the fossil 
Elephants. See ' Pal. Mem.' vol. ii. p. 307, and my vrork on Malta, p. 214. Thus there were pygmy and large 
Elephants and Hippopotami on the area at the same time. 

TOL. IX. — PART I. November, 1874. o 



98 



ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 



1"8 in breadth, breadth of third metacarpal facet 0'7. This bone is as long as that of 
707 h B.M., but is very much broader in every way. 

Kg, 8. 





No. 2. 



Fourth metacarpals of Maltese elephants. 



B Type. — What is evidently a left fourth metacarpal is shown in woodcut no. 2. Al- 
though nearly the same length as no. 1, it is a much more slender bone, and has its shaft 
far more rounded. Thus, whilst the former partakes of the characters of the African, the 
latter is more in keeping with the Asiatic species, especially the insular variety in the 
British Museum, seeing that the articular surfaces are well defined, the distal being 
even concave. It may just, however, represent a youthful bone of the same elephant as 
described in A series, though the epiphyses are completely consolidated. Its dimen- 
sions are — length 3-6 inches, breadth of middle of shaft 1-4, greatest depth of mid- 
shaft 1-2, anterior articular facet 1-8 by 1-5. The proximal facet is too much injured 
for description. The claims of this specimen to the position assigned to it seem to me 
good ; but to whatever bone of the fore or hind foot it may belong, there can be less 
doubt but it is very different from the members of A type ; and, as I shall now point 
nut, it is still more distinct from those of C type, which differ little from it in length, 
but very much in breadth. 

C Trjpe. — The fourth metacarpal and the third metacarpal, PI. XIX. figs. 3 and 4, 
belong to the same foot. They were found side by side, and evidently owed their perfect 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 99 

states of preservation to having been surrounded in a stalagmitic red soil, whilst the 
other members of the same foot decayed away in the looser material around them. The 
above fig. 3 is altogether a much stouter bone than D type, and in outline resembles the 
members of A type. Its proximal facet is like that of the African, Avith even sides. The 
unciform-surface is flat, sloping outwards. Length 3-1 inches, breadth of midshaft 1-7, 
depth internally 1-1, depth of posterior articular surface 2, unciform-facet 1-8 by 1-6, 
third-metacarpal facet 1-5 by -6, fifth-metacarpal facet 1-2 by -5, anterior articular sur- 
face 1-7 by 1-7. 

It is evident that the owner of figs. 3 and 4 must have possessed a short and 
broad foot. 

The same element of the hind foot is still more various, and not only as regards size, 
but in characters even of specimens that do not differ in Other particulars. At all 
events there are seemingly remarkable diversities m these respects in connexion with the 
middle toes ; but probably a large series of recent specimens would show like individual 
discrepancies. Thus in one out of four specimens of the fourth metatarsal, all of which, 
as regards size, are about equal, I find the cuboidal facet, instead of being concave 
laterally as in the Asiatic, is convex towards its outer side for a deeper depression in the 
opposing surface ; so that we have the characters, as it were, of the two recent animals 
in the large form. Of course, did these bones show evidences of youth, the diagnosis 
would be of no value ; but, like all the others I am describing, they are the remains of 
full-grown and aged individuals. 

A Type. — The perfect right fourth metatarsal shown in PI. XX. fig. 4 is the one just 
referred to. What has been stated as regards the outline of the proximal articulating 
surface in the recent animals is, as far as the African species, well represented in this 
specimen, only that the dorsal surface is not so rounded. The dimensions of three of the 
specimens are the same ; two from Mnaidra Gap belong to the right, whUst the other 
from Gandia Fissure is of the left hind foot. The following are the dimensions 
of PI. XX. fig 4: — length 3-1 inches; breadth, middle of shaft, 1-6 ; depth internally 
at middle of shaft 1 ; depth of posterior articular aspect 2 inches ; cuboidal surface 1'6 
(depth) by 1-9 ; third metatarsal facet -9 by -6 ; fifth metatarsal facet 1-1 by -5 ; ante- 
rior articular surface 1'7 by 1-7. There are, moreover, ii-respective of what has just 
been pointed out in connexion with the cuboidal aspect, differences in the contours of 
these three bones which make me almost doubt the value of the diagnosis I have noted 
between the African and Asiatic ; nevertheless, in attempting to correlate the characters 
of these diversified elephantine bones, it seems requisite that all individual distinctions 
should be noted. Referring to the forms of the specimens in question, whilst fig. 4 
resembles what I have pointed out as characters of the African, we find a second 
specimen, more slender, with a concave cuboidal facet and much of the outline of the 
Asiatic, and a third with a more concave tarsal aspect and still more concave outer 
and inner sides ; at the same time it would be impossible to assign to either the cha- 

o2 



100 ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

racter of the immature bone. Taken in comparison with the Asiatic, they represent 
an animal of the usual proportions of the largest form, being of the dimensions of 
the same bone in the Netley skeleton, and nearly equal, if not equal, to that in the 
Museum of Guy's Hospital, and 2677a Eoy. Coll. Surg. 

B Tyjie. — An old bone considerably smaller than the fourth metacarpal, C type, with 
a convexity of its dorsal aspect almost like a deformity, is nearly entire, with the loss only 
by decay of portions of the third- and fifth-metatarsal facets. In outline it is like the 
African ; ?'. e. the outer and inner sides of the shaft are even and want the central expan- 
sions so apparent in those just described ; the cuboidal facet on the dorsal margin is 
also like the African. The length of the bone is 2-7 inches; breadth, midshaft, 1-5 ; 
depth, midshaft, internally '7; depth of posterior articular aspect 1-5 ; cuboidal facet 
I'D by 1'3. The articulating surface for the first phalanx is 1'5 by 1-4. 

This intermediate-sized fourth metatarsal indicates an animal of the dimensions 
assignable to the slender-formed fourth metacarpal of B type. 

C Tyiie. — I have before surmised that PI. V. fig. 3 and PI. XX. fig. 5 may repre- 
sent the second and third metatarsals of the same type ; indeed it might be of the same 
individual. I have also referred to PI. XX. fig. 6 as being probably the fourth meta- 
tarsal'. This specimen has a recent oblique fracture across the head and some abrasions 
of the posterior lateral facets ; but otherwise it is entire, and furnishes these measure- 
ments — length 2'3 inches, breadth (midshaft) I'l, depth internally -8, depth of posterior 
articular surface 1'4, cuneiform-facet 1"2 by 1, anterior articulating surface 1'3 by I'l. 
This bone has much of the general configuration of a fourth metacarpal, and is precisely 
of the same length as the fourth metacarpal of the skeleton in the Oxford University. 
It is very doubtful, therefore, whether or not PI. XX. fig. 6 and the two others are fore- 
or hind-foot bones ; and this will be more cogently indicated when they are compared 
with the very diminutive fore-foot bone- PI. XXI. fig. 5, and its associates so frequently 
referred to in connexion with the preceding, and which, in point of type, might be classed 
with the following. 

D Tyjie. — I now come to consider a very diminutive fourth metatarsal ; it is the same 
referred to in connexion with its third toe (PI. XIX. fig. 7) ; it is shown in fig. 6 of 
the same Plate. The lower portion of the anterior articulation is lost through erosion ; 
and for the same cause there is a loss of the upper portion of the proximal end; but the 
entire length is preserved. The latter is 1-9 inch, breadth (midshaft) -9, depth inter- 
nally -7, posterior articulating surface 1, third-metatarsal facet -8 by -4; phalangeal 
articulation is 1 in. in breadth. • In the Oxford-University skeleton referred to in 
connexion with the third metatarsal of the above I find that the fourth bone in the fore 
foot is 2-5 inches, and in the hind 2-1, thus displaying the same disparities as regards 
relative lengths^. 

' Page 95. ' Page 76. 

. ' It must be understood that the mean length only is taken, as the articular surfaces, from their un- 
developed states in the young of this age, make it impossible to ascertain correct dimensions. 



THE MALTESE POSSLt ELEPHANTS. 101 

As to the characters of the above, its even sides and rounded and slender shaft seem 
to place it intermediate between what may be the characters of the two recent animals ; 
it has, however, no decided affinities to any of the fossils described. A comparison 
between this and a fourth metatarsal of Elephas falconeri described by Busk' shows 
almost exactly the same proportions ; indeed, for any differences worth noticing, they 
may have belonged to the same individual. 

The phalanges referable to the fourth fore- and hind-foot toes, more especially the 
proximal phalanx (like that of the others), are generally easily recognized ; but, with 
the vei-y extensive materials and the wide disparities we have seen to exist between the 
specimens of the preceding toes, I find it difficult to place the small specimens in their 
proper places. The following classification must therefore be subject to criticism. 

I have included within brackets the figures 8 and 9 in PI. XX., for the reason that 
they are represented in precisely the same state in which they were found ; I believe 
they represent the entire series of phalanges of the third and fourth fore foot of the 
same individual. 

A Series. — As regards the dimensions of the opposing surfaces of the fourth metacarpal, 
phalanx a of fig. 9 fits to that of woodcut no. 1, fig. 8 ; so that with the third metacarpal 
PI. XIX. fig. 10, which also fits to PI. XX. fig. 8, we should have the entire third and 
fourth digits of the fore foot. Eeverting to fig. 9 and a its first phalanx, in addition to the 
data furnished by the figure, its proximal articulation is 1-9 inch by 1-3 in height, and 
the distal 1*6 by 1. There are several other specimens in the collection slightly 
larger and very little smaller ; but all agree in outline, and are referable to the 
largest form. 

B Series.— A smaller form of first phalanx than the preceding is shown in PI. XX. fig. 
13. It has the general features of a fourth metacarpal phalanx, and is of the following 
dimensions : — length 17 inch, breadth midshaft 1-2 ; the posterior surface is oval and 
1'7 by I'l. The facet for the second phalanx is hollowed out in some degree, wich the 
usual projection of its internal angle ; it is -8 by 1"3 inch. The specimen is as long as 
the same bone in the young Elephant 707 A in the British Museum, which stood about 
5 feet in height. 

C Series. — PI. XX. fig. 15 represents the first and second phalanges of a fourth digit, 
possibly of the fore foot, of a still smaller elephant. The facets of the former are — 
anterior -7 inch by 1, posterior 1-3 by 1. It must, however, be left an open question 
whether or not B and C series belong to the fore or hind foot, which of com'se differ 
much in relative dimensions, and often very little in characters. 

Fifth Metacarpal, Fifth Metatarsal, and their Phalanges. 
The internal and external aspects of the fifth metacarpal are more compressed in the 
Asiatic than seemingly obtains in the African Elephant ; hence it is narrower. Like 

' Trans. Zool. Soc. vi. p. 271, pi. 51. figs. 40, 40 a, and 40 b. 



102 



MR. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OP 



all external hones and exposed surfaces, there are rugosities amounting to exostosis in 
very old specimens, which, without the ossification of epiphyses, pretty well indicate 
age. It would seem, moreover, that the upper surface of the fifth metatarsal in the 
African is broad and expansive, whilst it is narrow and rounded in the Asiatic. The 
cuboidal facet, as far as 708/« B.M. is a representative of the African, shows an oval out- 
line, the same being generally circular in the Asiatic. The latter peculiarities are also 
apparent on the proximal facets of the first metacarpal and metatarsal phalanges of the 
fifth toe. The first phalanx of the fifth metacarpal digit is longer and more compressed 
at midshaft in the Asiatic and Mammoth than in the African, with a well-marked 
saddle-back facet, and contraction of the sides of the shaft, the latter being even in the 
African. There is a diminutive articular surface on the inner aspect of the distal extre- 
mity in the former, whereas the latter shows a more expansive articulation which may 
have furnished a small terminal phalanx. These differences obtain more or less in the 
equivalent bone of the hind foot. However, whilst the two bones in the African are 
nearly of the same length, there is a considerable difference in this respect in the Asiatic, 
the metatarsal phalanx being conspicuously smaller than that of the fore foot ; but I 
find there is no persistent distinction, some being relatively smaller than others ; and, it 
may be, the same obtains in the African. The comparison, however, in the outlines of 
the first phalanx of the fore and hind foot in the African shows the latter bone assimi- 
lating to the constricted sides of the Asiatic in contradistinction to the same bone in the 
anterior extremity. Several of these points appear in the outlines, which are of the 
natural size. Thus no. 1 (fig. 9) is the first phalanx, fifth fore toe, and no. 2 is the 
first phalanx, fifth hind toe, of the Asiatic Elephant, whilst no. 3 is the first phalanx, 
fifth fore toe, of the African, the equivalent bone of the hind foot being like no. 2 of 
the Asiatic. The no. 4 is the first phalanx, fifth fore toe, of the Maltese large form. 

Fig. 9. 





Ko. 1. 



No. 2 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 



103 





No. 3. 



No. 4. 



The fifth metacarpal is represented by five specimens, nearly all of which are per- 
fect, excepting a few abrasions. They well support the other bones belonging to the 
large and intermediate and pygmy forms, not only in dimensions, but also in general 
characters. 

A Tyfe. — There are two fifth right metacarpals, of which PI. XIX. fig. 11 is the 
more perfect ; they dififer in scarcely a line as regards relative admeasurements, and are 
so much like each other in characters that they must have belonged to individuals of 
the same size exactly. 

The length of fig. 11 is 4-3 inches, breadth at middle of shaft 2-1, thickness at mid- 
shaft 1-4, fourth metacarpal facet 1-6 by 0-5, unciform-facet 2 by 1-5, distal articular 
surface 2-6 by 2-2, surface for the first phalanx (fig. 11) a to 5 = 1-6 by 1-4. 

The flat upper and outer surface and absence of the compressed sides of the Asiatic 
give quite the characters of the African Elephant to these two specimens, whilst the 
rugosities on their exposed sides and complete anchylosis of epiphyses proclaim them to 
be bones of aged animals. These two specimens equal in dimensions the same bone 
in 2677 a Roy. Coll. Surg., also in the skeletons in Guy's and Royal- Victoria Hospital 
Museums. The Sumatran is longer, being 5 inches ; but its articular facets are quite as 
large, showing that the fossil was altogether a relatively shorter and broader bone, as 
obtains in the African. 

B Tijfe. — The two next might also have belonged to individuals of nearly the same 
dimensions. They are from left feet ; and the more perfect is shown in PI. XIX. fig. 12. 
The differences between them and the two just described are that they are not quite so 
broad in proportion, with sides more compressed, and the shaft rounded instead of the 
determined flattening on the dorsal and plantar aspects. The unciform-surface is more 
concave, and the distance between the fourth-metacarpal facet and distal articulation 



104 ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOaY OF 

(a h) is relatively larger, the intermediate concavity being more shallow, in fig. 12 than 
in fig. 11. 

The external part of the unciform-facet has been recently broken ofi" in fig. 12 ; but 
it is preserved in the other specimen, and shows a less pointed extremity than in fig. 11, 
which is rather more prominent than displayed in the drawing ; both, however, have 
been slightly abraded, so that here the distinctions may not have been so great as the 
specimens now indicate. 

The dimensions of fig. 12 and its sister specimen are: — length 3*2 (3-1); breadth, 
middle of shaft, 1'9 (1"8); thickness at midshaft 1*4 (1'3); fourth metacarpal facet 1'3 
by '4 (I'l by '3); unciform surface 1'6 by 1'4 (1'5 by 1'4); distal articular surfaces 
1-6 by 1-4 (lost in the other); facet for first phalanx 1-1 by 1 inch (lost in the other). 

These bones are smoother on their upper and outer aspects, and have less the charac- 
ters of the old bone than the two just described; still their epiphyses are completely 
consolidated. 

A most diminutive fifth metacarpal, at the same time (like the other bones of the 
same foot) with every indication of consolidation of its epiphyses, is shown in PI. XXI. 
fig. 6. It is described with them at p. 77. 

A Type. — The fifth metatarsal PI. XX. fig. 7 is the sole representative of this bone 
in my collections. In all the characters which appear to distinguish the African from 
the Asiatic, the specimen in question is decidedly akin to the former, and is even more 
divergent, being as broad as it is long; moreover the navicular aspect has also the 
outline of the African. In relative dimensions it equals those of the recent Asiatic Ele- 
phants with which the fifth metacarpal has just been compared, and even the Sumatran 
fifth metatarsal in B.M., which is 2 inches in length, with a proximal articulation of 
1'6 by 1-2, and a distal of 1-9 by 1'7. 

The following are the dimensions of fig. 7 — length 2 inches, breadth (midshaft) 1-7, 
thickness (ditto) 1-3, naviculare facet 1'3 by 1-1, distal articular surfaces 1*7 by 1'5, 
surface for first phalanx 1'3 by I'o (about). The rugosities on the upper and external 
sides are pronounced. Here we see another convincing proof of the great breadth 
or the bones to the length as compared with recent species. 

The phalanges are divisible into the following : — 

A Type. — PI. XX. fig. 10 is unquestionably the first phalanx of the fifth metacarpal 
left foot. A portion of the internal and lower surface of the distal articulation has been 
recently removed ; but enough is preserved to show that the bone was more conical than 
in either of the recent species ; and whilst it widely difi"ers from the Asiatic, as shown 
in the woodcut no. 1, fig. 9, it is unlike the African in being shorter and stumpier, 
although they agree in the absence of the mid contraction of the shaft so apparent in 
the former and in the proximal phalanx of the fifth metatarsal of the two recent species. 
It is evident that the second phalanx must have been diminutive, from the small arti- 
cular surface, which, as before observed, is also minute in the Asiatic; but, as few 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 105 

skeletons possess this bone, and from a comparison of the distal articulations of various 
fifth metacarpals and fifth metatarsals of the Asiatic, I am inclined towards the belief 
that there are considerable differences in its outline in individuals. I think, however, 
as far as the distal articulations of the bones just described extend, that they show 
relatively more extensive surfaces than in the recent, just as I have observed in the first 
phalanges of the first and second toes, thus perhaps adding to the pliability of the foot 
and to the activity of the animal ! The proximal facet of PI. XX. fig. 10 is almost 
circular ; and, only that it is of the opposite side, it fits exactly to the opposing surface 
of the fifth metacarpal PI. XIX. fig. 11, being 1-6 inch broad by 1-4 in height. The 
distal articulation has unfortunately been recently injured, and only a small portion 
of its very convex facet is preserved, for which a proportionate concave surface would 
be required. This might be supplied by PI. XIX. fig. 14, which, if not the terminal 
phalanx of the outer, must be that of an inner toe ; and as regards the latter, it is 
scarcely applicable, inasmuch as the forms of the Opposing surfaces are concave in one, 
and, although convex in the large form, there is no provision for the projecting lower 
border a, fig. 14, which is accommodated on the lower aspect of the distal articular 
surface of PI. XX. fig. 10. I am therefore inclined to consider this bone a second or 
ungual phalanx of the fifth fore toe of the large form. Its plantar length is 1-4 inch 
from a to the point, but only 0-8 on the dorsal line. The proximal facet is oblique to 
follow the internal curve of the tips of the fifth toe. There is a scar on the under 
surface at the tip. The specimen is referred to at p. 91. 

B Type. — The next proximal phalanx of the fifth digit I shall describe differs much 
from that of PI. XX. fig. 10. Its outline is shown in woodcut fig. 9, no. 4 (p. 103), so 
as to contrast with the others and display its affinities to the Asiatic. Here we have a 
decided leaning towards the latter ; and if the characters shown are borne out by a series 
of equivalent bones of the two recent, there can be no question in regard to the Asiatic 
alliance. The one under consideration is slender and concave on its internal border 
and subconvex externally, with a slight saddle-backed distal articulation and projection 
inwards of the internal angle. The proximal facet is oval, with the large end directed 
inwai'ds, and is slightly concave, more especially towards its inner surface. The length 
of the phalanx is 1"6 inch, breadth at middle of shaft 1*3, proximal facet 1-4 by 1-5 in 
depth. There is the same inconspicuous facet for the ungual phalanx as in the 
Asiatic. 

C Type. — In support of the very diminutive elephantine bones before referred to, 
there is the remarkably small phalanx PL XX. fig. 14. I am doubtful, however, 
whether to consider it as belonging to the second or fifth toe; but no matter to which* 
it takes its place with the smallest bones. 

In the youngest skeleton of the recent species I have had an opportunity of in- 
specting (I refer to that in the Oxford-University Museum'), the first phalanx of the 

' The comparisons I have been fortunate enough to obtain from this suggestive example of a very young Asiatic 

VOL. IX. — PAKT I. November, 1874. p - 



106 MR. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

second toe is 1 inch in the fore and 0'8 in length in the hind foot ; whereas the first of 
the fifth is -7 in the fore and -6 in length in the hind foot ; whilst fig. 14 is -7, with a 
breadth at midshaft of -8. 

The proximal facet in fig. 14 is oval, its broadest end being directed outwards, where 
the concavity is pronounced. There is space for an ungual phalanx, the distal arti- 
culating surface being '4 inch by -7 in breadth. The following phalanges seem 
referable to the fifth toe hind foot : — 

A Ty]^e. — There are several specimens of the form represented in PI. XIX. figs. 13 & 
15, differing a good deal in dimensions. All agree, however, in general characters, and 
are clearly referable to the external digit. Their proximal facets are slightly concave 
in the largest specimen and almost flat in the two smaller; it is circular in all, and 
there is a fossa or pit on the lower aspect of the distal facet, seen at a (fig. 13). The 
outer side is thick and protuberant. The specimens differ considerably in size, the 
largest being nearly half as large again as fig. 13, but precisely of the same type. The 
latter fits nearly to the articulating surface of PI. XX. fig. 7. I think, therefore, as 
far as relative dimensions extend, that PI. XIX. fig. 15 might fairly represent the first 
phalanx of the above metatarsal ; at all events the claims of A type to this position in 
the fore or hind foot seem to me conclusive from the distinctive slope and external 
flattening so characteristic of the phalanges of the outer toe. 

B Type. — The most pygmy of all the outer-toe phalanges is shown in PI. XX. fig. 11, 
which was found along with the diminutive metatarsals (PI. XIX. figs. 6 & 7), and, in 
proportion to these, might fairly represent the first phalanx of their fifth metatarsal. 
The same characters are observed in it as in the members of A type, only that, being 
so diminutive, I have considered it best to separate it from them. 

Summary. — Comparing these phalanges with the recent species, it is at once apparent 
that they are like neither ; nor, as far as the fore foot is concerned, have they any 
resemblance to the Mammoth, being so very broad to the length, a character very 
general with all the Maltese proboscidean bones, whether large or small. 

Sesamoid Bones. 

It would appear, in aged individuals, that the sesamoid bones, especially on the 
fourth and fifth manual digits, instead of being in pairs become united. This, however, 
is not seemingly an invariable rule, and no instance occurs of this condition in my large 
collection of these bones. As far as it is possible to distinguish the sesamoid bones in 
the fore and hind feet, and in the different forms of Maltese elephants, I find among 
the examples (30) considerable differences in size, from which it may be supposed that 
they belong to the foot-bones just described, with which they were more or less associated. 

As compared with sesamoids of recent species, all represent adult animals, being com- 



F.lephant have been furnished to me by Mr. Robinson, the Articulator of the Museum, to whom I am iilso under 
obligations for the care and trouble he bestowed in' obtaining them for me. 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 107 

pletely ossified, with bold and determined facets and rugosities of old bones'. PI. XX. 
figs. 18-22 and PI. XXI. fig. 7 represent what may be considered as belonging to the 
large, intermediate, and pygmy elephantine foot-bones, with which they agree in the 
size and configuration of their articular surfaces. 

Summary. — A survey of the long bones of the feet furnishes data even more con- 
vincing than those of the tarsus and carpus. The first toe of a large, an intermediate, 
and a dwarf Elephant is well represented, the gradations being not altogether in size, but 
also in characters, which seem to stamp a distinctness between the two larger forms 
at all events, whilst the smallest and intermediate appear to resemble each other. The 
second toe of the largest form is proven by numerous examples showing much the 
characters of the Asiatic, whilst a smaller and distinct type is African in aspect, as 
demonstrated by a comparison of PI. XX. figs. 12 & 17. We have seen much individual 
variability in each of the larger forms ; and now, by comparing the second metatarsal 
(PI. XX. fig. 3) with the second metacarpal (PI. XXI. fig. 4), it will be seen, according 
to data furnished by recent individuals, that full-grown individuals of the pygmy form 
ranged from 2 feet up to the minimum dimensions of the intermediate form, which, 
again, attained the dimensions of the large form, which in no instance, as far as my 
collection extends, exceeded 7 feet in height. The third toe repeats the conditions just 
stated ; and the fourth comprises a complete series of nearly all dimensions, from the 
smallest to the largest ; whilst the fifth shows the three gradations very pointedly, the 
two extremes being more or less alike in character, and assimilating to the African, 
whilst the intermediate would seem to lean towards the Asiatic ; but there are so many 
perplexing discrepancies that I feel quite unable to reconcile the characters of the digital 
elements of the Maltese and recent species whilst remains of other extinct species are 
too few and they are generally undetermined. 

XIV. Recapitulation. 

I shall now in conclusion briefly recapitulate the leading facts, and the inferences 
I have been enabled to draw from them. 

In the first place, it is clear that all the species of Maltese fossil Elephants lived 
together; for, although certain localities produced more remains of one species than 
another, all were more or less mingled and in close proximity, and showed by their 
aspects and the geological conditions around them, that they had for the most part 
been swept into the hollows and rock-rents through turbulent agency of water. These 
facts have been clearly proved in my work referring to my explorations in the Maltese 
ossiferous deposits'. Along with the Elephant-bones indications were found of the 
presence of Carnivora, only, however, by a single tooth and marks of fierce gnawing on 

' The seeamoid bones are seemingly not ossified completely until the true molars are in vrear. In 707/;, 
B.M. (frequently referred to here), with its last milk-molar in full wear, they are mere centres of ossification 
in shapeless masses of cartilage. ^ Oj). cit. p. 161. 

p2 



108 MR. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OP 

the Elephants' bones '. The presence of two forms of Hippotamus — one of rather small 
dimensions {H. pentlandi), and teeth of a dwarf form {H. minutus, Cuvier) ^ — is shown 
by the finding of bones and teeth in exactly the same deposit in which the Elephants' 
remains were discovered. Of other animals there were the gigantic Myoxi, besides large 
birds, Chelonians of various dimensions, and a Lacerta, with recent land-shells, several 
of which seem identical with species now living in Malta ^. 

1. Turning to the anatomical characters presented by the collections generally, and 
my own in particular, the following data in connexion with the Cranium of the 
Maltese fossil Elephants are here recorded: — Although we have no evidence in regard 
to the configuration of the calvarium in any of the forms, there are a few suggestive 
points with reference to the lower jaw. From numerous instances, it appears that the 
lower border of the ramus presents the outline of the African Elephant ; but the more 
erect diasteme and absence of a prolonged rostrum show characters in common with 
the Asiatic^. The symphysial gutter, wherever observed, seems to have been open and 
shallow ; and the dental foramen, at all events in one of the smaller forms, opened just 
under the condyle, as obtains in the Asiatic species and mammoth. One ramus displaying 
a molar, to all appearances the last of the series, has its relative dimensions equivalent to 
those of the young of recent Elephants ^, and of an individual nearly 5 feet in height, 
and equal to that estimated by Dr. Falconer and Mr. Busk as the stature of the 
Elephas inelitensis. 

The more diminutive ramus ", and its teeth, which I have doubtfully referred to the 
last of the series, might indicate a still smaller form than the above ; but the materials 
are imperfect, and the equivalent Zebbug teeth ' point to a larger individual, which 
fully equalled the Elephas melitensis ; so that, as far as the smaller forms are con- 
cerned, there is no cogent cranial evidences of more than one species. As regards a 
large form, there is abundant proof; but there are no perfect cranial bones, excepting 
the symphysis described by Busk ^ and a fragment of the middle of a lower maxilla in 
my collection, both of which clearly show the presence of an Elephant nearly of 
ordinary dimensions, the former proving that it had a truncated chin. 

2. The Dental materials are very various and complicated ; and as regards the classi- 
fication I have adopted, it is possible that several of the intermediate molars may permit 
of different positions than I have assigned to them. 

As regards the incisors, the collections indicate a milk-incisor of the size of that of 
the foetal African Elephant, with its enamel shell, and a much smaller but similarly 
constituted tooth, which differs also somewhat in shape from the other ; both however, 
for the reason just stated, preserve the character of the African'. 

' Palseont. Mem. ii. pp. 301 & 305. '' Author's work on Malta, p. 206. 

■ Ibidem, p. 307, & Trans. Zool. Soo. vol. vi. p. 307. * PI. VI. fig. 2. 

' PI. VI. figs. 1, la. ' PI. IX. fig. 1. ' Trans. Zool. Soc. vi. pi. 53. figs. 11, 12, 13. 

' Ibid. vi. pi. 44. fig. 1. • PI. I. figs. 1, 2. 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 109 

The permanent tusks represent the contour of the recent species ; and evidently they 
were present in both sexes. The usual sculpturiags of the ivory are very pronounced ; 
the specimens moreover indicate the presence of an Elephant somewhat under the 
ordinary size, with much variety, down even to what must have been a very small form 
or species '. This is proven clearly by specimens that cannot be considered tusks of 
young elephants. 

There are indications in one upper jaw of the first and second milk-teeth ^ besides the 
third, which is in use, and the last or fourth in germ behind it \ At all events the 
second milk-tooth in one or more of the Maltese elephants differed from that of any 
known species, in having one erect instead of two, divergent fangs \ The specimens 
contained in my collection, and in that of Admiral Spratt, do not differ individually in 
any remarkable extent as regards size ; and, apparently, all held the same number of 
ridges, although in one instance of an upper molar there are distmctly only four instead 
of five ^ All, as compared with other species, are very diminutive, and clearly point 
to their owners having been small elephants. 

The molars I have referred to the third or penultimate mUk-stage can be arranged 
in a very gradual progression as to dimensions, i. e. from a very small tooth to one nearly 
equal to an unusually small-sized third milk-molar of the African Elephant ^ The 
smaller molars hold five plates and two talons ; whilst the intermediate and the largest 
have six plates and two talons. The talons, however, are very feebly indicated on 
certain specimens of the intermediate teeth ', so as to make it not easy to say whether 
these molars should be included with the smallest or largest. 

The crown-patterns differ very little in teeth in the same stages of wear ; and there 
is very little of importance in regard to the crown constituents of a specific character, 
excepting that the largest molars are readily distinguished by the relative thickness of 
their plates and rugosities of the digitations, especially on the posterior ridges '. 

It appears, therefore, that the evidences deducible from the penultimate milk-molars 
indicate the presence of two forms differing very much in size, and to a smaller extent 
in one or two characters ; and their ridge-formulee are not the same. 

The data I have brought together, with reference to the last milk- and first true molar, 
I freely admit may be subject to different inferences than those here drawn. In all 
species of the genus there are great difficulties under this head — and on the present 
occasion in particular, where there are evidently two or more forms of Elephant to be 
worked out ; indeed I find it almost impossible to reconcile all the varieties of molars 

' PI. XI. figs. 11-20, and Trans. Zool. Soc. vi. pi. 52. figs. 46 & 48. 

" I allude to the pre and ante penultimate milk-molars. ' PI. II. fig. 1. 

. ' PI. I. fig. 6, and Trans. Zool. Soc. vi. pi. 53. fig. 2. ' PI. I. fig. 3. 

' Compare PI. I. fig. 8 with fig. 14. 

' PI. I. fig. 15 a. A ridge more or less is common in the penultimate milk-molar of other extinct species 

to wit, E. primigenim and anti^um. ' Compare PI. I. fig. 14 with PI. III. figs. 46 & 5a. 



110 MR. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

with one another, unless a liberal margin be allowed for individual differences in size, 
which, unfortunately, is the only very distinctive character in many instances. I have 
therefore, in correlating the various teeth, made such allowances in this respect as seem 
to me fairly permissible in comparison with individual differences in size of similar 
molars in well-known species. 

The molars I regard as representing the last milk-teeth of the two Maltese fossil ele- 
phants agree in holding ordinarily eight plates and two talons, and occasionally an 
additional ridge in the lower jaw. They are fairly divisible, on the score of size, into 
three forms, and on the grounds of characters into two apparently distinctive species. 
The two smaller differ a good deal in size, but not apparently in other particulars ; 
whilst the largest is at once recognized, not only from its far greater dimensions, but, 
as in the case of the preceding molar, by the thickness of the plates and the rugose 
character of the collines posteriorly. 

The crown-patterns vary slightly in specimens equally worn, there being, seemingly, 
less faint crimping of the machserides of the disks in the smallest than in the largest. 
As compared with recent species, the more diminutive teeth would point to a very small 
elephant ; whilst the second-sized would indicate an intermediate form, between a dwarf 
and a small individual of either of the recent species '. If, however, a fair margin is 
allowed for indi^ddual differences, it appears to me that the data prove the existence of 
only two distinct species, or mayhap one very variable species of Maltese elephant. 

The teeth assigned to the first true molar are only divisible into two sizes and two 
very distinctive forms. The smaller, as in the preceding, show a thin-plated molar, 
remarkable for the great height of the ridges in the upper jaw and the arcuated crown 
of the lower, with its rounded, broad anterior aspect^, these characters giving quite 
distinctive features to the teeth, as compared with the first true molars of the largest 
species'. The Zebbug specimen was doubtfully referred by Dr. Falconer to the second 
true molar of E. melitensis *. The largest form of a first true molar is at once dis- 
tinctive, and, as compared with the largest of the preceding teeth, fully maintains all 
their characters ^ All the first true molars maintain the same ridge-formula, which 
gives eight to nine plates besides talons. 

The second true molar of the series presents well-marked differences in dimensions 
and characters. All the members seem to have ordinarily held ten plates and two talons. 
They are divisible into large and small molars. The former, again, present certain 
anomalies as to thickness of plates, which might be considered sufficient to separate 
them, although in size they do not differ to any very marked extent*. The smallest 

' Compare PL I. fig. 11 with fig. 10 and PI. III. figs. 4 & 5. 

' PI. II. figs. 9 & 9a, PI. VI. figs. 5 & 5a, and PL V. fig. 2. = PL III. fig. 3, and PL IV. fig. 4. 

* Trans. ZooL Soc. vi. pL 53. fig. 9, and p. 296. 

' Compare PL III. fig. 3, and PL IV. fig. 4, with PL III. figs. 4 & 5. 

' Compare PL III. figs. 1 & 2 with PL VIII. fig. 4 and PI. XI. fig. 10. 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. Ill 

molars maintain the long narrow crown, so apparent in the lower molars of the pre- 
ceding teeth I have referred to this type ', and represent an Elephant of about the 
dimensions assigned by Busk and Falconer to the E. melitensis ; whilst the largest point 
towards one of the small varieties of recent species, in no instance purporting to be over 
7 feet in height. 

In correlating all the data in connexion with the last true molar, I have formed an 
opinion opposed to that of the late Dr. Falconer, as to the position of the upper tooth 
he considered to be the last of the series of E. melitensis ^ and am disposed to place it 
with the penultimate true molar of the same species. This, however, is not of much 
importance, seeing that facts, apparently indisputable, are patent, by which we are 
enabled to confirm the previous evidence of the same small species, and show thereby 
that its last true molar was only a little larger than the above ^. 

The evidence between what are designated thin- and iAzc^-plated molars, when applied 
to the penultimate and ultimate teeth, is not of much value specifically, seeing, from 
what has been recorded in the introduction, that such conditions are common to the above 
stages of growth in more than one well-known species. It is to be observed, however, 
with reference to the thin-plated last true molars just referred to, that in the 
Zebbug collection and my own there are specimens of thick- and thia-plated varieties 
in a diminutive elephant^. It is clear, moreover, that Dr. Falconer did not con- 
sider the above a barrier to his belief in the specificity of teeth otherwise equal, from 
the fact that he correlated a thin- and thick-plated molar ^ as being the last of the series 
of E. melitensis. Under these circumstances one might be inclined to regard the 
thick plates as only an individual distinction. Considering, however, the smallest last 
molars collectively, they do represent an elephant varying from what may be called 
pygmy dimensions up to an animal nearly 5 feet in height. The incomplete condition of 
the thick-plated molars'* of the above prevents the determination of their ridge-formulae 
satisfactorily, whereas the thin-ridged tooth displays twelve plates and two talons '. 

The largest form displays precisely the same characters as regards thickness of plates 
as just observed with reference to the smallest ; and unfortunately there is the same 
dubiousness in regard to the ridge-formula of its thick-plated sort '. It is difi^'erent, 
however, with the thinner-plated type ^ of which there are several perfect specimens, 
showing that the ridge-formula was ordinarily composed of twelve plates and two talons, 

' Compare PL V. fig. 1 with fig. 2, PI. VIII. fig. 5, PI. IV. fig. 3, and the Zebbug tooth in Trans. Zool. Soc. 
vi. pi. 53. fig. 5. 

' Trans. Zool. Soc. vi. p. 296, and Palpsont. Mem. vol. ii. pi. xi. figs. 1 & 2. 

' Compare PI. IV. fig. 1 with Pateont. Mem. vol. ii. pi. xi. fig. 1. 

' PI. IX. fig. 1, and Trans. Zool. Soc. vi. pi. 53. fig. 11. 

' He considered pi. xi. fig. 1 of Palaiont. Mom. the last upper molar, and Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vi. pl. 53. 
fig. 11 the last lower tooth of the same species. ' PI. IX. figs. 1 & 2. 

' PI. VI. figs. 1 & 1(1. ° Compare PI. VIII. fig. 7 with PI. VII. fig. 1 or 2. 

' PI. VII. fig. 1. 



112 ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

with an occasional ridge, even in upper teeth '. Here, again, if disposed to lay stress on 
the thick ridges, there would be no difficulty in creating two forms ; but enough is 
known of the errors of palaeontologists to make me chary in admitting even the two 
fragmentary yet very remarkable specimens^ as belonging to species distinct from 
their thinner-plated compeers I 

As before remarked, aU the Maltese fossil elephants present a crown-pattern which 
differs very little individually. In crowns newly invaded there is considerable crimping * ; 
but as soon as the digitations are worn out, the section shows a disk expanded in the 
centre, with a decided abrupt angulation and the "fine" or "faint" crimping on the 
cement side of the machserides °. This crimping is always most distinct on thin-plated 
or moderately thick-plated surfaces, and dies away almost altogether on very thick 
enamel * ; however, it is seemingly not constant. 

The dentition, therefore, of the Maltese fossil elephants seems to me to confirm the 
presence of two species, the ridge-formula of whose molars runs thus : — The smallest 
species holds, exclusive of talons, in its milk-series 3+5 -(-8-9, and in the true molars 
8-9 + 10-1-12; the large form gives 3 + 6 + 8-9 in the former, and 8-9 + 10 + 12-13 in 
the latter. 

The nearest known species to which the above assimilate in the numerical estimate 
of their dental ridges, is the Elephas meridionalis ; and the closest approximation of the 
worn crowns and character of the ridges are to the same in Elej^has antiquus. They 
differ, however, widely from both, and justly deserve separate positions in synoptical 
tables of species. 

3. A Stylo-hyoid of very diminutive size', as compared with either recent species, 
even in their very youthful states, points towards the presence of the smallest form. 

4. The Vertebral Column displays the elements of what had belonged to two distinct 
forms differing much in dimensions ; indeed by taking several dorsal vertebrae and their 
ribs, and the atlas and largest cervical vertebrae and their ribs**, we have repre- 
sented two mature animals differing in height, as compared with recent species, to the 
extent of individuals varying from 4-5 up to 7 feet. The decided character of the 
atlas ^ seems to place the smaller species, as does its lower jaw, for the most part with 
the African Elephant. 

5. The only fragment oi a, Pelvis shows'", as compared with a similar portion in the 
Zebbug collection ", a somewhat remarkable internal arching or " beehive " construction 
of the acetabulum. Being a mature bone, it represents the smaller form, and in relation 
to the other specimen is somewhat larger. The two differ decidedly in respect of the 

' This is the case in PI. VIII. fig. 1. ' PI. VIII. fig. 7, and No. 78 of Colleetion. 

' PI. VIII. fig. 1, or PI. VII. figs. 1 & 2. ' PI. II. fig. 9. 

' PL II. fig. 7. ' PI. IX. fig. la. ' PI. XV. fig. 10. 

' Compare figs. 7 & 8 with fig. 9 of PI. XI., and ribs, figs. 2 & 3 of PI. X., with Pi. IX. figs. 6 & 7. 

' PI. XIII. fig. 1. "> Pi. XV. figs. 9 & 9ff. '■ Trans. Zool. Soc. vi. pi. 50. fig. 31. 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 113 

depth and form of the femoral cup, which may have given a character to the head of 
the bone. Mr. Busk considers the Zebbug bone to belong to the pygmy E. falconeri ; 
both represent, indeed, very small elephants of adult age. 

6. The materials referable to the Humerus and Scapula in both collections seem to 
point to three forms. The smallest humerus ' is not a mature bone, and may have apper- 
tained to a small individual of the intermediate form, which, again, by a series of humeri 
passes into the largest, which we find represented by a fragment of the upper portion of 
a humerus which might have belonged to an elephant fully 7 feet in height ". 

The smaller form^ (and indeed the character seems almost general to the small 
humeri) shows a compressed head — so much so that Mr. Busk in describing the Zebbug 
specimen states " that, had it been completely detached from the rest of the bone, it 
might very readily have been regarded as fitted more for a ginglymoid than an 
enarthrodial joint." The bicipital groove is also very wide and shallow in the inter- 
mediate form ; unfortunately there are no specimens of the larger sufficiently entire 
to show how far the latter character is also common to it. 

The scapulae * in any ways entire refer altogether to two small individvals, about the 
dimensions of the smallest adult humerus ; their glenoid fossae have much of the outline 
of the African species, the same being narrower in the Asiatic. 

7. The bones of the Forearm are not all of adult animals. One head of a radius ', 
showing the decided gnarled aspect of a very old individual, presents much of the con- 
tour and character of the African, and is referable to the largest form. There are several 
detached distal radial, and one ulnar ^, epiphyses belonging to large, intermediate, 
and small individuals — the first and the last presenting some points rather distinctive, 
irrespective of size ; but the materials not belonging to full-grown, at all events aged 
individuals, it would be, perhaps, best not to rely on the characters 1 have pointed out. 

8. The Femur proves the existence of the intermediate and large forms ' ; but the 
smallest of the latter is not much larger than the former, whilst the extremes are wide 
apart. 

As to characters, we find the largest showing a pronounced similarity of the proximal' 
extremity of the Asiatic and distal of the African, more especially in the longer neck of 
the former and more compressed condyles of the latter. As far as the characters of the 
intermediate-sized specimen have been preserved, it would appear that it does differ 
from the larger form and either recent species and also the Mammoth. At all events, 
it seems that the femur, taken in conjunction with these immature bones, indicates two 
distinct forms, viz. a large and a small Elephant. 

9. The TiUa * represents an adult Elephant ; but the bone is shorter and broader 

' Trans. Zool. Soc. vi. pi. 49. fig. 26. ' PI. XI. figs. 1-4. 

" PL XII. fig. 1, and Trans. Zool. Soc. vi. pi. 48. fig. 22. * PI. XII. figs 2 & 3. 

' PL X. figs. 7 & 7a. ' Pi. X. fig. 6, and PL XIII. figs. 2 & 3 ; see also page 57. 

' PI. XIV. figs. 1, 2, 3. ' PI. XV. figs. 1 & 2. 

VOL. IX. — PART I. November, 1874. Q 



114 MB. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

than usually obtains in the recent species with articulating surfaces of the same dimen- 
sions. The same is distinctly shown in the other long bones. Thus PI. XV. fig. 1 is 
referable to a full-grown individual; and whilst considerably shorter than the tibia 
of the Sumatran Elephant in the British Museum, its condyloid and astragaloid 
aspects are rather larger. In characters it resembles the African, and in fact belongs 
to the owner of femur PI. XIV. figs. 1 & 2, just referred to as that of the largest form. 

10. The Fibula ' represents the extremities of individuals equal to the largest, inter- 
mediate, and smallest forms, the two former claiming apparent distinctions in relation 
to the contour of theii* distal extremities, whilst a very small entire bone is only 8 '6 inches 
in length. The young and immature tibiae furnish also distinctions which, in the 
absence of further specimens of the adult condition, need not be discussed. 

11. The Foot-hones, considered individually and collectively, maintain all the differ- 
ences akeady recorded as to the dimensions of individuals, even to a much greater 
extent ; in fact there is a regular gradation in certain instances from the largest to the 
smallest. The chief characters of the bones may be thus briefly summed up. Of the 
carpus, the scaphoid ^ shows two series referable to a large and small animal, with points 
apparently distinctive, the larger partaking of the African outline, and the smaller 
simulating the Asiatic. The lunare ' represents three forms, the most remarkable as 
regards dimensions being the very small specimen belonging to a foot found in situ ''. 
It would seem that the African character pervades the largest, whilst the intermediate 
and smallest forms have an Asiatic facies. 

The pisiforme shows two old bones referable to the largest and intermediate forms ^, 
with outlines similar and like the same in the African Elephant. The cuneiforms are 
suggestive, the largest having much of the contour of the Asiatic, whilst the intermediate 
and a pygmy bone have the broad ulnar aspects of the African ". 

The magnum repeats the dimensions of large and small individuals, showing, 
however, in all, this one peculiarity as compared with other elephants — to wit, in being 
nan-ower bones. 

The unciforme also displays three sizes ', with slight differences, chiefly in the relatively 
greater breadth of the cuneiform-aspect of the intermediate form. 

12. With reference to the Tarstis, the astragalus furnishes three forms, differing in 
characters, especially the two larger, as well as in dimensions ^ The calcaneum 
represents two forms ", differing in characters, but not much in size ; indeed one might 
represent a small individual of the largest, and the other a full-grown Elephant about 
the height assumed by Falconer and Busk for the Elephas melitensis. The other bones 
of the tarsus indicate the presence of the large and intermediate forms '". 

' PI. XV. figs. 4 & 8. ' PI. XYII. fig. 10, and woodcut, p. 67. 

» PI. XVIII. figs. 1 & 4. •■ PI. XXI. fig. 1. ' PI. XVIII. figs. 3 i 6. 

' In PI. XVIII. compare figs. 2 & 5 with figs. 9 & 8. ' PI. XVII. figs. 12 & 9, and PI. XXI. fig. 2. 

' PI. XVI. figs. 1 & 3. and PI. X. fig. 10. » PI. XVI. figs. 4 & 5. '<> Sec PI. XVII. 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 115 

13. The metacarpal, metatarsal, and phalangeal confirm previous evidences with re- 
spect to the extreme variability in size of equivalent bones \ Strange to say, however, 
whereas the African type was most apparent in the longer bones of the largest, indeed, in 
all the forms more or less, we have a leaning towards the Asiatic facies in the digits of 
the former-, and African characters in the latter'' ; but there is such a commingling of the 
two recent species even in the same bone, that it is extremely difficult to arrive at any 
clear decision in relation to the skeleton generally as compared with any known species. 
In computing the height and proportions of the Maltese fossil species by comparisons 
with individual bones of the same length in recent Elephants, it has been apparent that 
the former are relatively broader, with larger articulating surfaces. This is very evident 
in the long bones of the largest form, which display these characters in a remarkable 
manner, and proclaim the fact that, at best, it must be considered a small Elephant. 
Consequently all the remains of the Maltese fossil species represented stunted forms, 
varying between what appears to be an adult proboscidean, scarcely 3 feet in height, 
up to a large form or species fully 7 feet at the withers. These, as far as I am enabled 
to compute from the collection hitherto brought together, seem to be about the 
maximum and minimum proportions, or almost. 

The individual differences in height in the adult recent species seem to vary between 
8 and 12 feet*; so that, relatively, the palaeontologist, in the absence of anatomical 
distinctions, is allowed a broad margin on this head. 

After a careful survey of almost every collection hitherto made of the remains of the 
Maltese fossil elephants, it appears to me (1) that the incisive and molar teeth afford 
good evidences of two species, and, as regards dimensions, they admit of a division into 
large, intermediate, and small ; indeed, as regards the penultimate and last true molars, 
there seems to me no difficulty in making out four varieties differing considerably in size 
and to a slight extent in characters. (2) The bones of the cranium, as far as they admit of 
distinction, show two forms differing in size. ( 3) There are two distinct forms represented 
by the vertebrae, with a graduating intermediate series which almost runs into the largest 
and smallest, the distinctions on this head being altogether in relation to dimensions, the 
bones generally being too imperfect for further determinations. The atlas, however, 
shows the characters of the African Elephant, the same obtainmg in a perfect seventh 
cervical vertebra belonging to an Elephant of the same dimensions in the Zebbug 
collection, and referable to the same small species to which Mr. Busk has given the 
name of Elephas melitensis. (4) The long bones of the extremities display three 
marked gradations as to dimensions ; whilst the bones of the feet demonstrate three 
or four varieties as regards size. (5) With reference to the young and immature bones 
generally, there are also clear indications of two species, a large and a small. By making 

> Compare PL XIX. with PI. XX. .fe PI. V. = PL XX. figs. 8 & 9. ' PL XX. figs. 1 & 17. 

« See Livingstone's ' Travels in South Africa,' p. 56 ; Tennent's ' Ceylon,' vol. iv. p. 291 ; Baker's ' Nile 
Tributaries of Abyssinia,' p. 533, and ' Albert Nyanza,' vol. i. p. 275. 

q2 



116 ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

allowances for individual differences of age and sex, I believe that the bones of the 
Maltese fossil elephants are divisible into three varieties and two well-marked species, 
viz. a large and a small Elephant, the latter showing two forms represented by the 
Elephas melitensis of Falconer and Busk, which may have seldom attained a height of 5 
feet, and a diminutive or pygmy form named by Mr. Busk Elephas falconeri, the smallest 
bones of which indicate an elephant about 3 feet in height. But there are intermediate- 
sized bones which easily bridge over the differences between the latter and the Elephas 
melitensis ; nevertheless Mr. Busk has pointed out characters appertaining to the two, 
and is of opinion that they are distinct species'. 

Finally the presence of a much larger species of Elephant among the Zebbug remains 
has been clearly pointed out by Falconer and Busk ; but the bones were very fi-agmentary 
and of little use for anatomical descriptions. It has been my good fortune to bring to- 
gether abundant remains of apparently the same Elephant, the characters of which are 
as minutely detailed in the preceding pages as it has been in my power to accomplish. 
I believe they represent the entire dentition and osteology of the greater portion of the 
skeleton of an Elephant of considerably smaller dimensions than the living species, and 
seldom exceeding 7 feet in height, whilst the average height may have been between 6 
and 7 feet. Thus, probably, the two species displaying the variability as to size which 
we see common among heads of the two recent Elephants, often approached the limits 
of each other's growth ; and, as otherwise there was not any very marked distinction, it 
would be difficult to decide the proper place for such remains ; hence it may be that 
here and there I have referred bones to the small species which belong to small-sized 
individuals of the former. This, however, does not appear of much moment in com- 
parison with the data descriptive of the molars and largest bones, which afford unquestion- 
able evidence of a distinct species. 

I have named the largest Elephant Elephas mnaidriensis, in consideration of the 
circumstance that the gap, or rock-rent, from which I obtained the most perfect 
specimens of its bony structure is situated close to the ruins of the Mnaidra temple, a 
prehistoric and megalithic structure bearing evidences of the earliest human occupa- 
tion of the Island of Malta. 



DESCKIPTION OF THE PLATES. 

PLATE I. 

Figs. 1&2. Yirstxia\k-\nd.soxsoi Elephas mnaidriensis oadiE.Tnelitensis: p. 8. Zebbug 

Cave and Mnaidra Gap. 
Figs. .3, 4, 5 & 6. Second or antepenultimate milk-molars of the Maltese Elephants : 

p. 11-12. Mnaidra Gap ; fig. 6, Benghisa Gap. 
' Trans. Zool. Soc. vi. pp. 235 & 251. 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 117 

Figs. 7, 7 a. Crown and side \iews of a third or penultimate upper milk-molar of Elephas 

melitensis : p. 14. Mnaidra Gap. 
Figs. 8, 8 a. Crown and side views of the lower penultimate milk-molar of E. melitensis : 

p. 14. Benghisa Gap. 
Fig. 9. Crown view of a lower penultimate milk-molar oiEleplias mnaidriensis (?): p. 15. 

Mnaidra Gap. 
Fig. 10. Crown view of the 4th milk-molar, upper jaw, oi Elephas melitensis: p. 18. 

Mnaidra Gap. 
Fig. 11. Crown view of the 4th milk-molar, upper jaw, of Elej)has melitensis Q. E. 

falconeri) : p. 17. Benghisa Gap. 
Fig. 12. Portion of right lower ramus (profile view of the same, PI. VI. fig. 2), with frag- 
ment of tooth doubtfully referred to the penultimate milk-molar of Elephas 

mnaidriensis: p. 16. Gandia Fissure. 
Fig. 13. Crown view, upper jaw, referred to the penultimate milk-molar of ElepJuus 

mnaidriensis : p. 16. Mnaidra Gap. 
Figs. 14, 15, & 16. Views of lower milk-molars referred to the penultimate milk-molar 

of ElepJias mnaidriensis : p. 16. Mnaidra Gap. 
Fig. 17. Crown of an upper molar referred to the last of the milk-series of Elephas 

melitensis : p. 18. Mnaidra Gap. 
Fig. 18. Permanent tusks and fragment of upper tooth referred to the last milk-molar 

oi Elephas melitensis : p. 18. Benghisa Gap. 

PLATE II. 

Figs. 1, 2. Fragments of upper and lower jaws containing penultimate milk-molars of 

Elephas melitensis : p. 14. Mnaidra Gap. 
Figs. 3, 3 a. Front and profile views of enamel-plates, shovnng sculpturings : p. 5. 
Figs. 4, 4 a. Front and profile views of inner or ivory aspect of enamel plates : p. 5. 
Fig. 5. Outer aspect of enamel plate, showing ridges and channellings : p. 5. 
Fig. 6. Vertical section of enamel plates, showing the relative proportions of elements 

of the crown : p. 6. 
Fig. 7. Fragment of a much worn second upper true molar of Elephas mnaidriensis : 

p. 6. Mnaidra Gap. 
Figs. 8, 8 a. Crown and side views of the anterior portion of a tooth referred to the 

second true molar, lower jaw, of the Elephas melitensis: p. 25. Mnaidra 

Gap. 
Figs. 9, 9 a. Crown and side views of the anterior portion of a molar referred to the 

first true molar of Elephas melitensis : p. 20. Mnaidra Gap. 
Figs. 10, 10 a. Crown and side views of anterior portion of a molar referred to the last 

true molar of Elephas melitensis : p. 32. Mnaidra Gap. 



118 Mil. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OP 

PLATE III. 

Fig. 1. Crown view referred to the second true molar of Mepfias mnaidriensis : p. 26. 
Gandia Fissure. 

Fig-. 2. Fragment of crown referable to second true molar, lower jaw, oi Ulejihas mnai- 
driensis: p. 27. Mnaidra Gap. 

Figs. 3, oa. Side and crown views, referred to the first upper true molar of Elephas mnai- 
driensis: p. 22. Gandia Fissure. 

Figs. 4, 4 rt, 4 b. Side, crown, and back views, referred to the upper last milk-molar of 
Elejjhas mnaidriensis : p. 21. Mnaidra Gap. 

Figs. 5, 5 a. Crown and back views of the last lower milk-molar of Elejihas mnai- 
driensis: p. 22. Mnaidra Gap. 

PLATE IV. 

Fig. 1. Palatal region, showing last true molars of Ele]}has melitensis : p. 29. Benghisa 
Gap. 

Figs. 2, 2«. Side and crown views of the last upper milk-molar of EIej)has mnaidri- 
ensis : p. 21. Mnaidra Gap. 

Fig. 3. Crown view, referred to the last lower milk-molar of ElepJias melitensis : p. 20. 
Benghisa Gap. 

Figs. 4, 5. Crown views of lower first true molars of Ele2)has mnaidriensis: p. 22. 
Gandia Fissure and Mnaidra Gap. 

PLATE V. 

Figs. 1 a, b. Rami referable to the same individual with second true molars of Elephas 

melitensis: p. 25. Benghisa Gap. 
Fig. 2. Crown view, refei-red to the lower first true molar of Elej)Jias melitensis (\E. 

falconeri) : p. 20. Mnaidra Gap. 
Fig. 3. C?) Third metacarpal of Elejjhas melitensis : p. 95. Mnaidra Gap. 
Figs. 4, 5. First metacarpal, and its phalanx, of Elephas melitensis : p. 90. Mnaidra 

Gap. 

PLATE VI. 

Figs, 1, 1«. Portion of right ramus, with last true molar in situ, of Elephas melitensis : 

p. 30. Benghisa Gap. 
Fig. 2. Side view (crown aspect, see PI. I. fig. 12) of portion of right ramus, with a tooth 

doubtfully referred to the penultimate milk-molar of Elephas innaidriensis : 

p. 38. Gandia Fissure. 
Fig. 3. Portion of left ramus holding a fragment of molar referred to the second true 

molar of Elephas melitensis : p. 40. Benghisa Gap. 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 119 

Fig. 4. Portion of left ramus, showing the empty alveoli of two teeth referred doubtfully 
to the last milk- and first true molar of Elephas melitensis : p. 39. Benghisa 
Gap. 

Figs. 5, 5 a. Side and crown views of a lower tooth referred to the first true molar of 
DlejjJias melitensis : p. 20. Mnaidra Gap. 

PLATE VII. 

Fig. 1. Side view of a last upper true molar of Elephas mnaidriensis : p. 33. Mnaidra 

Gap. 
Figs. 2, 2 a. Crown and side views of a last lower true molar of Elephas mnaidriensis : 

p. 38. Mnaidra Gap. 

PLATE VIII. 

Figs. 1, 1«. Side and crown views of a last upper true molar of Elephas mnaidriensis: 

p. 34. Mnaidra Gap. 
Fig. 2. Side views of a fragment of a second (a) and an entire upper last true molar of 

Elephas mnaidriensis : p. 33. Mnaidra Gap. 
Fig. 3. Side view of the last upper true molar of Elephas mnaidriensis : p. 33. Mnaidra 

Gap. 
Fig. 4. Crown view of a fragment of a second upper true molar of Elepjias mnaidriensis : 

p. 26. Mnaidi-a Gap. 
Fig. 5. Crown view, referred to the first upper true molar o{ Elephas mnaidriensis : p. 22. 

Mnaidra Gap. 
Fig. 6. Condyle of a lower ramus: p. 36. Mnaidra Gap. 
Fig. 7. Crown view of a last lower true molar of -Efe^^/ias ;«?iaJ(ZWe«s;'s: p. 34. Mnaidra 

Gap. 
Figs. 8, 8 a. Crown and side views of a last lower true molar of Elephas mnaidriensis : 

p. 33. Mnaidra Gap. 
Fig. 9. Side view of a last lower true molar referred to Elephas mnaidriensis: p. 32. 

Benghisa Gap. 

PLATE IX. 

Figs. 1, la, & 2. Left lower jaw and true molars in situ, with its crown view, and side 

aspect of the right tooth of the same individual of Elephas melitensis: 

p. 31. Mnaidra Gap. (1 E. falconeri, Busk.) 
Figs. 3, 4. The posterior view of a first dorsal, and anterior view of a fourth dorsal 

vertebra. These are included with theu" associated vertebrae in Plate XI. 

fig. 9, and belonged to the same individual of Elephas melitensis : p. 46. 

Mnaidra Gap. {^E. falconeri, Busk.) 



120 ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

Figs. 5, 5a. Side and front views of head and glenoid fossa of a scapula, doubtfully 

referred to the Proboscidea: p. 53. Mnaidra Gap'. 
Figs. 6, 7. Heads of a second and third ribs of ElejjJias melitensis : p. 47. Benghisa 

Gap. {IE. falconeri. Busk.) 

PLATE X. 

Fig. 1. Posterior aspect of the body of the first dorsal vertebra of E. mnaidriensis : 

p. 48. Mnaidra Gap. 
Fig. 2. Head of a rib (fifth'?) of ^. mnaidriensis: p. 48. Mnaidra Gap. 
Fig. 3. Head of a rib — one of the last six ribs of E. mnaidriensis : p. 48. Mnaidra 

Gap. 
Fig. 4. Posterior view of a middle dorsal vertebra (ninth?) of ^. mnaidriensis: p. 48. 

Mnaidra Gap. 
Fig. 5. Anterior aspect of a middle dorsal vertebra of E. melitensis : p. 47. Benghisa 

Gap. [IE. falconeri, 'Rusk.) 
Fig. 6. Distal epiphysis of the radius of .E. mnaidriensis: p. 56. Mnaidra Gap. 
Figs. 7, la. Side and crown views of the head and portion of the shaft of the radius of 

E. mnaidriensis : p. 54. Mnaidra Gap. 
Figs. 9, 9 ff. Side and crown views of portion of an ulna of E. melitensis: p. 55. 

Benghisa Gap. 
Fig. 10. Upper surface of an astragalus of J^. me^;YeHS?s: p. 80. Mnaidra Gap. 

PLATE XI. 

Fig. 1. Side view of the head and portion of the shaft of a humerus of E. mnaidriensis : 
p. 51. Mnaidra Gap. 

Figs, 2, 3. Side view of a head of a humerus and anterior portion of the glenoid fossa 
of a scapula of the same individual of E. mnaidriensis : p. 52. Mnaidra Gap. 

Fig. 4. Side view of the head of a humerus of E. melitensis: p. 52. Gandia Fissure. 

Fig. 5. Anterior view of the head of a femur of ^. mnaidriensis: p. 58. Mnaidra Gap. 

Fig. 6. Lower condyles of a femur of ^. mnaidriensis: p. 58. Mnaidra Gap. 

Fig. 7. Third and fourth cervical vertebrae of the same individual of E. mnaidriensis: 
p. 48. Mnaidra Gap. 

Fig. 8. Side view of three middle dorsal vertebrae of the same individual of E. mnaidri- 
ensis: p. 48. Mnaidra Gap. 

F'g 9. Dorsal aspects of portion of the vertebral column from the first to the seventh 
dorsal inclusive (the first and fourth of this column are shown, Plate IX. figs. 
3 & '*:) of ^. melitensis: p. 46. Mnaidra Gap. {% E. falconeri. Busk.) 

' A fragment of a scapula seemingly in no ways different from the above is figured and described by Mr. 
Busk, Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vi. p. 254, pi. 47. fig. 14. 



THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 121 

Figs. 10 & 10 a. Crown and side views of left lower jaw containing a molar referable to 

the second true molar of E. mnaidriensis : p. 25. Bengbisa Gap. 
Figs. 11-20. Fragments of tusks of Maltese fossil Elephants from all the ossiferous 

deposits : p. 9. 
Fig. 21. Distal epiphyses of the radius of Hippopotamus C?) discovered in Gandia 

Fissure, along with proboscidean remains referred to E. mnaidriensis. Gandia 

Fissure. 
Fig. 22. Portion of a trapezoid of Hiiipopotamus (V) found with remains of the fossil 

Elephants in Mnaidra Gap. Mnaidra Gap. 

PLATE XII. 
Fig. 1. Head and portion of shaft of a humerus of E. melitensis: p. 50. Benghisa 

Gap. 
Figs. 2, 2 a, 3, & 3 a. Heads and glenoid fossae of scapulae of E. melitensis : p. 50. 

Benghisa Gap. 

PLATE XIII. 

Figs. 1, 1 «, 1 b. Three views of an atlas oi E. melitensis: p. 46. Benghisa Gap. 
Fig. 2. Distal epiphysis of the radius of E. melitensis : p. 55. Benghisa Gap. 
Fig. 3. Distal epiphysis of the ulna of E. melitensis : p. 55. Benghisa Gap. 

PLATE XIV. 

Fig. 1. Upper portion of a femur of ^. mnaidriensis: p. 58. Mnaidra Gap. 

Figs. 2, 2 a. Lower condyles of the opposite femur of the same individual of E. mnaidri- 
ensis: p. 59. Mnaidra Gap. 

Figs. 3, 3«. Greater portion of a femur, with its condyles, of E. melitensis: p. 59. 
Benghisa Gap. 

PLATE XV. 

Fig. 1. Tibia of ^. mnaidriensis: p. 61. Mnaidra Gap. 

Fio-s. 2, 2 a. Side view and articular surface of the lower extremity of a right tibia 

of possibly the same individual as fig. 1 : p. 62. 
Fig. 3. Condyloid cups of a tibia of ^. mnaidriensis: p. 61. Mnaidra Gap. 
Fig. 4. Distal extremity of a fibula of E. mnaidriensis : p. 64. Mnaidra Gap. 
Fig. 5. Distal extremity of a fibula of E. melitensis : p. 64. Mnaidra Gap. 
Fig. 6. Patella oi E. melitensis: p. 65. Benghisa Gap. 
Figs. 7, 8. Patellae oi E. mnaidriensis: p. 65. Mnaidra Gap. 
Ficfs. 9, 9 a. Side and profile views of portion of the os innominatum of E. melitensis : 

p. 49. Benghisa Gap. 
Fig. 10. Stylo-hyoid of E. melitensis : p. 45. Benghisa Gap. 
VOL. IX. — PART I. November, 1874. R 



122 ME. A. L. ADAMS ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF 

PLATE XVI. 

Fig. 1. Asti-agalus of ^. mnaidriensis : p. 79 (belongs to Plate XV. fig. 1). Mnaidra 

Gap. 
Fig. 2. Astragalus of -E. mnaidriensis: p. 80. Mnaidra Gap. 
Fig. 3. Astragalus of E. melitensis : p. 81 {E. falconeri. Busk). Mnaidra Gap. 
Fig. 4. Calcaneum referred to E. mnaidriensis : p. 82. Mnaidra Gap. 
Fig. 5. Calcaneum of E. melitensis : p. 82. Benghisa Gap. 

PLATE XVII. 

Fig. 1. Naviculars of ^. mnaidriensis: p. 83. Mnaidra Gap. 

Fig. 2. Posterior aspect of an external cuneiform of E. mnaidriensis : p. 86. Mnaidra 

Gap. 
Fig. 3. Anterior aspect of a middle cuneiform of E. mnaidriensis : p. 87. Mnaidra 

Gap. 
Fig. 4. Metatarsal aspect of a cuboid of E. mnaidriensis : p. 84. Mnaidra Gap. 
Fig. 5. Posterior aspect of a cuboid of E. melitensis : p. 85. Benghisa Gap. 
Fig. 6. Internal cuneiform of E. melitensis : p. 88. Benghisa Gap. 
Fig. 7. Eight naviculare (immature ?) : p. 83. Mnaidra Gap. 
Fig. 8. Right naviculare (immature X) : p. 83. Mnaidra Gap. 
Fig. 9. Left unciforme (upper aspect) of -B. melitensis: p. 74. Gandia Fissure. 
Fig. 10. Left scaphoid of E. mnaidriensis : p. 66. Gandia Fissure. 
Fig. II. Right trapezoid oi E. melitensis: p. 72. Mnaidra Gap. 
Fig. 12. Right unciforme oi E. mnaidriensis: p. 73. Mnaidra Gap. 
Fig. 13. Internal surface of left magnum of ^. mnaidriensis: p. 72. Mnaidra Gap. 
Fig. 14. Internal surface of left magnum oi E. melitensis: p. 73. Mnaidra Gap. 

PLATE XVIII. 

Fig. 1. Left lunare, lower surface, of ^. mnaidriensis: p. 68. Mnaidra Gap. 

Fig. 2. Side view, showing lunare facets of right cuneiform of ^. mnaidriensis: p. 69. 

Gandia Fissure. 
Fig. 3. Outer aspect of left pisiforme of ^. mnaidriensis: p. 71. Mnaidra Gap. 
Fig. 4. Lower surface of right lunare oi E. melitensis: p. 68. Benghisa Gap. 
Fig. 5. Side view showing lunare facets of a left cuneiform oi E. mnaidriensis: p. 69. 

Gandia Fissure. 
Fig. 6. Outer aspect of a right pisiforme of E. melitensis : p. 72. Mnaidra Gap. 
Fig. 7. Upper surface of cuneiforme of E. melitensis (? E. falconeri. Busk) : p. 70. 

Benghisa Gap. 
Fig. 8. Upper surface of right cuneiforme of E. melitensis : p. 70. Benghisa Gap. 
Fig. 9. Upper surface of right cuneiforme of .B. melitensis: p. 70. Benghisa Gap. 



THE MALTESE POSSIL ELEPHANTS. 123 

PLATE XIX. 

Fig. 1. Left cuneiforme of E. mnaidriensis : p. 89. Gandia Fissure. 

Fig. 2. Left first metacarpal and its phalanx of E. mnaidriensis : p. 90. Mnaidra Gap. 

Fig. 3. The fourth metacarpal, right side: p. 99. ■» 

Fig. 4. The third metacarpal oiE. melitensisl : p. 95. Benghisa Gap. J ^™^ individual. 

Fig. 5. Ungual phalanx of first metacarpal of jE. mKaz(Z>7ews/s C?) : p. 90. Mnaidra Gap. 

Fig. 6. Left fourth metatarsal ■? : p. 100. l Same indi- 

Fig. 7. Left third metatarsal (■?-£?. ya/cowen", Busk): p. 96. Benghisa Gap. j vidual. 

Fig. 8. Left distal phalanx, first metatarsal, of E. melitensis (1) : p. 92. Mnaidi'a Gap. 

Fig. 9. Eight first metacarpal or metatarsal of E. melitensis (]) or E. falconeri {}). 

Mnaidra Gap. 
Fig. 10. Right third metacarpal of E. mnaidriensis : p. 95. Mnaidra Gap. 
Fig. 11. Right fifth metacarpal oi E. mnaidriensis: p. 103. Mnaidra Gap. 
Fig. 12. Left fifth metacarpal of .E. melitensis: p. 103. Mnaidra Gap. 
Fig. 13. First phalanx, left side, of the fifth metatarsal of E. mnaidriensis (1) : p. 105. 

Mnaidra Gap. 
Fig. 14. Left ungual phalanx (■?), fifth metacarpal, of E. mnaidriensis (I) : p. 104. Mnaidra 

Gap. 
Fig. 15, First phalanx, right side, of the fifth metatarsal of E. melitensis (J) : p. 105. 

Mnaidra Gap. 

PLATE XX. 

Figs. 1, Iffl and J. First metatarsal, left side, with its phalanx, of ^. mMa^ein'eMszs : p. 91. 
Mnaidra Gap. 

Fig. 2. First metatarsal, left side, of -E. me^^Yews^s: p. 91. Mnaidra Gap. (IE. falconeri, 
Busk.) 

Figs. 3, 3 a. Second metatarsal, left side, of E. melitensis : p. 94. Mnaidra Gap. 

Fig. 4. Right fourth metatarsal of E. mnaidriensis : p. 99. Mnaidra Gap. 

Figs. 5, 5 a. Left second metatarsal of E. melitensis : p. 94. Mnaidra Gap. 

Fig. 6. Right fourth metatarsal of E. melitensis: p. 100. Mnaidra Gap. 

Fig. 7. Dorsal aspect of fifth left metatarsal of E. mnaidriensis : p. 104. Mnaidra Gap. 

Fig. 8. Phalanges of third left metacarpal: p. 96. \ Same individual of E. mnaidri- 

Fig. 9. Phalanges of fourth left metacarpal : p. 101. J ensis. 

Fig. 10. First phalanx of fifth left metacarpal of ^.mnfflz(Zn'e«s?s: p. 104. Mnaidra Gap. 

Fig. 11. First phalanx of fifth left metacarpal] oi E, melitensis: p. 106 {% E. falconeri. 
Busk). Benghisa Gap. 

Fig. 12. Proximal and second phalanges of the second left metacarpal of ^. mnaidri- 
ensis : p. 97. Mnaidra Gap. 

Fig. 13. First phalanx of foui'th right metacarpal oi E. mnaidriensis : p. 101. Mnaidra 
Gap. 



124 ON THE MALTESE FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. 

Fig. 14. First phalanx of the second, or else the first phalanx of the fifth, metacarpal 
of ^. melitensis: p. 105 {\E.falconeri, Busk). Benghisa Gap. 

Fig. 15. Doubtfully, the proximal and second phalanges of the fourth metacarpal of 
E. mnaidriensis: p. 101. Mnaidra Gap. 

Fig. 1 6. The first phalanx of the third metacarpal of E. melitensis {% E. falconeri. Busk) : 
p. 96. Mnaidra Gap. 

Fig. 17. Plantar aspect of the first phalanx of the second metatarsal of ^. melitensis'i: 
p. 93. Mnaidra Gap. 

Fig. 18. Sesamoid referable to third metacarpal, 

Fig. 19. Sesamoid referable to second metacarpal, 

Fig. 20. Sesamoid referable to fifth metacarpal. 

Fig. 21. Sesamoid referable to third metatarsal, 

Fig. 22. Sesamoid or else ungual phalanx (1) referable to fifth metatarsal of E. mnai- 
driensis et melitensis: p. 106. From Mnaidra and Benghisa Gaps and 
Gandia Fissure. 

PLATE XXI. 

Fig. 1. Left lunate. 

Fig. 2. Left unciforme. 

Figs. 3, 3 a. First metacarpal. 

Figs. 4, 4 a. Second metacarpal. 

Figs. 5, 5 a. Fourth metacarpal. 

Fig. 6. Fifth metacarpal. 

Fig. 7. Sesamoid. 

Fig. 8. Head of young scapula: p. 53. 

Figs. 9, 9 a. Young humerus of fig. 8. 

Figs. 10, 10 a, 10 h. Ulna and radius of fig. 9. 

Figs. 11 and 12. Portion of an arch of a dorsal vertebra and rib of a young elephant. 
Benghisa Gap. 

Fig. 13. Tibia referable to the same individual as fig. 8: p. 63. Benghisa Gap. 

Figs. 14, 14ff. Young tibia of ^. melitensis (1) : p. 63. Benghisa Gap. 

Figs. 15 a, b, c. Youthful radius: p. 56. Benghisa Gap. 

F'igs. 16, 16 a. Young ulna of E. mnaidriensis (1) : p. 57. Mnaidra Gap. 

Fig. 17. Ulnar fragment of young of E. melitensis {V) : p. 57 (1 -E. Falconeri, Busk). 
Gandia Fissure. 

Fig. 18. Upper portion of femur of a young elephant {E. melitensis \) : p. 60 (? E. fal- 
coneri, Busk). Mnaidra Gap. 

PLATE XXll. 

Map of the Maltese Islands. 



Of the same individual of E. melitensis : p. 75 (1 E. 
falconeri. Busk). Benghisa Gap. 



1 



Same individual: pp. 53 & 57. Ben- 
ghisa Gap. 



rra.-ruJi^cAc. ^'■..^M.l 




C.L, Cricabach 



JSat. Sire. 



2*Iint*jm Bi OE in-.i: 



DENTITION . 



^TTun^. %t^.^<?o. U6. &.^^JI. 




C.L Gricsbach- 



Nat. Si/te. 

DENTITION. 



Mintern Bros imp . 



J'ramJ %c^<^oo. ^/^..9.J^l.///. 




C.I.-Gricsbach 



DENTITION . 



Mmteni Bros, imp . 



J^rcumi^^^^^: Jao. U^.^.M/V 




G L Criesbach. 



Wirtern Br ^: imp . 



J'rayns %a./oo- ^^ 3.M. Y. 




C.L Gnesbach. 



id*. Silt-. 

DENTITION. 



Mmtern Bros, imp 



^''/■ia/rui. .U/w<y >:::/0€/ 'c/'of^ J^ J^ i/J. 




W H.Wesley, ad. natlith. 



DENTITION. 



Ifaclure SrWacdonalilithlondon. 



.%'am^.%o/^yocy'm^S^.^^/V//- 




W H Wesley ad nai LiiJi 



NAT. SIZE. 
DENTITION. 



Madure k Mocdonald. jjih L^iiani. 



^^nyrul%al.c/oo. ^^U.^.^/^MI. 




C.l. OneaWch. 



'-.Snt. .S'r'se. 



DEKTITION. 



Winterr* Bros .imp . 



^9r2^.%^:a/oo. ^l^.^.^^./X. 




li 1. OrieaLiicli 



DENTITION. SCAPULA. RIBS. VERTEBRA. 



Mntem Brus rmp 







VERTEBRfi. RIBS RADIUS ULNA ASTRAGALUS 



WHWesHadnat lith. 



Madure tlfacdonali LiALoRdon . 



^n^Ti^ 2^.c/c>c. ^lU.^.MXI. 




21. (Xai. J 



C.L Gmeabacli 



Wintem Bros, i 



TUSKS. MOLAR. HUMERUS SCAPULA, VERTEBRA. FEMUR 
RADIUS OF HIPPOPOTAMUS? TRAPEZOID OF HIPPOPOTAMUS f 



2. 




C L GriesbacH. 



J>lat. Sine. 

HUMERUS SCAPULA. 



Mintem Bros imp . 



^9rzyn^.%t^.M^. ^^'.P.MXIII. 




'- 1. Gi-iesbadi. 



Nat. Si-iC. 

ATLAS RADIUS ULNA. 



itei-n Di OH imu 



r7?tz^.%^.o/ac. "E^^.^.IIV. 








Mirii>nji Bios iTr.i 



J'?tl^^^^^.</O0. ^/U.^.^:IV. 




C L Oriesbach. 



'. Sni . •S't\«. - 



STYLO- ilYOlD PF.LVli-. PATELLA. TIBIA. FIBULA. 



WiiiliTT. Hros imp 



3ra^2kH^^oc^^^^,MIV/. 



''A.-l^ 




NAT. SIZE, 
ASTRAGALUS CALCANEUM. 



ley .a.d.Tiat.liai 



Ma-clure i MacdoTi^ld .I.iLli London,. 



jrra^_2ho^^oa "IMS^/^XVII 




■VII WesKV ^ nal Litli 



WAT. SIZE. 
carpus' T-«IS'J.~ 



Y^lurt i \'.~ 




I 



^^^a^. %o^yoc/m^< ^ smm 





l#^. %a 






-^^ 














3 




NAT. SIZE. 
CARPUS. 



iih. 



Maclui'e k Ma; 



J^Wz^^^^c^ U^SJ'^M. 




MWesleyadnaiLith. 



MAT. SIZE 

TAESUS METATARSUS METACARFTJS PHALANX. 



Maclure h Macdonaid.Utli. London 



O^^ra^ 2^ Joey. 'Ui^S.^M. 



* j^. 










NAT SIZE. 

METACARPUS METATARSUS PHALANX SESAMOID. 



W.H Wesley ad natlitli 



Macture !c M2cdiinald.Lnh.iraidDn. 



J'.'cunJ. %i?S. yao. 'US. d.^.XXI. 




C L Gricsbach 



Nat. Si if. 

UPPER EXTREMITY. VERTEBRA. RIB. FEMUR. TIBIA. 



Mnitem BroB imp . 



[ 125 



11. A List of the Birds known to inhahit the Philippine Archipelago. By Arthur, 
YiscQUTitWALD'EN, F.B.S., Preside7it of the Society. 

Read June 3rd, 1873. 

[Plates XXIII.-XXXIV.] 

In the month of December 1871 and the first three months of the following year some 
of the principal islands of the Philippine archipelago were visited by Dr. A. Bernhard 
Meyer, the well-known German naturalist. During that short p.-^riod this indefatigable 
collector obtained a large series of ornithological specimens, representing ninety-six 
species. The islands visited by him were Luzon, Negros, Zebu, Cuyo, and Guimaras, 
the last being a small island adjoining the southern coast of Panay, and lying in the 
channel which separates Panay from Negros. Hitherto most of the authentic so-called 
Philippine specimens of birds contained in European collections have been procured in 
Luzon, collected at no very great distance from the town of Manilla, its capital ; and 
nearly all the zoological travellers who have visited the Philippines have confined their 
researches to the vicinity of that town. It follows, consequently, that " the Philippines," 
so frequently occurring as a geographical expression in our lists, from the days of Brisson 
to the recent date of Mr. G. R. Gray's ' Hand-list,' must be taken to mean the coimtry 
adjacent to the toMTi of Manilla. To this rule Sonnerat is an exception. 

After residing at Manilla, and forming collections in the interior of Luzon, Sonnerat 
visited Antigua, the capital of the island of Panay, and then Zamboanga the chief 
Spanish settlement in the large island of Mindanao. Panay does not seem to have been 
revisited by any ornithologist'; but in 18-39, D'Urville's second expedition in the 
' Astrolabe ' remained two months at Zamboanga, and obtained a few zoological 
specimens. 

It is possible that the late Mr. Hugh Cuming may have visited all these localities 
and many others during his long residence in the Philippines ; but as his large 
collection of birds was broken up without being catalogued, and as they were brought 
to Europe at a time when geographical distribution attracted less attention than now, 
we possess no published record of the exact localities where his specimens were obtained I 

After Sonnerat fifty-eight years appear to have elapsed before the Philippines were 

' At least there does not appear to be any pubHalied record of Panay having been again visited, although 
Mr. Cassin (U.S. Expl. Exped. p. 143) certainly enumerates an example of Irena ci/anogastra as having been 
obtained in this island. 

' A large portion of his ornithological collection was made in the southern part of the island of Luzon (c/. 
P. Z. S. 1839, p. 93) ; but it has since become scattered, and the origin of many of the individual specimen.s 
cannot now be identified. 

VOL. IX. — PART II. April, 1875. s 



126 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIRDS 

again visited by an ornithologist, when in 1829 Kittlitz touched at Manilla, and there 
procured several undescribed species. Since that date Manilla has been visited from 
time to time by different travellers and exploring-expeditions, and new species have 
been obtained, which on being brought to Europe have been described and named '. In 
1871 new ground was broken by Mr. L. C. Layard, who made a small collection of 
birds in the islands of Negros and Guimaras ^ ; and, lastly. Dr. A. Bernhard Meyer has 
explored the equally unknown island of Zebu. Dr. Meyer having with great courtesy 
placed the bulk of his collection at my disposal, it was my original intention to have 
confined myself to a bare catalogue of its contents ; but, it having been suggested to me 
that a complete list of the known Philippine " birds would prove more generally useful, 
and would supply a want much felt in the ornithological literature of the Indian region, 
I have ventured, with much diffidence, to prepare this catalogue of authentic Philippine 
birds. It is true that a valuable list of the Philippine birds has already been published 
(in 1866) by Dr. Eduard v. Martens ', from which I have derived the greatest assistance ; 
still in it several authentic species are omitted, in some instances titles belongmg to the 
same are treated as belonging to distinct species, and, moreover, some new species have 
been discovered and described since Dr. v. Martens wrote. Nor in the somewhat intri- 
cate synonymy is the subject in all instances exhaustively dealt with ; and it has been 
one of my objects to endeavour to fix on a firm basis the nomenclature of all the birds 
known to possess a Philippine origin. 

The literature of the subject practically commenced with Brisson ^, who in his well 

' For a fuU account of the principal ornithological collectors in the PhUippiaes, cf. Dr. v. Martens, Joum. f. 
Orn. 1866, p. 5. 

= Cf. Ibis, 1872, p. 93. 

' I restrict the term Philippines to that group of islands which is separated from Northern Borneo by the Ba- 
labac Strait and the Sea of Mindoro, exclusive of the Sooloo archipelago, and from Celebes by the Sea of Celebes. 
It may be necessary when the fauna of the Sooloo archipelago is better known, to include it also within the 
Philippine area ; but, on the other hand, when the fauna of the island of Palawan has been investigated, that 
may have to be separated from the Philippine area. The positions both of Palawan and of the Sooloo Islands 
(at present aU but zoological blanks) are of the highest geographical interest ; for Palawan, stretching out for 
260 miles, unites the northermost point of Borneo to Luzon through the Calamines, while the island of Mindoro, 
and the islands of the Sooloo archipelago form a succession of connecting links between Mindanao and the 
most north-east point of Borneo. 

' Jouru. f. Orn. 1866, pp. 8-31. 

' No titles were founded on the Jesuit Camel's well-known paper, " De Avibus Philippensibus." The foEow- 
ing is a list of the principal authors who have written on PhQippiue ornithology : — 

Bkmson, M. J. Ornithologia (1760). 

SoNNEKAT. Voy. a la NouveUe Guinee (1776). 

VisoKS. P.Z.S. 1831. 

V. Kittlitz. Memoires presentea k PAcad. Imp. Sc. de St. Peterab. vol. ii. (1833). Kupfertafeln z. Naturgesch. 
d. Vogel (1832-33). Lutke, Voy. autour du Monde (Postels), vol. iii. (1836). 

J. F. Metkn. Nov. Act. Acad. C. L. C. Nat. Cur. vol. xvi. suppl. prim. (1834). 

Eydoux et SouiETEi. Voy. autour du Monde sur la Bonite. Zoologie, vol. i. (1841). 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAGO. 127 

known work published original descriptions of many species said to have been obtained 
in the Philippines. Most of these are true Philippine species ; but several of them 
were obtained in other parts of the world, and have no claim to a Philippine habitat. 

The next, and certainly the most important, writer was the French traveller 
Sonnerat. He described and figured sixty-five species as having been obtained by him 
when in the Philippines ; but recent researches tend to prove that only thirty are 
inhabitants of that archipelago. Several of his species remain to this day undetermined ; 
yet the descriptions and figures were probably taken from actual specimens ; for, 
although frequently most inaccurate in the localities assigned, Sonnerat does not ap- 
pear, like Levaillant, to have wilfully described manufactured species or given false 
habitats. Besides the species made known in his ' Voyage to New Guinea,' Sonnerat 
brought to Paris several Philippine specimens, which were subsequently described by 
Buffon or by Montbeillard, and figured by D'Aubenton. On many of the Brissonian 
descriptions Linneeus founded titles ; and to nearly all the plates in Sonnerat's work 
Scopoli, and after him Gmelin, gave binominal designations ; while some of the species 
described in the'Histoire Naturelle,' or figured in the 'Planches Enluminees,' received 
names from either Ludwig Statins Miiller, Gmelin, or Latham, and in some cases from 
all of these writers. Subsequent authors generally named the species they described ; 
and consequently little diificulty is encountered in the endeavour to recognize their 
species. 

The first and only attempt to construct a complete list of the Philippine avifauna 
was made by Dr. v. Martens, to whom I have already alluded. That learned naturalist 
enumerates 194' species. From these I have been obliged to deduct 24, — 4 from 
being undeterminable, 7 because they are not found in the Philippines, 2 because the 
Philippine habitat is not satisfactorily established, and 11 because they bear as distinc- 
tive titles the synonyms of species already catalogued under other titles. 

Thus the list is reduced to 170 species, to which I have been able to add only 49, 
making the number of authentically known Philippine birds 219. This number is 
small, and may be eventually increased when the archipelago has been more completely 
investigated. Yet it may be fairly doubted whether the Philippines will ever be found 
to be so rich in species as the remainder of the Indo-Malayan subregion. Our know- 
ledge of this avifauna is not sufficient to support any general conclusions ; but enough 
is known to establish the fact that the Philippine archipelago, like Celebes, is a border 



Peaie. Zool. Un. St. Expl. Exped. 1st edition (1848). 

jAcauiNOT et PuCHEEAir. Voy. au Pole Sud sur I'Astrolabe et la Zele'e. Zoologie, vol. iii. (1853). 
Cassin. Unit. St. Expl. Exp. Ornith. 2nd edition (1858). 

E. v. Mabtens. Preussische Exped. nach Ost-Asien. Zool. (1865). Jonrnal fur Ornithologie (1866). 
Wauden & Lataed. Ibis, 1872, p. 93. 

' The numbering reaches to only 192 ; but Dasyhplms nmiwji, although catalogued, is not numbered, and 
the number 154 is repeated. 

s2. 



128 



VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIRDS 



land, linking, as it were, the Papuan and Indian regions. As we quit the mainland of 
the Indian region in the south-east, it is well known that the Indo-Ethiopian types 
diminish in number ; and in the Philippines, as in Celebes, they may be said to be at 
their minimum. But along with them many Indo-Malayan types also disappear from 
both these insular areas ; while, on the other hand, they are replaced by peculiarly 
Papuan generic forms, and by a few peculiar forms not in numbers sufficient to balance 
the absence of the Indo-Ethiopian and the Indo-Malayan. We consequently find an ornis 
more anomalous in its admixture of forms, but poorer as regards species. So far as we 
know, it may be asserted that, after Celebes, the Philippine archipelago is the least rich 
in Indian genera and species of all the subareas of the Indian region; while, like 
Celebes, it is stamped with a marked Papuan character by the presence of Cacatua and 
Megapodius, and by its richness in members of the Psittacidce, Alcedinidm, and 
Columbidce. 

A glance at the table below will show the dearth existing in the Philippines of Indo- 
Malayan forms. Nine of these absent genera occur in Celebes, while the remaining 
sixty genera are wanting in both areas. On the other hand, thirty Indo-Malayan genera 
wanting in Celebes occur in the Philippines. 



Table I, — Sho^i 


dug the principal Indo- 


•Malayan Genera wanting 


in the Philippines, 


N.B. 


Those occurring also in 


. Celebes are marked with 


an asterisk. 


*Polioaetus. 


Brachypteryx. 


Enicurus. 


Palaeornis. 


■*Neopus. 


*Trichastoma. 


Platylophus. 


Megalaima. 


Ketupa. 


Mixornis. 


Tephrodornis. 


Meiglyptes. 


Bulaca. 


Malacopteron. 


Buchanga. 


Hemicircus. 


Phodilus. 


Macronus. 


Dissemurus. 


Micropternus. 


Batrachostomus. 


Alcippe. 


Chaptia. 


Crysophlegma. 


Eurylaimus. 


Timalia. 


Bhringa. 


Tiga. 


Psarisomus. 


Garrulax. 


Hemipus. 


Sasia. 


Cory don. 


Pomatorhinus. 


Tchitrea. 


Dendrophila. 


Cymbirhy nchus . 


Pteruthius. 


*Myiolestes. 


Ehopodytes. 


Calyptomena. 


Analcipus. 


Cissa. 


Coccystes. 


Nyctiornis. 


Myiophonus. 


Temnurus. 


Peloperdix. 


Chalcoparia. 


Phyllornis. 


Dendrocitta. 


Perdicula. 


*Anthreptes. 


lora. 


Crypsirbina. 


Pavo. 


*^thopyga. 


Brachypodius. 


Eulabes. 


Argusianus. 


*Arachiiothera. 


lole. 


Ploceus. 


Polypectrou. 


*Prionocliilus. 


Criniger. 


Mirafra. 


Euplocamus. 


*Geocichla. 









The number of species peculiar to the Philippine archipelago, namely 106, amounts 
to nearly half of the total of known Philippine birds. This proportion is considerably 
less in the island of Celebes, where, out of a known total of 205 species, 73 only are 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE ARCHIPELAGO. 129 

peculiar to the island. Not one single species is common to the Philippines and 
Celebes which does not at the same time possess a more extended range ; and Prioni- 
turus is the only genus which is common to the two areas and unknown to extend 
beyond. The Papuan affinities of the Philippine ornis are only generic ; for no 
Philippine species with a Papuan range occurs which does not also range into other 
areas. On the other hand, the great bulk of Philippine birds, exclusive of the Palse- 
arctic (which are nearly all migratory forms), are Indo-Malayan in character ; but here, 
again, the Indo-Malayan affinities are mostly generic, and not specific — a result easily 
explained by the fact that, of the 150 Philippine species belonging to the Rapaces, 
Picarise, Passeres, and Columbse, 9G are peculiar to the archipelago. 

The table annexed shows that the whole of the Philippine members of the families 
Psittacidoe, Cuculidce, Bucerotidce, Pittidce, Irenidce, Paridce, Meliphagidw, Nectariniidce, 
and Bicruridce are peculiar to the archipelago, while the greater proportion of the 
Strigidce, Picidm, Alcedinidw, Canijiephagidm, Muscicapidw, Brachypodidce, Corvidw, 
TreronidoB, and Golumbidm are also unknown beyond its limits. 

Table II. — Showing by Families the proportion of Species peculiar to the 

Philippine Islands. 

Number of Number 

Families. Species. peculiar. 

Psittacidae " . . 9 . . . . 9 

Falconidse 15 .... 4 

Strigidse 4 .... 3 

Picidae 6 .... 5 

Trogonidfe I .... I 

Meropidae 2 .... I 

Coraciidse 1 .... 

AlcedinidsB 13 .... 7 

Capitonidse 2 .... 

Cypselidse 2 .... 1 

Caprimulgidse 3 .... 3 

Cucididae 9 .... 9 

Bucerotidse 4 .... 4 

Laniidae' 3 .... 1 

Artamidse 1 .... 

Campephagidae 6 .... 4 

Dicruridae 2 .... 2 

Muscicapidae 6 .... 4 

Hinmdinidse 2 .... 

Oriolidae 2 .... 2 

Turdidffi 2 .... 

Pittid* . . . . ■ 2 .... 2 

Crateropodidae 2 .... 



130 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIRDS 

Number of Number 

Families. Species. peculiar. 

Irenidse 1 .... 1 

Brachjrpodidae 4 .... 3 

Saxicolidse 5 .... 2 

Sylviidse • ... 6 .... 4 

Motacillidae 4 .... 1 

Paridae 1 .... 1 

Meliphagidse 1 .... 1 

Nectariniidae 4 .... 4 

Certhiidse 1 .... 1 

Corvidfe 1 .... 1 

Stumidse 4 .... 3 

FringillidEe 1 .... 

Ploceidffi 4 .... 3 

Ti'eronidse 10 .... 7 

Columbidae 4 .... 3 

Gouridse 4 .... 1 

Phasianidse 1 .... 

Tetraonidse 2 .... 1 

Turnicidse 1 .... 1 

Kollulid* 1 .... 1 

Megapodiidae 1 .... 

Charadriidse 8 .... 

Glareolidse 1 .... 

Gallinulidae 4 .... 1 

EallidiB 8 .... 2 

Paridfe 1 .... 

Scolopacidse 9 .... 

Ardeidse 11 .... 1 

Anatidse 4 .... 2 

Procellariidse 1 .... 

Laridse 5 .... 

Podicipidse 1 .... 1 

Pelecanidse 6 .... 

Plotidse 1 .... 

By the subjoined table (Appendix), showing the geographical distribution of all 
the known Philippine species, it will be seen that 11 of the genera are peculiar, namely 
Pseudoptynx, Lasylophus, Lepidogrammus, Penelopides, Psendolalage, Zeocephns, Bhab- 
dornis, Sarcops, Phaphitreron, Ptilocolpa, and Amaurorms. 

It will be further observed that the precise habitat of 57 Philippine birds remains 
still unrecorded, and that out of the total number of Philippine species 91 are recorded 
from Luzon alone. Of the 102 species known to inhabit other islands of the archipelago, 
40 possess also a Luzon habitat. If we assume, which we may fairly do, that the 57 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAGO. 



131 



species classed under the general term of Philippine in the table are nearly all, if not 
all, inhabitants of Luzon, the total number of species known to inhabit that island will 
be 190. The number of species known to inhabit the remaining- islands is given at the 
bottom of their respective columns, the incompleteness of our knowledge with regard 
to them being illustrated by the small total of 19 representing the number of authentic 
species in the large and important island of Mindanao, and also by the entire and 
enforced omission of many other large islands. Of Mindanao, with an estimated area 
of 36,000 square miles, the few species we know come from the immediate neighbour- 
hood of Zamboanga. Of Luzon, the whole of the island north of Manilla has yet to be 
explored. The islands of Palawan, Mindoro, Samar, Leyte, Masbale, Bohol, the 
Calamines, and the multitude of smaller islands are almost absolutely unknown. 

As might be anticipated from analogy with other isolated areas, some of the Philip- 
pine islands, although only separated by narrow seas, possess species peculiar to them- 
selves. Although well defined, these are strictly representative forms. Those that are 
known are given below; and doubtless many more cases of representation will be 
discovered when the islands have been more thoroughly explored. 

Table III. — Showing the Representative Forms which are known to inhabit 

the Philippines only. 





Luzon. 


Panay. 


Negros. 


Zebu. 


Mindanao. 


Loriculus philippensis 


* 

» 

* 
* 

* 


* 


* 
* 

» 


* 


» 
» 

* 


regulus 


hartlaubi 


chrysonotus 


occipitalis 


Chrysocolaptes hoematribon 

xanthocephalus . . . . 


Actenoides hombroni 




Penelopides manilla 


panini 


Dicruru8 balicassius 


mirabilis 





Only one species is common to a PhiHppine island and to any one other non-Philip- 
pine island — namely Xantholcema rosea, which is restricted to the islands of Negros and 
of Java. X. hcemace])hala, the common Luzon Barbet, which ranges all over India and 
is found in Sumatra and the Malay peninsula, does not seem to occur in Negros, where 
X. rosea appears to represent it, as it also does in Java. 

It is also a remarkable fact that the only Philippine representative of the highly 
characteristic Indian family of the Pericrocotidoe is the abnormal and only migratory 
member of the group, P. cinereus. 



132 VISCOUNT WALDBN ON THE BIRDS 



PSITTACI. 

PLYCTOLOPHID^. 

Cacatua, Vieillot. 

1. *'CaCATUA H^MATUEOPTGIA. 

Cacatua minor, Brisson, Orn. iv. p. 212, no. 11, "Philippines/' 

Le petit Kakatoes a bee couleur de chair, Buffon, Hist. Nat. vi. p. 96 [pair, non indie.) . 

Petit Kakatoes des Philippines, D'Aubenton, PI. Enl. 191. 

Psittacus haemaiuropygitis, L. S. Miiller, S.N. Suppl. p. 77, no. 51 (1776) ex Buffon; Walden & 

Layard, Ibis, 1872, p. 96. 
Psittacus pMHppinarum, Gm. S.N.i. p. 331, no. 95 (1788) ex Brisson; O. Finsch, Monogr. Papag. 

i. p. 310; V. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 21, no. 112. 
Lophochroa minor (Briss.), O. Finsch, Nederd. Tijdschr. Dierk. Berigten, 1863, p. xxiii, " Luqon." 

Hah. Luzon, Guimaras, Negros {Meyer). 

No discernible distinction between the sexes, except that in the male {fide Meyer) 
the wing exceeds by about half an inch that of the female. 

Dr. B. Meyer has kindly obliged me ^vith the following remarks:— '-The Philippine 
Cacatua is unUl on all the different islands I visited. All my specimens were shot in 
the forest. It abounds on Luzon, Guimaras, Negros, in the forests; there I saw it 
myself; but I do not doubt it will be the same on the other islands," 

PSITTACID^. 

Peionitueus, Wagler. 

2. * Peionitueus discueus. 

Psittacus discurus, Vieillot, Gal. des Ois. i. p. 7, pi. 26, "Mindanao" (1825)'. 
Psittacus spatuliger ( ? ), Bourjot, Perr. pi. 53, "Mindanao" (1837-8). 
Pionias discurus (VieUl.), O. Finsch, Monogr. Papag. ii. p. 401. 
Urodiscus discurus (Vieill.), G. E. Gray, Hand-list, no. 8047, "Philippine Isl." 
Urodiscus spatidiger (Bouijot), G. R. Gray, torn. cit. no. 8048, "Manilla." 

Hob. Luzon, Guimaras {Meyer) ; Mindanao {Cuming). 

An example from Guimaras ( ? fide Meyer) has the top and back of the head turning 
to blue, as in the male, and closely resembles a male fi-om Luzon. 

A Luzon individual ( <? fide Meyer) has the entire body-plumage bright yellow-green 
without any traces of blue or verditer about the head. All the lateral rectrices have a 

• Species with an asterisk prefixed are peculiar to the Philippines. 

' Dr. 0. Finsch {I. c.) gives 1834. 1825 is the date on the titlepage of the first volume ; but as the work 
appeared in parts, the date of the second part is probably earlier than even 1825. The plate is quoted in the 
Tableau Encyclopedique, vol. iii. p. 13G9, published in 1823. 



IKHABITIIS^G THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAGO. 133 

broad deep-blue terminal band, much fresher and more intense in colour than in the 
adult male. Wing slightly shorter ; but naked shafts of middle rectrices quite as long 
as in the adult male. Seemingly first plumage. 

Another from Luzon ( ^ fide Meyer), in the same uniform light green plumage, but 
with the blue of the terminal caudal band less intense, the wing much shorter, and the 
shafts of middle rectrices naked only on one side, the naked part not exceeding a 
quarter of an inch. A still younger bird. 

In an old Guimaras male the naked shafts measure an inch only, instead of two and 
a half or three inches. 

If all these examples are correctly sexed, the adult male and female plumages do 
not differ. 

I agree with Dr. O. Finsch (torn. cit. p. 404) in uniting P. discurus and P. spatuliger. 

Tanygnathus, Wagler. 
8. * Tantgnathus luconensis. 

Psittacus lucionensis, Brisson, Orn. iv. p. 295j no. 41^ " Lucjon." 

Psittacus lucionensis, Linn.j S.N. i. p. 146, no. 31 (1766), ex Briss. 

La Perruche de I'isle de Luqon, Sonnerat, Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 80, pi. 44. 

La Perruche aiix ailes chamarees, BufFon, Hist. Nat. vi. p. 151. 

Perroquet de I'isle de Luqon, D'Aubeut. PI. Enl. 287. 

Psittacus marginatus, L. S. MuUer, S.N. Suppl. p. 77, no. 54 (1776), ex Buffon. 

Psittacus gala, Bodd. Tabl. PL Enl. p. 17 (1783) ex D'Aubent. 

Psittacus pileatus, Scopoli, Del. Fl. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. (85) 86, no. 21 (1786), ex Sonn. 

Psittacus olivaceus, Gm., S.N. i. p. 326, no. 76 (1788), ex BufFon. 

Psittacus marginatus, Gm., torn. cit. p. 324, no. 71 (1788), ex Sonn. 

La Perruche aux ailes chamarees, Le Vaillant, Perr. pi. 60. 

Psittacus phrtjffius, Sbaw, Gen. Zool. rai. pt. 21. p. 421 (1811), ex Le Vaillant. 

Eclectus luconensis (Linn.), O. Finsch, Monogr. Papag. ii. p. 362. 

Tanygnathus muelleri, ap. Walden & Layard, Ibis, 1872, p. 95, " Negros." 

Hab. Luzon, Guimaras (Meyer) ; Negros (L. C. Layard). 

An old male from Guimaras, with the whole head, the nape, and cheeks blue, has the 
uropvgium green without a trace of blue. 

A Luzon female {fide Meyer) has the forehead, crown, and cheeks green, and only 
the back part of the head and the nape blue, a verditer shade on the uropygium. A 
Luzon male {fide Meyer) exactly resembles the last, but has the middle of the back blue 
like the nape. Dimensions in all three alike. 

Cyclopsitta, Hombron & Jacquinot. 

4. * Cyclopsitta lukulata. 
Petite Permche a collier de I'isle de Luqon, troisieme espece, Sonn. Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 77, pi. 39. 
Psittacus lunulatus, Scopoli, Del. Fl. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 86, no. 24 (1786), ex Sonn. 

VOL. IX. — PART II. A^ml, 1875. ^ 



134 VISCOITNT WALDEN ON THE BIEDS 

Psittacus torquatus, Gm. S.N. i. p. 351, no. 134 (1783), ex Sonn.; Lear, lUustr. Psitt. pi. 40. 
Psittacus loxia, Cuv. Mus. Paris, Lesson, Tr. p. 204, " Manilla," adult (1831) ; Pucherau, Rev. Mag. 

Zool. 1853, p. 163 ; Bourjot, torn. cit. pi. 94. 
Psittacula squamo-torquata, Bourjot, Perr. pi. 97 (1837-8), ex Lear. 
Cyclopsitta loxia (Cuv.), Bp. Eev. et Mag. Zool. 1854, p. 154. 
Psittacus lunulata et loxias, O. Finsch, Monogr. Papag. ii. pp. 616, 618; v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, 

p. 21, nos. 118, 117; G. R. Gray, Hand-list, nos. 8377, 8376. 
Psittacula lunulata, Gray, Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Psittaci, p. 72. 

Hab. Luzon, both forms {Meyer) ; Mindanao, both forms ( Cuming). 
P. lunulatus. Scop., and P. loxia, Cuv., are treated of as two distinct species by Dr. 
O. Finsch in his admirable monograph {I. c), but seemingly with some doubt, and 
chiefly on the ground that he had failed to find, among the numerous examples he 
had examined, a single individual in a transition phase, — that is, combining partly the 
distinctive characters of both. Yet as far back as 1853 Dr. Pucheran, in one of his 
valuable essays on the types contained in the Paris Museum (I. c), more than suggested 
that P. loxia, Cuv., was the same bird as P. torquatus, Gm. (=P. lunulatus. Scop.). 
Cuvier's type, it seems, did display, along with the blue collar ', a few feathers, " pretes 
a disparaitre," with yellow crescents bordered with black. Professor Schlegel {I.e.) 
without hesitation unites the two species. 

From a note on the label of a Luzon example of true P. loxia, Cuv., marked thus by 
Dr. Meyer " Psittacula lunulata (not loxias, which is the ^ of lunulata)," it is to 
be inferred that Dr. Meyer considers that the two forms constitute one species. The 
mode of expression used is, of course, not accurate ; for the individual thus noted is 
actually P. loxia, Cuv. ; and there is evident confusion in the application of the 
masculine symbols. But the Doctor's meaning is probably that the blue-collared bird 
is the male of the necklaced form. Of five examples, three, with blue collars, are 
marked as males ; one with a lunated collar and uropygium is also marked as a male ; 
and the fifth, also with a lunated collar, as being a female. This last has the crescentic 
markings on the lower back faintly indicated ; the three blue-collared individuals 
do not exhibit a trace anywhere. 

From Dr. Meyer's specimens and Dr. Pucheran's remarks on Cuvier's type, the 
following conclusions may therefore be arrived at : — first, that the blue collar is indica- 
tive of the adult male ; secondly, that young males possess the necklaced collar, and 
present crescentic markings on the lower back ; thirdly, that females do wear the 
same plumage as young males. There is, however, no positive evidence to prove that 
adult females do not put on the garb of adult males, although Dr. Meyer's somewhat 
confused note makes it likely that they do not. 

' Dr. Pucheran does not mention the blue collar in so many words ; but he refers to the individual as 
Cuvier's type, and that is described by Lesson {I. c.) as having the tour de la gorge bleu. Indeed the. blue 
collar is the distinctive character of P. loxia, Cuv, 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAGO. 135 

The length of the wing in one young male is greater than in the three adult males, 
as herewith shown. 

1. (J adult. 3-87; iris yellow-brown {Meyer) : P. loxia, Cuv. 

2. S adult. 3-87 : P. loxia, Cuv. 

3. (J adult. 3-86. 

4. $ juv. 400 ; P. lunulatus, Scop. 

5. ? 3-75; iris yellow-brown (Afeyer) : P. lunulatus, Scop. 



LoRicuLus, Blvth. 



5. * LORICULUS PHILIPPENSIS. 



Psittacula philippensis, Briss. Orn. iv. p. 393, no. 87, "Philippines" (1760) ; Meyen, Nov. Act. 

Ac. C. L. C. Nat. Cur. xvi. Suppl. prim. p. 94, " Manilla." 
Le coulacissi, BufFon, Hist. Nat. Ois. vi. p. 169, ex Brissou. 
Perruche des Philippines, D'Aubent. PI. Enl. 520, f. I. 

Psittacus philippensis, L. S. Miiller, S. N. Suppl. p. 80, no. 68 (1776), ex Buffon. 
Psittacus galgulus, var. /3, Gm. S. N. i. p. 349, no. 46, ex Briss. 

Psittacula ruhrifrons. Vigors, Phil. Mag. 1831, p. 147, ? ; Lear, Illustr. Psitt. pi. 41. 
Psittacula ciilacissi, Wagler, Monogr. p. 626 (1832) ; O. Finsch, Monogr. Papag. ii. p. 705; G. 

R. Gray, Hand-list, no. 8181. 
? Petite Perruche de I'isle de Luqon, Sonn. Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 77, pi. 40. fig. sup., ? . 
? Psittacus melanopterus, Scopoli, Del. Fl. Faun. lusubr. ii. p. 86, no. 23, ^ (1786), ex Sonn. 
f Psittacus minor ( $ ), Gm. torn. cit. p. 351, no. 135 (1788), ex Sonn. 

Hab. Luzon {Meyer). 

6. * LORICULUS EEGULtrS. 

Loriculus regulus, Souance, Rev. et Mag. Zool. 1856, p. 22, " patr. incert ■'' v. Martens, J. f. O. 
1866, p. 21, no. 114; G. R. Gray, List Brit. Mus. 

Hab. Negros [Meyer). 

A large series of specimens, obtained by Dr. Meyer in the island of Negros, apparently 
belong to this species of Lorikeet. The origin of Souance's type is unknown ; but an 
individual obtained by Cuming in Mindanao was identified with Souance's species by 
Mr. G. E. Gray {I. c.). This example furnished Dr. O. Finsch' (Papag. ii. p. 710) with 
the descriptions cited. The example, however, appears to be no longer extant (Hand- 
list, no. 8182). Dr. Meyer's Negros specimens agree well with the original description 
of L. regulus, and to that species I provisionally refer them ; but until they are com- 

' Since the above was written, Dr. 0. Finsch has described the Mindanao species, OoryUis regulus (Souancd) 
apud Finsch (Papag. ii. p. 710), as distinct from the true L. regulus, Souance', under the title of CoryUis 
occipitalis (Ibis, 1874, p. 208). It will therefore stand in this list as no. " 6 bis * Loriculus occipitalis (Finsch). 
Hah. Mindanao." 

t2 



136 VISCOUNT "WALDEN ON THE BIEDS 

pared with actual Mindanao examples their identity must continue doubtful. The 
peculiarly restricted ranges of the different Philippine species of Loriculus render it 
not unlikely that Cuming's specimens, if really indigenous to Mindanao, may belong to 
a representative form. 

Three examples ( ? Jide Meyer) are without the orange-red pectoral plastron. In one 
a large yellow patch replaces the orange-red plastron of the male. In another this 
yellow space is less distinctly indicated ; and in this specimen the feathers surrounding 
the base of the mandible, and the feathers of the throat, are verditer blue. The 
remaining under surface of these three examples is more or less light yellow-green, and 
not dark grass-green as in the adult male. Above the female is hardly distinguishable 
from tlie adult L. 2^^iilip]}ensis 6 , the golden occipital patch of the adult male being 
absent, while the golden nuchal stripe is fully developed. A fourth example ( ? Jide 
Meyer) has the entire body green, with the exception of the rump and upper tail- 
coverts, which are scarlet. 

7. * LOEICULUS HARTLAUBI. 

Coryllis hartlauU, O. Finsch, Monogr. Papag. ii. p. 701, "Mindanao" (1868). 

Loriculus melanopterus (Scop.), G. R. Gray, List Psitt. Brit. Mus. p. 55, fide O. Finsch, I. c. 

Loriculus ajncalis, Souance, G. R. Gray, torn. cit. p. 56, fide O. Finsch I. c. nee Souance. 

? Petite Perruche de I'isle de Lucon, Sonu. Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 77, pi. 40. fig. inf. J . 

^. Psittacus melanopterus, Scopoli, Del. Fl. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 86, no. 23, S (1~86), ex Sonn. 

Loriculus melanopterus et apicalis, G. R. Gray, Hand-list, uos. 8175, 8176. 

Loriculus apicalis, Souance, v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 21, no. 115, nee Souance. 

JIai. Mindanao {Cuming). 

The above title was founded by Dr. 0. Finsch {I. c.) on some examples of a Lorikeet 
obtained by Mr. Cuming in Mindanao, and contained in the British Museum. One of 
these individuals Mr. G. R. Gray {I. c.) had identified with P. melano])terus, Scopoli, and 
the other with L. apicalis, Souance. The last title belongs with little doubt to 
L. indicus (Gm.) (conf. O. Finsch, torn. cit. p. 718). The former is based on the two 
figures given by Sonnerat in his 40th plate (to7n. cit.). These two figures, thougli given by 
Sonnerat as representing the two sexes of a Luzon parrot, belong clearly to two distinct 
species. The so-called male is described by that author as having the top of the head 
red, and the throat blue ; while the female is said to differ in having the tliroat and 
the feathers surrounding the base of the bill red, and in having a yellow spot on the 
back of the neck. If it had been made clear by Somierat that the summit of the head 
in his so-called female was also red, there would be no difficulty in showing that he was 
describing an example oi L. ])liilij)iiensis; and to that species I have already referred his 
upper figure, although with doubt. The so-called male, represented by the lower figure, 
on the whole appears to agree best with L. indicus ; and to this species Dr. O. Finsch 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAGO. 137 

has referred it [torn. cit. p. 715). Yet it is not impossible that a Mindanao example of 
L. hartlauhi may have been Sonnerat's type ; and this view is maintained by Mr. G. E. 
Gray in the Hand-list. But the title of melanopterus, Scop., cannot be used, as it 
applies to two distinct species ; therefore that of hartlauhi, O. Finsch, will have, under 
any circumstances, to be adopted. 

AVhat species Dr. v. Martens {torn. cit. p. 21, no. 116) intended to indicate under the 
title of Loriculus melanopterus (Scop.), it is impossible to determine. " Kehle blau, ein 
Flecken im Nacken gelb," does not apply to any Loriculus that I am acquainted with. 

8. * LOBICULUS CHRTSONOTUS. 
Loriculus chrysonotus, Sclater, Ibisj 1872, p. 333, pi. xi., " Zebu." 

Hab. Zebu {Meyer). 

The example referred to by Dr. O. Finsch (Papag. ii. p. 711) of L. regulus in the 
British Museum, with nape and back golden, belongs probably to this species. 

The following eleven species of Parrots have been described or else enumerated as 
inhabitants of the Philippines. 

(1) Petite Perruche de Tisle de Lugon, premiere espece, Sonn. op. cit. p. 76, pi. 38. 
fig. inf. 

Psittacus pumilus, Scopoli, tovi. cit. p. 87, no. 26 (1786), ex Sonn. 
Cori/llis galgulus (Linn.), O. Finsch, op. cit. ii. p. 699. 

So far as is at present known, this species is restricted to Malacca, Sumatra, and 
Borneo. 

(2) Petite Perruche de Visle de Lu^on, seconde espece, Sonn. op. cit. p. 76, pi. 38, 
fig. sup. 

Psittacus leucophthalmus, Scopoli, torn. cit. p. 87, no. 25 (1786), ex Sonn. ; v. Martens, 
J. I O. 1866, p. 22, no, 119, " Luzon." 

Psittacus simplex, Kuhl, Conspectus Psittac. p. 66, no. Ill (1820), ex Sonn. 

Psittacula passerina (Linn.), O. Finsch, tom. cit. p. 648. 

Dr. O. Finsch has, with some doubt, identified this Parrot with the well-known South- 
American species. The learned Doctor, however, separates it as a variety characterized 
by possessing a blue nuchal spot. Sonnerat is silent as to such a character. Scopoli 
does not add it, nor does Kuhl. Latham alone mentions a variety of P. capensis, Gm. 
(=P. passerinus, Linn., av. juv.), as being represented in one of Lady Impey's drawings, 
with a blue spot on the lower part of the neck, — the freak of some imaginative 
native artist 1 {conf. Lath. Gen. Hist. ii. 274, no. 229, var. B). 

Mr. G. R. Gray (List of Psittacidce in Brit.Mus. p. 91, no. 26) records P. leucophthalmus, 
Scop., as being contained in the British Museum, and adds Luzon as its origin. Dr. v. 
Martens {I. c.) gives Cuming as the collector of this example. According to the Hand- 



138 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIEDS 

list, no. 8358, the specimen is no longer extant, and the habitat of the species is 
left undetermined. 

(3) La petite Perruche de IHsle de Lufon, Sonnerat, Voy. Nouv. Gain. p. 78, pi. 41. 
Psittacus dngulatus, Scopoli, Del. Fl. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 86, no. 22 (1786). 
Psittacus melanopterus, Gm. S. N. i. p. 350, no. 132 (1788). ' 

Psittacus micropterus, Kuhl, Conspectus Psittac. p. 67, no. 113 (1820), ex Sonn. 
Psittacula cingulata (Scopoli), O. Finsch, Monogr. Papag. ii. p. 677. 
A South-American species. 

(4) La Perruche de Visle de Lugon, Sonn. op. cit. p. 79, pi. 42. 
Psittacus signatus, Scopoli, torn. cit. p. 26, no. 19 (1786), ex Sonn. 
Palceornis cyanocephalus (Linn.), O. Finsch, op. cit. ii. p. 40. 
Continental India and Ceylon only. 

(5) La Perruche a collier de Visle de Lugon, Sonn. op. cit. p. 80, pi. 43. 
Psittacus guianensis, Scop., torn. cit. p. 86, no 20 (1786), ex Sonn. 
Psittacus sonnerati, Gm., torn. cit. p. 324, no. 72 (1788), ex Sonn. 
Palceornis exipatrius (Linn.), O. Finsch, torn. cit. p. 11. 

This Parakeet Dr. O. Finsch {I. c.) has identified, without doubt, with the large 
Alexandrine Parrakeet of Indian authors. Sonnerat's description, however, does not 
agree well with that species, nor with any other known to me. 

(6) Psittacus manillensis, Bechstein, Stubenvogel, p. 612, no. 161, " Manilla ; " Kurze 
Uebersicht, p. 75, no. 50, "Africa, Philippines, especially Manilla" (1811). 

Palceornis torquatus (Bodd.), O. Finsch, torn. cit. p. 17. 

Certainly not a Philippine species. 

(7) Palceornis gironnieri, Verr. Rev. et Mag. Zool. 1853, p. 195, "Philippines." 
Palceornis calthropce, Layard, J. A. S. B. 1849, p. 800, "Ceylon." 

Confined to Ceylon. 

(8) Eclectus linnei, Wagler ; G. R. Gray, List Brit. Mus. Psittacidw, p. 65, no. 1, 
'Philippines;" Hand-list, no. 8239, "Philippines." 

and 

(9) Eclectus ceylonensis (Bodd,), G. R. Gray, op. cit. p. 65, no. 3, " Philippine Isl." 
Eclectus roratus (L. S. MiiUer), G. R. Gray, Hand-list, no. 8240, " Philippines ;" 

are well-kno^vn species, restricted to the Papuan subregion. 

(10) Lorius philippensis, Briss. Orn. iv. p. 225, no. 16, "Philippines." 
Psittacus lory, Linn. S. N. i. p. 145, no. 26 (1766), ex Briss. 

Lorius tricolor, Stephens, G. R. Gray, List Brit. Mus. Psittacidce, p. 50, no. 4, 
" Philippine Isl." 

North of New Guinea, Waigiou, and Mysol. 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAGO. 139 

(11) Lorius garrulus (Linn.), Meyen, Nov. Act. vol. xvi. suppl. prim. p. 95. 

A purely Malaccan species, although stated by Meyen {I. c.) to come from the more 
southern Philippine islands. 



RAPACES. 

FALCONID^. 

Falconing. 

Htpoteioechis, Boie. 

9. Hypotkiorchis severus. 

Falco severus, Horsf. Tr. L. S. xiii. p. 135, "Java" (1821) ; Waldeu & Layard, Ibis, 1872, p. 98. 
Falco guttatus, G. K. Gray,- Ann. N. H. xi. p. 371, "Philippine Islands" (1843). 

Hah. Philippines {G. JR. Gray); Negros {L. C. Layard). 

An example of each of the two following species of Falcons, said to have been 
obtained in the Philippines, is contained in the Museum at Norwich. Although there 
is nothing absolutely impossible in either, or both, of these species occurring in the 
archipelago, I refrain from treating them as authentically ascertained Philippine species, 
the evidence in favour of their Philippine origin requiring confirmation. 

Falco jjeregrinus, Gm., an adult female, "Manilla"] 

Falco melanogenys, Gould, a female, not quite mature, " Philippiues " ] 

HiEEAx, Vigors. 

10. * HiEEAX ERTTHEOGENYS. 

Hierax erythrogemjs, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 96, "neighbourhood of Manilla ; " Eraser, Zool. 

Typica, pi. 31. 
Falco sericeus, Kittlitz, Kupfert. pt. 1, p. 4, pi. 3. fig. 3, "Philippines" (1832)'; Mem. presentes 

il I'Acad. St. Petersb. vol. ii. pt. 1 & 2, p. 2, pi. 1, "Luzon" (1833). 
Falco gironnierii, Eydoux et Souleyet, Voy. Bonite, Ois. p. 71, pl. 1, " Lufon " (1841). 
lerax erythrogenys, Vig., G. R. Gray, Hand-Hst, no. 221. 
lerax sericeus, Kittlitz, G. R. Gray, torn. cit. no, 222. 

Hah. Luzon {Meyer). 

Kaup in 1850 (Contrib. Orn. 52) united H. erythrogenys with //. sericeus, applying 
Vigors's title to the male, and that of Kittlitz to the female. Dr. v. Martens (J. f. O. 
1866, p. 9) suggested that the two titles belonged to one and the same bird. Mr. J. 
H. Gurney writes to me that he considers //. erythrogenys, Vigors, to be the female 
(and probably the young male also) of H. sericeus (Kittlitz) ; also that M. Jules 

' Striokland (Om. Syn. p. 104) gives 1809 as the date. This must be an error ; for Kittlitz first obtained 
the pair he described from in the year 1S29, whoa vdih the Russian corvette ' Senjavin ' at Manilla. 



140 VISCOTJNT WALDEN ON THE BIRDS 

Verreaux had ascertained by dissection that H. sericeus and H. erythrogenys were male 
and female of the same species. Perhaps it will be eventually shown that the adults of 
both sexes do not differ in coloration, and that the rufous cheeks are a sign of nonage 
common to both sexes. Dr. Meyer's examples are all in the sericeus plumage ; and some 
are marked by him as male, and others as female. In one of the latter the wing measures 
a full half inch longer than in the males ; and the other dimensions are proportionally 
greater. 

E. coerulescens evinces a somewhat analogous tendency, the white forehead and 
supercilium of the adults being rufous in a prior stage of plumage. And this is also to 
be observed in H. entolmus, where, however, the chin and throat are white in the joung 
bird, instead of ferruginous as in the adult. 

On the authority of M. de la Gironniere (Bonite, I. c.) the Philippine Hierax is stated 
to appear in Luzon only in the spring ; and the inference is drawn that it is migratory. 
Dr. Meyer obtained his specimens in January and April. 

In the Hand-list (/. <?.) Mr. G. R. Gray notes H. sericeus as occurring in North 
China. It is not included in either Mr. Swinhoe's list (P. Z. S. 1871), or in that of 
M. Armand David (N. Archiv. Mus. vii.). Mr. Swinhoe, however, recently observed a 
species of Hierax in a collection made by Pere Heude near tShanghai (Ibis, 1873, p. 95); 
but he does not identify the gpecies. 

Hierax melanoleucus, Blyth, is treated by Mr. Strickland (Orn. Syn. p. 104) as a 
synonym of II. sericeus, whereas the Assamese Hierax is a very distinct and well-marked 
species. It differs in having black cheeks, white lores, a white superciliary stripe 
continued along the sides of the head to the neck, white shoulder-edge and under 
shoulder-coverts, and in having all the rectrices except the middle pair with five or 
more white spots on their inner webs, and all the quills numerously barred with white. 
In the Philippine species the tail-feathers, quills, and under shoulder-coverts are black, 
some of the quills being indistinctly mottled with dirty white. It possesses no super- 
cilium ; and the cheeks are white. 

ACCIPITRIN^. 

LoPHOSPizA, Kaup. 

11. LOPHOSPIZA TBIVIRGATA. 

Falco trivirgatus, Tern. PI. Col. 303, " Sumatra" (1834.). 

Astur cristatus, G. R. Gray, Ann. N. H. xi. p. 371, " Philippine Islands" (1843). 

Hab. Philippines {G. R. Gray). 

Mr. J. H. Gurney informs me that Philippine examples of this species are preserved 
in the Norwich Museum. 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE ABCHIPBLAGO. 141 

Teeaspiza, Kaup. 

12. Teeaspiza virgata. 
Falco virgatus, Reinw., Temm. PI. Col. 109, S, "Java" (1824); Schlegel, Vog. Neder. Ind., 

Valkvog. p. 59, pi. 12. f. 1, 2, 3, 4. 
Nisus manillensis, Meyen, Nov. Act. Ac. C. L. C. Nat. Cur. xvi. Suppl. p. 69, pi. i.x. ( ? ), "Manilla 

ia October" {ISM), fide Sharpe. 

Ilab. Luzon, January ; Guimaras, March [Meyer). 



Tachyspiza, Kaup. 

13. Trachtspiza soloensis. 
Falco {Dwdalion) soloensis, Horsf. Tr. L. S. xiii. p. 137, "Java" (1820); Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, 

Astures, p. 44. 
Falco soloensis, Horsf., Lath. Gen. Hist. i. p. 209, no. 137 (1821). 

The Philippine habitat rests on the authenticity of three male examples in perfect 
plumage in the Leyden Museum, and two in the British Museum, all collected by the 
late Mr. Hugh Cuming. 



Aqtjilin^e. 
LiMNAETUS, Vigors. 

14. * LiMNAETUS PHILIPPENSIS. (PI. XXIV.) 
Spizaetus philippensis , Gurney, Gould, Birds of Asia, pt. 15 (sub Spizaeius alboniger), "Philippine 

Islands" (June 1, 1863). 
Spizaetus kienerii, Gervais, Guerin, Mag. Zool. v. pi. 35, " Himalayas " (1835) apud Schlegel, 

Mus. Pays-Bas, Astures, p. 12, " La9on," nee Gervais. 

Hab. Luzon (Gevers). 

The figure is taken from the first of the two examples described by Mr. Gurney (I. c.) ; 
and it will be observed that the Philippine bird nearly resembles the small South- 
Indian and Ceylon race, L. ceylonensis (Gm.). L. kienerii may likewise occur in 
Luzon ; but the single individual in the Leyden Museum, doubtfully referred to it by 
Professor Schlegel, does not agree with what is known of either the young or adult 
plumage of that well-marked species. 

Le Secretaire, Sonn., Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 87, pi. 50, on which were founded the 
Otis secretarius, Scopoli, Del. Fl. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 93, no. 83 (1786), and GyjJo- 
geranus philippensis, Ogilby, P.Z.S. 1835, p. 105, is now known to be indigenous to 
Africa only, although stated by Sonnerat to likewise inhabit the Philippines. 

VOL. IX. — PART II. April, 1875. u 



142 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIEDS 

CuNCUMA, Hodgson. 

15. CUNCUMA LEUCOGASTER. 

White-bellied Sea-eagle, Lath. Synop. i. p. 33, " Pair, ignot." 

Falco leucogaster, Gm. S. N. i. p. 257, uo. 43 (1788), ex Lath.; von Martens, Preus. Exped. Ost- 
Asien, Zool. i. p. 187; Walden & Layard, Ibis, 1872, p. 98. 

Hah. Philippines {v. Martens); Negros? {L. C. Layard). 

Spilornis, G. R. Gray. 

16. * Spilornis HOLOSPiLUS. 

Buteo holospilus, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 96, "neighbourhood of Manilla." 

Hcematornis holospilus (Vigors), Vigors, torn. cit. p. 170; Fraser, Zool. Typica, pi. 29 (1849). 

Spilornis holospilus (Vigors), G. R. Gray, List Birds Brit. Mus., Accipitr. p. 10 (1844). 

Circaetus holospilus (Vigors), G. R. Gray, Gray & Mitch. Genera of Birds, i. pi. 7, " juv ; " id. List 

Birds Brit. Mus., Accipitr. p. 19 (1848) ; Kaup, Isis, 1847, p. 263, " British India & China " 

(!) ; V. Pelzeln, SB. Ak. Wien, 1862, p. 171, "East Indies." 

Hah. Luzon {Meyer) \ Mindanao, Cataguan {Cimiing). 

Mr. Blyth (Ibis, 1866, p. 243) extends the range to South China ; but the species is 
not included by Mr. Swinhoe in his List (P. Z. S. 1871). It appears to be restricted to 
the Philippines. 

MlLVIN^. 

Haliastur, Selby. 

17. Haliastur intermedius. 

Haliastur intermedius, Gurney, Ibis, 1865, p. 28, "Java;" op. cit. 1866, p. 247. 

Haliaetus pondicerianus (Linn.), ap. Meyen, Nov. Act. Ac. C. L. C. Nat. Cur. xvi. suppl. prim. p. 69. 

Haliastur indus (Bodd.), v. Pelzeln, Reise der Novara, Vogel, p. 7, " Philippines." 

Hah. Luzon, April ; Guimaras, March {Meyer). 

The white plumage, more particularly on the head, with black shafts. That of the 
breast almost as in H. leucosternus. The Malaccan Brahminy Kite resembles closely 
that of India, H. indus. 

Elanus, Savigny. 

18. Elanus hypoleucus. 

Elanus hypoleucus, Gould, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 127, "Macassar;" Walden, Tr. Z. S. viii. p. 36. 
Elanus intermedius, Sclilegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Milvi, p. 7, "Java, Borneo, Celebes" (1862). 
Elanus melanopterus, Daud., v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 9, no. 7, nee Daud. 

Hah. Luzon {Jagor). 

Dr. V. Martens appears to be the first and only author who has recorded the existence 
of a Philippine species of the genus Elanus. He identified it with the common African 
and Indian species. I venture, however, to refer it to the Archipelagic form, E. hyj)o- 



INHABITINa THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAGO. 143 

leucus, Gould (P. Z. S. 1859, p. 127), which appears to be equal to E. intermedius, 
Schlegel. 

Baza, Hodgson. 

19. * Baza magnirostkis. 

Baza magnirostris, G. E. Gray, List Birds Brit. Mus., Accipitr. p. 19, " Philippine Islands " 

(1844) ; Walden, Tr. Z. S. viii. p. 36. 
Pernis crassirostris, Kaup, Jard. Contrib. Orn. 1850, p. 77, "Philippine Islands." 
Avicida magnirostris (Kaup), Bp. Comp. i. p. 20, no. 5 (1850) ; id. R. M. Z. 1855, p. 534, no. 114. 

Hab. Philippines {Cuming). 

Mr. Sharpe informs me that he considers the Celebean Baza specifically distinct from 
the Philippine {Conf. Walden, Tr. Z. S. viii. p. 36). 

BuTASTUR, Hodgson. 

20. BUTASTUR INDICUS. 

Javan Hawk, Latham, Gen. Synop. i. p. 34*, nos. 8, 7, " Java" (1781). 
Falco indicus, Gm. S. N. i. p. 264, no. 68 (1788), ex Lath. 
PoUornis indicus (Gm.), Walden, Tr. Z. S. viii. p. 37 (1871). 

Hab. Luzon, February, April; Guimaras, March; Cujo, December {Meyer). 

An old female, from Guimaras, with a very broad superciliary stripe, has four- distinct 
dark brown caudal bands. Several Malaccan examples {mus. iiostr.) perfectly agree with 
those from the Philippines. 

Circus, Lacepede. 

21. Circus melanoleucos. 

Black and White Indian Falcon, Penn. Ind. Zool. 1st ed. pi. i. (1769?) ; Lath. Synop. i. p. 81, 

no. 65, " Ceylon^" ex Pennant. 
Falco melanoleucos, Forster, Zool. Ind. p. 12, pi. 2 (1781), ex Lath. 
Circus melanoleucus (Gm.), Radde, Reisen Ost-Siberien, ii. p. 116, pi. 2. fig. 1; Guruey, Ibis, 

1868, p. 356; Swinhoe, Ibis, 1863, p. 213; Walden & Layard, Ibis, 1872, p. 98. 
Circus, sp., Swinhoe, Ibis, iii. p. 263, no. 12, "Manilla" (1861). . 

Circus cyaneus hudsonius, Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Circi, p. 3,>u. "Lugon;" Gurney, /. c. no. 3; 
Ibis, 1870, p. 444; Swinh., Ibis, 1863, p. 214. 
Hab. Philippines {Gurney, Swinhoe, Gevers); Negros'?(i. C. Layard). 
The Philippine habitat of this Harrier mainly rests on the testimony of Mr. Swinhoe 
{I. c), and on the correct determination of certain immature Philippine examples in 
the Museums of Norwich and Leyden by Mr. Gurney. 

22. Circus spilonotus. 

Circus spilonotus, Kmx^, J&tA. Contrih. Om. 1850, p, 59, "Asia;" Swinhoe, Ibis, 1863, p. 215 
pi. 5 ; Gurney, Ibis, 1868, p. 356. 

Hab. Philippines {Gurney). 

v2 



144 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIRDS 

Authentic Philippine individuals of this Harrier are contained in the Norwich 
Museum {fide Gurney, I. c). It also occurs in the Malay peninsula. 

23. ClECUS ^EUGINOSUS. 

Falco teruginosiis, Linn. S. N. i. p. 130, no. 29 (1766). 

A skin of a young female ohtained in one of the Philippine Islands by the late Mr. 
Hugh Cuming, and now in the British Museum, is our only warrant for admitting the 
Marsh-Harrier as an inhabitant of the Archipelago. 

STRIGID^. 

SUKNIN^. 

NiNOX, Hodgson. 

24. * NiNOX PHILIPPENSIS. (PI. XXV. fig. 1.) 

Nbiox philippensis, Bp. Compt. Rend. xii. p. 655 (1855). 

Noctua hirsuta philippensis, Sclilegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Striges, p. 26, "Philippines" (1862). 

Noctua philippensis, Solilegel, Neder. Tijdschr. Dlerk. 1866, p. 183. 

Athene philippensis, Schlegel, Wallace, Ibis, 1868, p. 22. 

Hab. Luzon, January {Meyer). 

A very distinct form. Each of the major wing-coverts with a bold white drop towards 
the end of the outer web. Rectrices traversed by six narrow ochreous bands. The 
cheek -feathers rigid, decomposed, and considerably developed, extending posteriorly 
sufficiently to cover the ears. 

Longitudo 
alse. caudae. 

6 6-37. 3-62. Luzon. 

6 5-25. 3-62. Luzon. 

BUBONIN^. 

PsEUDOPTrNX, Kaup. 

25. * PSEUDOPTYNX PHILIPPINENSIS. (PI. XXV. fig. 2.) 

Pseudoptynx philippinensis, Kaup, Tr. Zool. Soc. iv. p. 2J4, "Philippines" (1859) ; Schlegel, Mus. 

Pays-Bas, Oti, p. 14. ; Mr. G. R. Gray, Hand-list, no. 456. 
Bubo philippensis, Schlegel, De Dierentuin, pt. i. p. 10, fig. — . 
Syrnium philippense, G. R. Gray, List Birds Brit. Mus., Accipitres, p. 105, "Philippine Islands" 

(1848). 
Otus philippensis, G. R. Gray, Gray & Mitch. Genera, i. p. 40, no. II. 

Hab. Philippines {Cuming). 

An example of this rare Owl, contained in the Leyden Museum, is said to have been 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAGO. 145 

obtained in the Philippines by Cuming. The accompanying figure is from the type 
specimen in the British Museum, obtained by that traveller. 

Lempuius, Bonaparte. 

26. * Lempuius 1 megalotis. (PI. XXV. fig. 3.) 

Ephialtes megalotis, G. R. Gray, Hand-list, i. p. 46, no. 474-, "Manilla" (1869) [descr. nulla). 

Hah. Manilla (?). 

A well-marked species, conspicuous by its long ear-tufts, which measure fully an inch 
and a quarter. The type is preserved in the British Museum, and, although noted by 
Mr. Gray {I. c.) as being a young bird, appears to me to be fully adult. 

Light rufous. Feathers of the head and back with very minute black transverse 
markings, bolder on the long ear-tufts. Under surface tawny rufous, the minute 
transverse markings being pale brown. Quills alternately barred throughout their 
length with pale brown and pale fulvous bands. The brown bands more or less dotted 
with pale fulvous ; the fulvous bands here and there with a narrow pale-brown irregular 
line running through. Eectrices marked and coloured like the quills ; but the bands 
are narrower. Tarsus feathered to the feet, which are naked. Wing 6 ; tail 2-25 ; 
tarsus 1'25. 

The figure is taken from the type specimen. 

Striding. 
ScBLOSTKix, Kaup. 

27. SCELOSTRIX CANDIDA. 

Strix Candida, TickeU, J. A. S. B. 1833, p. 573, "Bengal and the upper Provinces/' Jerdon, 

Illustr. Ind. Om. pi. 30 ; Gould, Birds of Asia, pt. xxiv. pi. 2. 
Strix amauronota, Cab. J. f. O. 1866, p. 9, "Luzon" {descr. nulla) ; op. cit. 1872, p. 316, no. 3 
{descr. princeps) . 
A single example of a long-legged Grass-Owl was obtained in the Philippines by Dr. 
Meyer; but the exact locality was not recorded. In its dimensions it agrees with 
Indian examples, and cannot be separated by any peculiarities of colouring. The 
description lately published by Dr. Cabanis (I. c.) of his Stiix amauronota perfectly 
agrees with the example obtained by Dr. Meyer. S. pithecops, Swinhoe (Ibis, 1866, 
p. 396, " Formosa "), according to Mr. G. H. Gurney {in epist.), also belongs to the 
same species. And Mr. Swinhoe (P. Z. S. 1871, p. 344, no. 56) has identified S.pithe- 
cops with S. Candida, while Mr. Gould has recently (Z.c.) united Australian S. walleri, 
Diggles, with the Indian species. In the Liverpool Museum Mr. Blyth identified two 
Philippine examples of Scelostrix with *S'. Candida (Ibis, 1865, p. 30). Later {op. cit. 
1866, p. 251) that gentleman expressed less confidence in the correctness of his original 



146 



VISCOUNT "WALDEN ON THE BIRDS 



opinion {cmf. op. cit. 1867, p. 184). But in 1870 (op. cit. p. 160) Mr. Blyth surmised that 
the various species above named would be found to be identical. It is perfectly dis- 
tinct from <S'. rosenbergi. 

VICARIM 
VICIDM. 

Theiponax, Cabanis. 
28. Theiponax jatensis. 
Picusjavensis, Horsf. Tr. L. S. xiii. p. 175, 6, "Java" (1820); Walden, Ibis, 1871, p. 164. 
Picus horsfieldii, Wagler, Syst. Av. p. 15, no. 5, 6 (1827), ex Horsf. 
Picus leucogaster, Wagler, I.e. no. 7, ?, "Mindanao;" Isis, 1829, p. 509, 6 ; Reinw., Temm. 

PI. Col. 501, 6, "lies de la Sonde" (1830). 
Dryopicus leucogaster (Reinw.), Malh. Monogr. i. p. 47, pi. 13. f. 4, g ,b, ? . 

Hah. Luzon, Januar7 and April {Meyer); Mindanao [Wagler). 

The crest in these Luzon examples is of a brighter red than in Malaccan and Javan 
individuals ; it is vermilion, as in T. cratvfurdi, whereas in T. hodgsoni and in 
Malaccan and Javan T. javensis it is blood-red. The proportion of white at the insertion 
of the quills corresponds with what is found in Malaccan examples {conf. Walden, I. c). 
On the outer web of the fourth primary of a female a small albescent terminal spot is 
indicated. In the other examples there is no trace. Altogether the Luzon Thriponax 
closely resembles the Javan and Malaccan. By the following table of dimensions it 
will, however, be seen that it is a smaller bird. 

Longitudo 





alsE. 


caudse. 






T. javensis, 


d 8-25. 


7-25. 


East Java. 


Not quite adult 




6 8-50. 


7- 


Malacca. 


Adult. 




? 8-37. 


7-50. 


?j 






S 8-75. 


7-50. 


55 






cf 8- 


7- 


Luzon. 






6 7-75. 


7- 


55 






2 7-60. 


6-50. 


55 





MuLLEEiPicus, Bonaparte. 

29. * MULLERIPICUS FUNEBRIS. 

PicMs/MreeAm, Valenc. Diet. Sc. Nat. vol. 40, p. 179, ?, "Philippines" (1826); Malh. Monogr. 

i. p. 54, pi. 15. fig. 1, <J,2, ?. 
Picus lichtensteinii, Wagler, Syst. Av. p. 25, no. 31, ? , " Patr. incert'" (1827). 

1 Malherbe (I. c.) informs us that Wagler described from the same specimen in the Paris Museum that served 
as Valenciennes' type. 



INHABITIKQ- THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAGO. 147 

Picus modestus, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 98, S > "neighbourhood of Manilla." 
Picus punctatws, Lesson, Tr. p. 230, ? , " Patr. non indie." (1831), nee Vieillot. 
Picus funereus, Lichtenst. in Mus. Berol.,^rfc Cab. Mus. Hein. iv. pt. 3, p. 108. 

Hah. Luzon, January and April {Meyer). 

Belongs to the same section as M. fulvus (Q. & G.). 

Chrtsocolaptes, Blyth. 

30. * Chktsocolaptes h^mateibon. 

Picus hamatribon, W&gler, Syst. Av. p. 46, no. 95 (?), "India?" (1827). 

Picus spilolophus, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 98 (?), "neighbourhood of Manilla." 

" Picus pMlijjpinarum, Gm." ', Lesson, Tr. p. 222 (1831). 

Indopicus hcematribon (Wagler), Malh. Monogr. ii. p. 84, pi. 68. f. 1, d, 2, g juv., 3, ?^ 

Hah. Luzon, January, February, and April {Meyer). 

31. * Chkysocolaptes xanthocephalus. 

Chrysocolaptes xanthocephalus, Walden & Layard, Ibis, 1872, p. 99, pi. iv. " Negros." 
As yet only known to inhabit the island of Negros. 

32. * Chrtsocolaptes lucidus. 

Pic grivele on grand Pic de I'isle de Lucon, Sonnerat, Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 73, pi. 37. 

Picus lucidus, Scopoli^, Del. Fl. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 89, no. 51 (1786), ex Sonn. 

Pic verd des Philippines, D'Aubent., PI. Enl. 691. 

Autre palalaca ou Pic verd tachete des Philippines, BufFon, Hist. Nat. Ois. vii. p. 21. 

Picus aurantius, Linn., Bodd. Tabl. PI. Enl. p. 43 (1783), ex D'Aubent. nee Linn. 

Picus bengalensis, yax. y, Gm. S. N. i. p. 433, no. 13, ex Sonn. et D'Aubent. 

Picus philippinarum,'La.ih.lnd.. Orn. i. p. 236, no. 30 (1790), ex Sonn. et D'Aubent.; Malh. 

Monogr. Picidce, ii. p. 85, pi. 66. figs. 3, 4; v. Martens, J. f O. 1866, p. 20, no. 101. 
Picus palalaca, Cuv. K. An. i. p. 451 (1829), ex D'Aubent. 
Picus squamosus, Less. Ti-aite, p. 230, "Patr. non indie." (1831) ; Pucheran, Rev. et Mag. Zool. 

1853, p. 163. 

Hah. Luzon {Jagor). 

Buffon {torn. cit. p. 20) mentions as a distinct species, under the name of Le Palalaca, 
a large Philippine Woodpecker, described by both Camel and Gemelli Carreri \ and 
said to be of the size of a fowl. The colour of its plumage is stated to be principally 
green. Dr. v. Martens {I. c.) is of opinion that ;palalaca is the native name for P. 
^hilippinarum. 

' Gmelin haa no such title. 

2 Wagler's types were still in the Paris Museum when Malherbe wrote (/. c). 

' Scopoli, who had already given the title of Pkus menstruus to the species figured in Sonnerat's thirty-sixth 
plate, again quoted the thirty-sixth plate and applied the title cited. But the diagnosis lainly refers to the 
bird figured in Sonnerat's thirty-seventh plate. 

* Voy. autour du Monde, Paris, 1719, v. p. 269. 



148 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIEDS 



YuNGiPicus, Bonaparte. 

33. * YUNGIPICUS MACULATUS. 

Le jietit Pic d'Antigue, Sonnerat, Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 118, pi. 77. 

Picus mactdatus, Scopoli, Del. FI. Faun. Insiibr. ii. p. 89, no. 52 (1786), ex Soun. 

Le petit Epeiche, var., Buffon, Hist. Nat. vii. p. 64, ex Sonn. 

Pirns minor, var. /3, Lath. Ind. Orn. i. p. 230, no. 15, ex Sonn.' 

" Picus moluccensis, Gm.," Lesson, Traite, p. 221, " Mindanao," nee Gm. ; Malherbe, Monogr. 

Picida, i. p. 143, " Philippines et Moluques," nee Gm. 
Picus nanus, Vigors, Blyth, J. A. S. B. 1845, p. 197, " patr. incert.," nee Vigors. 
Picus validirostris, Blyth, Cat. Calc. Mus. p. 64, no. 305, "Patr. incog.; " J. A. S. B. 1849, p. 805, 

" Philippines or China ; " Cab. Mus. Hein. iv. pt. 2, p. 60, no. 207, " Philippines ;" G. R. 

Gray, Hand-list, no. 8582; v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 20, no. 106. 
Picus flavinotus, Malherbe, /. c. 
Picus maculatus, Jerd. Birds of India, i. p. 279, "Philippines" (1862). 

Hab. Luzon (Jagor) ; Panay (Sonnerat) ; Mindanao (Lesson). 

The synonyms have been brought together as above on the assumption that Luzon, 
Panay, and Mindanao possess but one species of Yungipicus. 

Malherbe's opinion that this Philippine Woodpecker is identical with BufFon's Fefit 
pic des Moluques, has been satisfactorily disposed of by Dr. Cabanis (l. c). 

Picus analis, Temm., MS. (Horsf. Gen. Cat. Jav. Birds, in Horsf. Zool. Ees. Java,= 
Pictis minor, Linn., ap. Horsf. Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. VII, nee Linn.), is recorded by Mal- 
herbe (Monogr. Picidce, i. p. 100), from Mindanao, but on very insufficient authority. 
Sundevall (Consp. Av. Picinarum, p. 25, no. 69), with reason, doubts its Philippine 
habitat. 

Wagler (Syst. Av. Picus, p. 24, no. 27) describes his Picus variegatus from Manilla 
as well as from Java ; but Dr. Cabanis (Mus. Hein. iv. pt. 2, p. 54) has shown that 
Wagler had only Javan examples, contained in the Munich Museum, before him. 
His species is probably the same as P. moluccensis, Gm. 

The two following species of Woodpecker have been clearly shown by Malherbe 
{op. cit.) to be African, and not Philippine. 

Le pic cardinal de I'isle de Lur-on, Sonneiat, Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 72, pi. .35. 
Picus guineensis, Scopoli, Del. Fl. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 89, no. 49 (1786), ex Sonn. 
Picus cardinalis, Gm. S. N. i. p. 488, no. 51 (17S8), ex Sonn. 
and 

Le pic verd de I'isle de Lu^on, Sonnerat, torn. cit. p. 73, pi. 36. 
Picus menstruus, Scopoli, (oni. cit. p. 89, no. 50 (1786), ex Sonn. 
Picus manillensis, Gm., torn. cit. p. 434, no. 13 (1788), ex Sonn. 



' Gmelin omits aU notice of this species. 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE ARCHIPELAGO. ^ 149 

TROGONID./E. 

Harpactes, Swainson. 

34. * Harpactes ardens. 

Trogon ardens, Temm. PI. Col. 404, ?, "Mindanao" (1836). 

Harpactes rhodiosternus, Peale, Un. St. Expl. Exped. Zool. p. 166, cJ, " near Zamboanga" (1848). 

Pyrotrogon ardens (Temm.), Bp. Consp. Volucr. Zygydactyl. p. 14 (1854). 

Harpactes ardens (Temm.), Gould, Trogonidee, pi. 35. 

Hob. Luzon, 6 , Januaiy {Meyer) ; Mindanao (Peale). 

Temminck's title was founded on an example of a female from Mindanao, that given 
by Peale on a male from the same island. This Luzon male agrees perfectly with 
Peale's description. 

MEROPID^. 

Mekops, Linnaeus, . 

35. Merops philippinus. 

Apiaster philippensis major, Briss. Orn. iv. p. 560, no. 12, pi. 43. f. 1, " ex Philippensibus ins.," descr. 

orig. (1760). 
Merops philippinus, Linn. S. N. ed. xiii. (Vindob.), i. p. 183, no. 5 (1767), ex Briss. 
Grand Guepier des Philippines, D'Aubent. PL Enl. 57. 

Le Gtiepier vert a queue d'azur, Montb. Hist. Nat. Ois. vi. p. 504, "Philippines." 
Le Guepier daudin, Le VaUlant, Hist. Nat. Guep. p. 49, pi. 14, "Philippines." 
Merops daudini, Cuv. R. A. i. p. 442 (1829), ex Le Vaillant. 
Merops javanicus, Horsf. Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 171, "Java" (1820). 
Merops typicus, Hodgs., Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 82, "Nipaul" [descr. nulla) (1844). 
Merops cyanorrhos, Temm. Mus. jM.gA..,fide Bp. Consp. i. p. 162. 

Merops savignyi, Cuv., v. Kittlitz, Lutke, Voy. (Postels) iii. p. 327, " Lufon," nee Cuv. 
Merops savignyoides, in Mus. Massen., fide Cab. Mus. Hein. i. pt. 2, p. 139. 
Merops daudini, Cuv., Swinh. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 348, no. 81, "Swatow." 
Merops philippinus et daudini, G. R. Gray, Hand-list, nos. 1207, 1208. 

Hah. Luzon, February ; Negros, March [Ileyer). 

Brisson [1. c.) gave a fairly accurate description of this Bee-eater from a specimen in 
the collection of Madame de Bandeville. But the type seems to have been immature ; 
for Brisson does not mention the pale blue subocular stripe and the elongated middle pair 
of rectrices. In the plate the tail is depicted as being truncate ; and hence the imperfect 
Linnsean diagnosis " cauda sequali." D'Aubenton's plate [1. c.) represents a uniformly 
dark green bird, with a bright blue rump and tail ; the rectrices are even. Le Vaillant 
{I. c.) is severe on Buffon, and criticises both plate and description, suggesting that Buffon 
had described from his bad plate instead of from the bird itself. The description seems, 
in fact, to have been taken and the figure coloured from the account given by Brisson, 

VOL. IX. — part II. Ap-il, 1875. x 



150 VISCOUNT WALDBN ON THE BIRDS 

the coppery hues being omitted. Le Vaillant's own plate is equally inaccurate ; but in 
the letterpress he describes the species sufficiently to leave little doubt that the Philip- 
pine bird was before him ; and he states that he described from three examples in Paris 
collections, brought from the Philippines by Sonnerat and Poivre. Still it is curious 
that Le Vaillant likewise figures the bird with an even tail. 

Dr. Cabanis {I. c.) long since pointed out that examples of this Bee-eater from Ceylon, 
Malacca, Java, and the Philippines did not specifically difiier. One or two recent 
authors, by adopting the two titles oi philijtpinus and daudini, according to the habitat 
of the individuals, seem, however, to disagree with Dr. Cabanis's conclusions. Examples 
obtained in Luzon by Dr. Meyer, when compared with a large series from Ceylon, 
India, Upper Burma, Malacca, Sumatra, Java, and Celebes, do not exhibit the slightest 
specific differences, nor do their dimensions vary appreciably ; nor is even the somewhat 
darker hue of green said to be possessed by the Philippine bird (Cab. I.e.) apparent 
in Dr. Meyer's Luzon specimens. 

36. *Merops bicolor. (PI. XXVL fig. 1.) 

Apiaster ex FrancuB insula, Brisson, Om. iv. p. 543, no. 6, pi. 44. f. 2, " Francise ins." 

{1760). 
Le Gufyier marron et bleu, Month. Hist. Nat. Ois. vi. p. 493, ex Briss, 
Guepier de I'isle de France, D'Aubent. PI. Enl. 252. 

Merops americanus, L. S. Miiller', Suppl. p. 95, ex Buffon (D'Aubent.) (1776). 
Merops bicolor, Bodd. Tabl. PI. Enl. p. 15, no. 252 (1783), ex D'Aubent. nee Vieillot. 
Merops badius, Gm. S. N. i. p. 462, no. 10 (1788), ex Briss. 
Chesnut bee-eater. Lath. Synop. i. p. 677, no. 9, ex Briss. 
Merops castaneus. Lath. Ind. Orn. i. p. 273, no. 10, ex Lath. (1790). 

Le Guepier Latreille, Le Vaillant, Hist. Nat. Guep. p. 45, pl. 12, "Africa, Ceylon, Isl. of Prance ! " 
"> Apiaster philippensis minor, Briss. torn. cit. p. 555, no. 10, pl. xliii. f. 2, "Philippine Isl." (1760). 
? Merops ornatus, Lath., v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 17. 

Hab. Luzon, April ; Negros, March (Meyer). 

The four examples obtained are in perfect plumage. Seen from above, they exactly 
correspond in colouring with M. quinticolor. Underneath the plumage closely resem- 
bles that on the under surface of M. sumatranus. Raffles, =Jf. cyanopygius. Less., of 
Sumatra, Malacca, and Borneo. The head, nape, and back of the latter species are 
dark chocolate ; and it has been hitherto identified by general consent with M. badius, 
Gm. The same parts in these Philippine specimens are bright chestnut. They are 
without doubt the true Merops badius, Gm., founded on Brisson's Ouespier de I'isle de 
France. On this Brissonian species all the titles given above were directly or indirectly 
based. 

' MUIler, for some unaccountable reason, bestowed the title cited, although he states that the species dwells 
in the Isle of France. This title has priority ; but few will adopt it. 



INHABITINa THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAGO. 151 

Brisson's diagnosis of the upper parts is as follows : — " Partes capitis'et colli superiores, 
sicut et dorsi suprema, et scapulares pennce sunt eleganter castanece." In the French 
he characterizes the colouring of these parts as being of a " beau marron." With the 
Philippine bird to compare, it is imjjossible not to recognize in it the Brissonian 
species ; but in its absence the Malayan Bee-eater satisfies the complete diagnosis, pro- 
i'ided we are prepared to read " eleganter castanece " as meaning chocolate-colour. It 
is therefore not surprising that the Malayan Merops should hitherto have been 
referred to 3£. hadius, Gm. ; and we are indebted to Dr. A. B. Meyer for recovering a 
species so long unrecognized. 

Both D'Aubenton and Le Vaillant figure the Brissonian species with a bright chestnut 
head and back, the latter author, with his accustomed inaccuracy, stating that he had 
met the bird on the east coast of Africa, near the CafFre country, where it remained 
about fifteen days ; but as the flocks did not remain there longer, and he never saw the 
species again, he was unable to say whether it nested in that country ! It is very 
questionable if Le Vaillant ever saw the bird at all ; for, although the colouring of his 
plate agrees with the Brissonian description, in the letterpress Le Vaillant says that the 
chestnut mantle only covers the upper back, while he describes the head and the wings 
as blue like the rest of the body. Montbeillard's account {I. c.) appears by internal 
evidence to have been taken from Brisson. D'Aubenton's plate may or may not have 
been coloured from an actual example ; but whether the two figures were composed 
from Brisson's description or drawn from real specimens, they are of value, as showing 
the nature of the chestnut colouring of the head and back, — if from the description, by 
depicting the colour " beau marron " — if from the bird itself, by representing its 
coloration. 

Dr. V. Martens {I.e.) introduces M. ornatns. Lath., as a Philippine species he had 
observed preserved in the Military Library at Manilla. He describes it as having the 
entire under surface of a lively gi-ass-green, and as having no throat-band. Judging 
by the young plumage of M. sumatramis. Baffles, before the chocolate mantle is 
assumed, it is not improbable that the bird described was a yoiing individual of M. 
bicolor. Apiaster 2}hilippensis minor, Briss. {I. c), up to now an unidentified species, 
with the middle pair of rectrices not fully developed, and regarded by Montbeillard 
{tovfi. cit. p. 500) as being the same as M. viridis, Linn., probably was founded on 31. 
bicolor in immature dress. 

M. bicolor seems to be the species of Merops inhabiting Negros, alluded to by Mr. 
L. C. Layard (Ibis, 1872, p. 96). 

The Bee-eater which inhabits Sumatra, Malacca, and Borneo (PI. XXVI. fig. 2), and 
hitherto referred to M. badius, Gm., will stand : — 
Merops sumatranus, Raffles, Tr. L. Soc. vol. xiii. p. 294, "Sumatra" (1831). 

Merops cyanopygius, Less. Tr. p. 238, Pair, non indie. (1831), ex " Sumatra and Java.," fide Pucher. 
R. Mag. Zool. 1853, p. 391. 

x2 



152 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIEDS 

Melittophas hypofflaucus, Reichenb. Handb. p. 82 (1854). 

Melittophas bicolor (Bodd.), ap. Cab. Mus. Hein. pt. 2, p. 137, "Malacca, Borneo, Sumatra/' nee 

Bodd. 
Merops badius, Gm., auct. recent., nee Gm. 
Le Guepier de Sumatra, Less., Complem. Buffon, ii. Ois. 3nd ed. pi. — , f. 2 (1840). 

According to Dr. Pucheran [l. c), M. cyanofygius. Lesson, adult, was founded on a 
Sumatran and a Javan example. Prince Bonaparte (Consp. i. p. 162) gives Sumatra 
and Borneo as the habitat. There is probably an error in the assigned Javan origin of 
this Bee-eater ; for its occurrence in Java rests on no good authority. The type of M. 
cyanopygius. Lesson, juv., ex Sumatra, Dr. Pucheran remarks, resembles PI. Enl. 57. 
It may be M. philippmus, Linn. ; for that species inhabits Sumatra ; or it may be M. 
sumatranus, juv., before the chocolate plumage of the upper surface, and the blue 
colouring of the throat have been assumed. 



CORACID^. 

EuKTSTOMUS, Vieillot. 

37. EURTSTOMUS ORIENTALIS. 

Galgulus indicus, Brisson, Orn. ii. p. 75, no. 4, " India orientalis." 

Coracias orientalis, Linn. S.-N. i. p. 154, no. 4 (1776), ex Brisson; Un. St. Expl. Exped. Zool. 
p. 228 ; Walden & Layard, Ibis, 1872, p. 100. 

Hab. Luzon, February ; Cujo Island, December ; Guimaras, March {Meyer) ; Negros 
(i. C. Layard), 

As determined by Dr. Meyer, the sexes do not differ. Javan, Malaccan, Celebean, 
and Philippine examples are identical. 

ALCEDINID^. 

Alcedinin^. 

Alcedo, LinnEBUs. 

38. Alcedo bengalensis. 

Little Indian Kingfisher, Edwards, Ulustr. i. p. 11, pi. 11. fig. inf., " Bengal." 
Ispida bengalensis, Briss. Orn. iv. p. 475, ex Edwards. 

Alcedo bengalensis, Gm. S. N. i. p. 450, no. 20 (1788), ex Brisson; Sharpe, Monogr. Alcedinida, 
pi. 68. 

Hab. Luzon {Meyer). 

Le vintsi of Buffon (Hist. Nat. Ois. vii. p. 205), and called by D'Aubenton (PI. Enl. 
756) Petit Martin-j)echeur de I'isle de Lupon, is now known to be a purely African 
species, Corythornis cristata (Linn.). 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE ARCHIPELAGO. 153 

Alcyone, Swainson. 

39. * Alcyone cyanopectus. 

Ceyx cyanopectus, La Fresnaye, Rev. Zool. 1840, p. 33, Patr. ignot. ; Sharpe, Monogr. pi. 31 ; 
Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Alcedines, p. 18. 

Hab. Philippines (Hi/ton, Schlegel). 

Although there is a general concurrence of evidence showing that this interesting 
form inhabits some part of the Philippines, its exact habitat still remains unknown. 

Pelaegopsis, Gloger. 

40. * Pelabgopsis gotjldi. 

Pelargopsis gouldi, Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1870, p. 61, " Luzon; " Monogr. pi. 59. 
Hob. Manilla [Cuming). 

Dacelonin^. 

Ceyx, Lacepede. 

41. * Ceyx melanura. 

Alcedo melanura, Kaup, Fam. der Eisv. p. 15 (1848) ; Sharpe, Monogr. pi. 39. 
Rob. Philippine Islands (mus. nostr.) ; Manilla {mus. J. Gould). 

42. Ceyx tkidactyla. 

Alcedo trydactyla, Pallas, Spic. Zool. fasc. vi. p. 10, pi. 3. f. 1 (1769) ; Sharpe, Monogr. pi. 23 ; v. 

Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 18, no. 85. 
Le Martin-picheur de I'isle de Lugon, Sonn. Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 67, pi. 32. 
Alcedo tridactyla, Scopoli, Del. Fl. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 90, no. 56 (1786), ex Sonn. 
Ceyx luzoniensis, Stephens, Gen. Zool. xiii. pt. 2, p. 106, "Lujonia" (1826). 
Alcedo {Ceyx) purpurea, Gm., v. Martens, I. c. no. 86. 

Hab. Philippines {Cuming). 

The absolute identity of the Philippine with the continental three-toed Kingfisher 
has yet to be established. 

43. * Ceyx philippinensis. 

Ceyxphilippinensis, Gould, P. Z. S. 1868, p. 404, " vicinity of Manilla; " Sharpe, Monogr. pi. 24. 

Hab. Manilla (/. Gould). 

Both Messrs. Sharpe and Gould regard the type individual, the only example that 
has reached England, as distinct from Alcyone cyanojiectus. In deference to their 
opinion it is treated here as a separate species, a position I trust future investigation 
may justify {conf. Salvadori, Atti R. Accad. Sc. Torino, iv. (1869) p. 445). 



154 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIEDS 

Entomobia, Cabanis. 

44. * Entomobia gulaeis. 

Ispida madagascariensis carulea, Brlss. Orn. iv. p. 496, no. 32, " Madagascar." 

Alcedo smyrnensis, var. y9, Linn. S. N. i. p. 181 (1766) ex Briss. 

Le Martin-pecheur bleu et roux, Buffon, Hist. Nat. vii. p. 182, ex Brisson. 

Grand Martin-pecheur de Madagascar, D'Aubent. PI. Enl. 232. 

Alcedo gularis, Kuhl, Buflf. & D'Aubent. Tig. Av. Col. Norn. Syst. p. 4 (1820), ex D'Aubent. 

Alcedo rufirostris, lUiger, Mus. Berol. ; Kittlitz, Kupfert. pt. 2, p. 10, pi. xiv. f. 2, " Luzon " (1833). 

Halcyon gularis (Kuhl), Sharpe, Monogr. pi. 70; Walden & Layard, Ibis, 1872, p. 101. 

Hab. Luzon {mus. nostr.) ; Negros [L. C. Layard) ; Zebu {Meyer). 

Neither in D'Aubenton's plate is the white throat represented, nor in Buifon's de- 
scription is it alluded to. But Brisson mentions it in his accurate diagnosis, made, as 
he states, from an example obtained by Poivre in Madagascar. 

Mr. Strickland was the first author who suggested the Philippines as the probable 
only habitat of this Kingfisher (Ann. N. H. 1844, vol. xiii. p. 34). 

Dr. V. Martens includes Entomobia fusca (Bodd.), as well as this species, in his list of 
Philippine birds {torn. cit. p. 17, no. 79), and quotes Meyen as his authority. Meyen 
(Nov. Act. xvi. suppl. prim. 94), however, states in decided terms that the Philippine 
species is distinct from A. smyrnensis, L. ; and he adopts Illiger's title of A. ntfirostris. 
Mr. Sharpe (oj). cit. pt. x. pi. 79) also includes the Philippines within the range of A. 
smyrnensis, L., but on, apparently, no better evidence than Professor Schlegel's record 
of a Philippine specimen in the Leyden Museum (Mus. P.-Bas, Alcedines, p. 28). The 
probabilities are that the Leyden example, if really from the Philippines, belongs to 
E. gularis (Knhl), a title treated by Professor Schlegel (l. c.) as a synonym of A. fusca, 
Bodd. The occurrence of Entomobia smyrnensis (Linn.) = A. fusca, Bodd., in the 
Philippines rests upon no other evidence whatever, and certainly requires confirmation. 

45. Entomobia pileata. 

Martin-pecheur de la Chine, D'Aubent., PI. Enl. 673. 

Le Martin-pecheur a coiffe noire, Buffon, Hist. Nat. vii. p. 189, "la Chine" (1780). 

Alcedo pileata, Bodd. Tabl. PI. Enl. p. 41 (1783), ex D'Aubent. ; Sharpe, Monogr. pi. 3. 

Hab. Philippines [fide Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, AlCCdines, p. 27). 

That this species inhabits the Philippines is not improbable ; but a single example 
in the Leyden Museum, said to be from those islands, collector not named, appears to 
be the only evidence of the fact. Mr. Sharpe {I. c.) seems to take it for granted ; and 
Professor Schlegel (Vog. Ned. Ind., Alced. pp. 22, 54) includes the Philippines, without 
hesitation, within the range of this Kingfisher. 

Alcedo albiventris, Scoip.,=Alcedo luzonica, Gm., both founded on Sonnerat's Martin- 
pecheur dTisle de Lugoii, Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 65, pi. 31, is a well-known African form. 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAGO. 155 

To Tanysiptera nympha, G. E. Gray (Ann. Nat. Hist. 1841, p. 237, "■ Pair, incert." 
described from an imperfect specimen of a New-Guinea Kingfisher), Prince Bonaparte 
(Consp. i. p. 157) erroneously ascribed a Philippine origin; and it consequently found 
a place in Dr. v. Martens's list {torn. cit. p. 18). 

Calialcyon, Bonaparte. 

46. Calialcyon coromanda. 

Le Martin-pecheur violet des Indes, Sonn. Voy. Ind. ii. p. 212, pi. 118. 

Alcedo coromanda^, Lath. Ind. Orn. i. p. 252 (1790), ex Sonn. ; Sharps, Monogr. pi. 69. 

Dacelo coromandeliana (Scopoli), Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Alcedines, p. 24. 

Hah. Philippines [Schlegel, fide Verreaux). 

The occurrence of this species in the Philippines rests solely on the somewhat 
doubtful authority cited. 

Satjropatis, Cabanis. 

47. Sauropatis chloris. 

Le Martin-pecheur a tete verte, Buffon, Hist. Nat. vii. p. 190, " Bouro." 

Martin-pecheur a tete verte du Cap-de-Bonne-Esperance, D'Aubent. PI. Enl. 783. f. 2. 

Alcedo chloris, Bodd. Tabl. PL Enl. p. 49 (1783), ex D'Aubent. 

Le Martin-pecheur a collier blanc des Philippines, Sonn. Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 67, pi. 33. 

Alcedo collaris. Scop. Del. Fl. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 90, no. 56 (1786), ex Sonn; Kittlitz, Kupfert. 

pt. 2, p. 10, pi. xiv. f. 1, " Luzon " (1833). 
Halcyon chloris (Bodd.), Sharpe, Monogr. pi. 87; Walden & Layard, Ibis, 1872, p. 101. 

Hab. Luzon, Zebu, Guimaras {Meyer) ; Negros {L. C. Layard). 
AcTENOiDES, Hombron & Jacquinot. 

48. * ACTENOIDES HOMBRONI. 

Actenoide variee, Hombron & Jacquin. Voy. Astrol., Atlas, pi. 23. fig. 2. 

Actenoides hombroni, Bp. Consp. i. p. 157 (1850), ex Hombr. & Jacquin. ; Sharpe, Monogr. pi. 115. 

Actenoides variegata, Pucher. & Jacquin. Voy. Astrol., Zool. iii. p. 101, "Mindanao" (1853). 

Hai. Samboagan, Mindanao {Hombr. & Jacquin.). 

Dr. V. Martens {torn. cit. p. 17, no. 81) describes an example of a Kingfisher he 
observed in the collection of the Military Library of Manilla in these words : — ''Alcedo 

' This species is treated by Mr. Sharpe (Monogr. Alcedinidaj, pp. xiii, hv) as the type of Entomothera, Horsf. 
(Tr. L. Soc. xiii. p. 173, note, 1820). The term Entomothera was used by Dr. Horsfleld (for he wrote it in the 
plural only) to indicate his second division of the Linnaean genus Alcedo, a section within which he embraced 
A. (Ceyx) tridactyla, A. (Pelargopsis) leucocephala, A. (Calialcyon) coromanda, A. (Sauropatis) chhrocephala, 
and A. (Entomobia) melanoptera. There is nothing contained in Dr. Horsfield's observations to indicate A. 
coromanda as the type, or even as typical of, his Entomotherce. 



156 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIRDS 

(Entomobia), sp., above brown, with pale spots; underneath white, with grey spots. 
Back of the head and on each side a spot at gape, azure blue. Cheeks and throat red 
brown. Forehead brown, striated with black. Allied to J. pulchella, Horsf." 
This may possibly be J. hombroni in immature plumage. 

49. * ACTENOIDES LINDSATI. 

Dacelo lindsayi, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 97, adult, "neighbourhood of Manilla ; " Sharpe, Monogr. 

pi. 114; Eydoux & Sovileyet, Voy. Bonite, pi. 7 ; Gray & Mitch. Genera of Birds, pi. 27. 
Dacelo lessoni, Vigors, /. c, junior. 

Hab. Luzon {Eydoux & SouJeyet). 

This and the last species, together with Dacelo concreta, Temm., form a natural sub- 
division ; and I retain for it Hombron's generic title of Actenoides, merged by Mr. 
Sharpe in the unwieldy group he has united under the generic name of Halcyon. 

Mr. Sharpe (torn, cit.) enumerates thirteen Philippine Kingfishers. I have reduced 
this number to twelve by the exclusion of E. smyrnensis. Satisfactory proof of the 
Philippine habitat of two others, C. coromanda and E. pileata, is still needed ; and the 
specific validity of Ctyx jphilippensis has yet to be confirmed. 

CAPITONID^. 

Megal^min^. 

XANTHOL.EMA, Bouaparte. 

50. Xanthol^ma h^macephala. 

Le Barbu des Philippines, Briss. Orn. iv. p. 99, " Philippensibus Insulis " (1760), descr. orig. 

Barbu des Philippines, D'Aubent. PI. Enl. 331. 

Barbu agorgejaune. Buff. H. Nat. Ois. vii. p. 103, pi. 5. 

Bucco hcemacephalus, L. S. Muller, Suppl. p. 88, "Philippines" (1776), ex PI. Enl. 331. 

Bncco flavigula, Bodd. Tabl. p. 30, ex PI. Enl. 331 (1783). 

Bucco philippensis, Gm. S. N. ed. xiii., i. p. 407, no. 7, ex Briss. (1788). 

Capito flavicollis, Vieill. Enc. Method. Orn. iii. p. 1424, " Les grandes Indes" (1823), ex Brisson. 

Indian Barbet, Lath. Syn. Suppl. p. 57, no. 18, "India" (1787). 

Bucco indicus, Lath. lud. Orn. i. p. 205, ex Lath. (1790). 

Le Barbu a collier rouge, Le VaiUant, H. Nat. Barbus, p. 78, pi. 35, "une grandepartiedel'Inde." 

Bucco rubricollis, Cuv. R. An. i. p. 457 (1829), ex Le Vaill. pi. 35. ' 

Le Barbu a plastron rouge, male, Le Vaillant, torn. cit. p. 81, pi. 30, " une grande partie de I'Inde." 

Bucco luteus. Less. Trait, p. 163, " Pondicherry " (1831) ; DesMurs, Icon. Orn. pl. 21 (var. lutea). 

Bucco rafflesius, Boie, Briefe aus Ostind. no. 15, "Sumatra" (1832). ^ • -» 

Xanthol<ema philippensis (Brisson), Bonaparte, Consp. Volucr. Zygodactyl. p. 12 (1854). 

Xantholcema indica (Lath.), Jerdon, Birds of India, i. p. 315 (1802). 

Megalama philippensis (Gm.), v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 20, no. 111. 

Xantholcema hmmacephala (MuU.), Marsh. Monogr. Capitonida, pl. 42, " Umballa" (1870). 

?Le petit Barbu, Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. vii. p. 105, "Senegal." 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAGO. 157 

? Barbu du Senegal, D'Aubent. PI. Enl. 746. f. 2. 

? Bucco parvus, Gm. S. N. ed. xiii., i. p. 407, no. 9 (1788), ex Buff. 

?Bucco nanus, Bodd. Tabl. p. 47, ex PI. Enl. 746. f. 3 (1783). 

JIab. Luzon (Meyer) ; Zamboanga (v. Martens). 

The Messrs. Marshall (op. dt.), after a comparison made between Indian and Philip- 
pine examples, arrived at the conclusion that individuals from all parts of India could 
not be specificaUy separated from the Philippine species. Numerous individuals from 
Luzon, in Dr. Meyer's collection, enable me on the whole to adopt this opinion. Taken 
collectively, the Luzon birds, while agreeing in general dimensions with those from 
various parts of continental India, have a longer and more massive bill ; the red 
occipital feathers extend further back, terminating in a line with the ends of the 
yellow supercilium ; the green of the upper plumage is some shades darker ; and the 
longitudinal centres of the pectoral and abdominal feathers are more boldly marked, 
and therefore more prominent. To this extent only has the Philippine race become 
differentiated through time and isolation. 

The example described by Brisson (torn. cit. p. 10) as that of a female, is evidently 
that of a young bird. The sexes do not differ. 

1 have referred le petit Barhu of Buffon, and its synonyms, to this species, but with 
considerable doubt. He described from an apparently immature bird in a plumage I 
have never seen assumed by the youngest Philippine Barbet ; moreover his type was 
said to be from Senegal \ 

Notwithstanding Le Vaillant's protestations, the bird figured by him (torn. cit. pi. 35) 
clearly belongs to X. hceinacephala. 

51. Xanthol^ma eosea. 

Le Barbu rosegorge, Le Vaillant, Hist. Nat. Ois. Parad. ii. p. 75, pi. 33, " Java." 

Bucco roseus, Dumont, Diet. Se. Nat. (1st ed.) iv. p. 52 (1806), ex Le Vaillant. 

Capita rosaceicollis, Vieillot, N. Diet. iv. p. 500 (1816), ex Le Vaillant; Vigors, Mem. Sir S. 

Raffles, p. 667, "Java." 
Bucco roseus, Cuv. R. A. 1817, i. p. 428, ex Le Vaillant; Walden & Layard, Ibis, 1872, p. 100, 

"Negros." 
Bucco philippensis , apud Horsf. Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 181, "Java," nee Gm. 
Xantholama rosea (Dum.), Marsh. Monogr. Capitonidce' , pi. 43 (1871). 

Hab Negros (L. C. Layard.) 

' Temminck (PI. Col. Tabl. Method, p. 56) makes it the same as X. hamaeephdh, and says that it is the 
" jeune de I'annee." But this is a mere assumption ; for though the type specimen, which was preserved in 
Mauduit's cabinet, was figured in the Planches Enluminees, it was lost or destroyed before Buffon wrote its 
description. 

2 Biu^M barhicuhts, Cuv. I.e., ex le Vaillant, torn. cit. p. 131, pi. 56, has been referred by Bonaparte (Consp. 
i. p. 143), by the Messrs. Marshall (l. c), and by Mr. G. E. Gray (Hand -list, no. 8445) to this species. It is, 
however, palpably founded on Bucco rubricapillus, Gm., ex Ceylon. Indeed, under this last species Le Vaillanl's 

VOL. IX. — PART n. April 1875. y 



158 VISCOUNT WALDBN ON THE BIKDS 

Java and the Philippine island of Negros are the only localities known to be 
inhabited by this Barbet. 

Le Barbu de I'isle de Lurfin, Sonnerat, Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 68, pi. 34. 
Trogon luzonensis, Scopoli, Del. Fl. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 89, no. 44 (1786J, ex Sonn. 
Bucco niger, Gm. S. N. i. p. 407, no. 8 (1788), ex Sonn. 

Is an African species, unknown in the Philippines, Pogonorhynchus leucomelas (Bodd.), 
Marshall, Monogr. Capitonidce, pi. 12. 

CYPSELID^. 

Macroptertx, Swainson. 

52. Macroptertx ' comatus (Temm.). 

Cypselus comatus, Temm. PI. Col. pi. 268, " Sumatra," ^ (1824). 

I{al>. Luzon, in January {Meyer). 

The male is distinguished from the female by having the region of the ears deep 
rufous ; and all the other male members of the genus display more or less rufous on 
the ear-coverts. 

Luzon examples have the wings nearly half an inch longer than Sumatran and 
Malaccan individuals in my collection. Otherwise no material difference is to be 
observed. 

CoLLOcALiA, G. E. Gray. 

53. * COLLOCALIA TROGLODYTES. 

CoUocalia troglodytes, G. R. Gray (deser. nulla), Gray & Mitch. Genera of Birds, pi. 19, " Patr. non 
indie." (1844-49) ; id. List of Birds Brit. Mus., Fissirostres , p. 21, no. 3, "Malacca" (1848) ; 
Wallace, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 384 ; v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 18 ; Bp. Compt. Rend. xli. p. 977 ; 
von Pelzelu, Reisc der Novara, Aves, p. 40 (1865) ; G. R. Gray, Ann. N. H. (3) xvii. p. 119, 
" Philippine islands " (1866) ; G. R. Gray, Hand-list, no. 748, " Philippines." 

CoUocalia, sp., Blyth, Ibis, 1865, p. 30, " Philippines." 

Hob. Luzon {Jagor). 

A species belonging to that section of the genus of which C. francica may be con 
sidered the type. It is the smallest of all the known species of that group, its dimen- 
sions not exceeding those of C. fuciphaga (Thunb.)=C. lincld (Horsf.) A narrow, 
well-defined, pure white band crosses the rump and constitutes its chief diiferential 
character. 

tifty-sixth plate i'. referred to by the Messrs. Marshall, although Cuvier's title based thereon is made a 
synonym of X. rosea. At least it is to be presumed that this is what is meant by Le barhu varbiclwn (instead 
of barbichon), and by p. 56 instead of pi. 56 (Conf. Marshall, Monogr. Capitonidce, pi. 44). 
' I cannot find that the title Dendrochelidon, Boio, was published prior to 1832. 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAGO. 159 

The two examples on which Mr. G. E. Gray bestowed the above title are still 
extant in the British Museum, and bear on their labels Malacca as their habitat. 
They were obtained from Cuming; and Mr. G. R. Gray (List of B. I. c.) gave Malacca 
as the origin of the species. Mr. Wallace {I. c), who was the first author who described 
the types, suggested the Philippines (although with doubt) as a habitat of the species 
in addition to that of Malacca. Dr. v. Martens [1. c.) without hesitation identified the 
Philippine form of CoUocalia with C. troglodytes. And, finally, Mr. G. R. Gray 
(An. N. H. I. c.) in 1866 abandoned Malacca as its habitat and substituted the Philip- 
pines, to which archipelago he restricted it; and so it stands in the Hand-list (/. c). 
Mr. G. R. Gray has nowhere stated his reasons for this alteration of the habitat he had 
originally assigned. But there seems to be little doubt that he arrived at a sound con- 
clusion, and that C. troglodytes represents one of the Philippine edible-nest constructing 
Swifts. The Malaccan CoUocalia is identical with C. francica. Whether a species 
belonging to the C.-fuciphaga group is likewise found in the Malay peninsula and 
adjacent islets is unknown, nor has a species of that group been as yet discovered by 
any naturalist in the Philippines. 

The specimen contained in the Vienna Museum, and stated by Herr v. Pelzeln (/. c.) 
to have been obtained at Manilla by Cuming, so far as description goes, agrees well with 
the British-Museum types. 



CAPRIMULGID^. 

Ltncoknis, Gould. 



54. * LyNCOBNIS MAOEOTIS. 



Caprimulgus macrbtis. Vigors, P.Z. S. 1831, p. 97, "neighbourhood of Manilla;" Gould, Icones 
Av. pt. 3, pi. — ; G. R. Gray, Hand-list, no. 713. 

Hob. Manilla {Lindsay). 

The range of this fine Goatsucker within the islands is quite unknown. The 
individual noted by Mr. G. R. Gray {I. c.) as being a variety from North China, is 
identical with authentic Philippine examples. It was obtained from Mr. Fortune. 



Capeimulgus, Linnaeus. 
55. Caprimulgus manillensis. 
Caprimulgus manillensis, G. R. Gray, List Brit. Mus. Bssirostres, p. 7, no. 11, "Manilla" (1848) 

descr. nulla ; Hand-list, no. 637. 
? Caprimulgus macrourus, Horsf., v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 19, no. 94, " Philippines." 
Caprimulgus, sp., Walden, Tr. Zool. Soc. viii. p. 115, no. 2, "Celebes." 



t2 



160 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIRDS 

Belongs to the same section as C. alhonotatus, C. nigripennis, C. macrurus, and C. 
schlegelii. It agrees well with the single Celebean example above referred to. The 
two type specimens in the British Museum are not fully adult. Outer pair of rectrices 
with only the terminal portion of the inner web white. Both webs white in the second 
outer pail-. This is probably the species observed by Ur. v. Martens in the collection of 
the Manilla Military Library and identified by him with C. macrurus, Horsf 

56. * Caprimulgus griseatus. 

Caprimulgus griseatus , G. R. Gray, Hand-list, no. 629, "Philippines^' (1869), desa\ nulla. 

Founded on a single example, in the British Museum, obtained from the Philippines 
through the Brothers Verreaux. It belongs to the same group as C monticola and 
C. affinis, being intermediate in dimensions. Wing 6-25, tail 4 inches. The type is in 
very grey plumage. More examples must be compared before its specific distinctness 
can be established. 

CUCULID.E. 

CUCULINJE. 

Cacomantis, S. Miiller. 

57. * Cacomantis merulinus. 

Le petit Coucou de I'isle de Panay, Sonnerat, Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 121, pi. 81. 

Cucidus merulinus, Scopoli, Del. PI. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 89, no. 48 (1786), ex Sonn. ; Schlegel, part. 

Mus. Pays-Bas, Cuculi, p. 21. 
Petit Coucou de I'isle de Panay, D'Aubenton, PL Eul. 814, ex Sonn '. 
Le Coucou h tete grise et ventre jaune, Montbeillard, Hist. Nat. Ois. vi. p. 382, ex Sonn. 
Cuculus flavus, Gm. S. N. i. p. 421, no. 45 (1786), ex MontbeiUard, ex Sonn.; Waldeu, Ibis, 
1869, p. 332. 
Hah. Luzon ( Gevers) ; Panay {Sonnerat). 
On this and its allied forms conf. Walden, Tr. Z. S. viii. p. 53. 

Chalcococcyx, Cabanis. 

58. * Chalcococcyx amethystinus. 

Lampromorpha amethystina, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 98, "neighbourhood of Manilla." 
Cuculus xantlwrhynchus , Horsf., apud v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 19, no. 97. 

Mr. Blyth in 1842 (J. A. S. B. xii, 1, p. 245) expressed himself unable to see in what 
the Philippine Amethystine Cuckoo, as described by Vigors [1. c), differed from the Javan 
and Malayan species, and in his catalogue of the Calcutta Museum, no. .354, identified 
the two forms under Horsfield's title. But there is no evidence that examples had 
been compared; and no Philippine example was contained in the Calcutta Museum. 
' There can be little doubt that D'Aubenton figured Sonnerat s type. 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAGO. 161 

All subsequent authors appear to have followed suit, yet without having compared 
actual specimens. In the ' Conspectus ' (i. p. 107) Bonaparte united the two titles, and 
even left out the Philippine habitat. Dr. Cabanis (Mus. Hein. iv. p. 15), Horsfield 
and Moore (Cat. E. Ind. Co. Mus. ii. p. 706), Dr. v. Martens {I. c). Professor Schlegel 
(Mus. Pays-Bas, Cuculi, p. 32), and Mr. G. R. Gray (Hand-list, no. 9049), all made the 
same identification ; and yet no Philippine examples are recorded as being preserved in 
any of the Museums these authors had access to. 

Cuculus xanthorhynchus, Horsf., extends to Borneo ; and it is therefore not of itself 
improbable that it also occurs in Luzon ; but as there is no positive evidence of the fact, 
it is best to keep the two titles separate until the contrary is proved. 

HiEKOCOCCYX, S. Miiller. 

59. * HiEROCOCCTX STKENUUS. 

Hierococq/x strenuus, Gould, P. Z. S. 1856, p. 96, " Manilla ;" id. Birds of Asia, pt. viii. pi. 31 

" Manilla " (1856) ; Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 362. 
Heirococq/x sparveroides (Vigors), G. R. Gray, Hand-list, 9057. 

Hah. Manilla (G'oiiW). 

Hardly separable from H. sparverioides (Vigors). Mr. G. R. Gray {I. c.) unites the 
two forms. Mr. A. Hume treats them as distinct; for (Pr. A. S. B. 1872, p. 71) that 
gentleman states that H. strenuus, Gould, inhabits Thayetmyo. Before this identifi- 
cation can be accepted, it will be as well to compare Thayetmyo individuals with the 
type (the only specimen existing) in the British Museum. 

60. * HiEEOOOCCYX PECTOEALIS. 

Hiracococcyx pedoralis, Cab. Mus. Hein. iv. pt. 1, p. 27, no. 23, " Philippines" (1862). 

? Cuculus hyperythrus, Gould, P. Z. S. 1856, p. 96, " China ;" Birds of Asia, pt. viii. " Shanghai." 

Hab. Philippines {Cabanis). 

Mr. Swinhoe has remarked that the British-Museum specimen of C. hyperythrus is 
labelled " Manilla" (P. Z. S. 1871, p. 305, no. 456). 

Coucou a ventre raye de I'isle Panay, Sonn. Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 120, pi. 79. 
Cuculus flaviventris, Scop. Del. PI. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 89, no. 46 (1786), ex Sonn. 
Cuculus radiatus, Gm. S. N. i. p. 420, no. 41 (1788), ex Sonn. 

Sonnerat's account and figure of this supposed Philippine species of Cuculus agrees 
well with Cuculus solitarius, Vieillot ' ; and I have little doubt that Sonnerat in this, as 
in so many other instances, described from an African and not a Philippine individual. 
The titles, however, founded on Sonnerat's plates have been much bandied about, and 
applied to various species of Asiatic Cuckoos, by different authors (conf. Blyth, J. A. S. B. 

' Cuculus cnpensis, Gm., founded on le Coucou du cap de Bonne-espei-ance, Montb. (Hist. Nat. Ois. vi. p. .353). 
is a Cuckoo in hepatic plumage, which it is difficult to determine. 



162 



VISCOUNT "WALDEN ON THE BIEDS 



1842, p. 900 ; Cat. Calc. Mus. p. 336 ; Ibis, 1866, p. 362 ; Strickl. J. A. vS. B. 1844, 
p. 390 ; Cab. Mus. Hein. iv. pt. 1, p. 29 ; Jerdon, Ibis, 1872, p. 14). 



EuDYNAMis, Vigors & Horsfield. 

61. * EuDYNAMIS MINDANENSIS. 

Cumins mindanensis ruevius, Brisson, Om. iv. p. 130, no. 12, $ adult, vel ^ adolesc, " Ins. 

Mindanao." 
Cticulus mindanemis, Linn. S. N. i. p. 169, no. 3 (1766), ex Briss. ; Walden, Ibis, 1869, pp. 330, 

340. 
Le Coucou tachete de I'isle de Panay, Sonn. Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 120, pi. 78, 5 adult, vel g 

adolesc., "Antigua." 
Cuculus variegatus, Scopob, Del. Fl. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 89, no. 45 (1786), ex Sonn. 
Cuculvs panay arms, Gm. S. N. i. p. 413, no. 29 (1788), ex Sonn. 

Hab. Guimaras, in March (Meyer). 

Both examples are of males in full black plumage. Mr. Swinhoe (Ibis, 1870, p. 233) 
seems to regard the Chinese species, U. maculata (Gm.), as distinct from the Philip- 
pines, and moreover separates the Hainan form from the Chinese, and identifies it with 
the Himalayan. 

The Guimaras examples have the plumage black shaded mth green and not with blue. 
I add the principal dimensions (in inches) of six known species of the group, taken from 
males in adult black plumage. 



E. honorata . . 
JE. malayana . 
£. mindanensis 



E. ransomi . . 
E. nifiventer . 
E. cyanocephala 



Longitudo 
al». 


caudse. 




7-50 
7-50 


8 

7-75. 


Ceylon. 
Candeish. 


7-75 


8-50. 


Malacca. 


7-50 


8 


Java. 


7-50 


8 


Guimaras. 


7-50 


7-50. 


!> 


8-50 


9 


Bouru. 


8 


8-37. 


Moratai. 


8 


8-50. 


Queensland 



The bill in the Malaccan bird is longer and not so high as that of the Javan. 



PH(ENIC0PHAIN^. 

Dasylophus, Swainson. 
62. * Dasylophus superciliosus. 

Phmnicophaus superciliosus, Cuv. Mus. Paris; Drapier, Diet. Class, vol. x. p. 55, "Philippines" 
(1826) ; Lesson, Tr. p. 133, " Philippines " (1831) ; Gu^rin, Icon. Regne Au. pi. 33. f. 1. 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE ARCHIPELAGO. 163 

Dasyhphus superciliosus (Cuv.), Swains. Classif. Birds, ii. p. 324, pi. 286. fig. a (1837) ; Gray & 

Mitch. Genera, pi. 110. 
Phomicophmis ornatus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. 1842, p. 925 {Patr. non indie.) . 

Hah. Luzon {Meyer). 

A Luzon example, marked a male by Dr. Meyer, has the bill higher and stouter 
than another individual from the same island, stated on the label to be a female. 
Otherwise no difference whatever. In Mitchell's plate (/. c.) the white basal portion of 
the red superciliary plumes is not shown. 

Lepidogrammus, Reichenbach. 
63. * Lepidogrammus cumingi. 

Phoenicophaus cumingi, Praser, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 112, "Luzon;" Zool. Typica. pi. 53. 
Phwnicophaus barrotii, Eydoux at Souleyet, Voy. Bonite, Ois. p. 89, "Luqou" (1841); Atlas 

op. cit. pi. 6. 
" Cuculus decorus\ Gravenh.," Bp. Consp. Vol. Zygod. p. 5, no. 19 (1854). 

Ilab. Luzon (Meyer). 

Sexes alike. The iris is described by Cuming as being red. 



Centropodinjs. 
Centrococcyx, Cabanis. 



64. * Centrococctx vieidis. 



Le Coucou vert d'Antigue, Sonnerat, Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 121, pi. 80 [descr. orig.). 

Cuculus viridis, Scop. Del. Fl. Faun. lusubr. ii. p. 89, no. 47 (1786), ex Sonn. ; Walden, Tr. Zool. 

Soc. viii. p. 58. 
Cuculus eegyptius, var. 7, Gm. S. N. i. p. 420, no. 43, ex Sonn. (1788). 
Coucou des Philippines, D'Auhent. PI. Enl. 824 ; Montbeillard, Hist. Nat. Ois. vi. p. 369. 
Cuculus agyptius, var. /3, Gm. /. c, ex Mouth. 
Cuculus philippensis, Cuv. R. An. i. p. 426 (1817), ex D'Auhent. 
Corydonis pyrrhopterus, Vieill. Enc. Method, iii. p. 1353 (1823), ex D'Aubent. 
Centropus molkenboeri, Bp. Consp. i. p. 108, " Philippines" (1850). 

Hah. Luzon, January, February ; Negros, March ; Guimaras, March ; Zebu, April 
{Meyer). 

Examples from the islands cited in no way differ. A veiy distinct species, somew hat 
smaller than C. Javanensis, Dumont. Wings deep rufous as in C. chlorhynchus, Blyth ; 
remainder of the plumage, tail included, black, shaded with bronze-green. Sexes alike 
{fide Meyer). 

I cannot find that Gravenhorst ever published this title. 



164 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIRDS 

Pyerhocentoe, Cabanis. 

65. * Pyerhocentoe melanops. 

Centropus inelanops, Lesson, Traite d'Orn. p. 137, " Java ! " errore (1831) ; Pucheran, R. et M. Z. 

1832, p. 473; Cassin, Un. St. Exp. Exped. p. 249, pi. 22. fig. 1 (1858) ; Walden, Tr. Zool. 

Soc. viii. p. 56. 
Centropus nigrifrons, Peale, Un. St. Expl. Exped. 1st ed. p. 137, "Mindanao" (1848) ; Hartlaub, 

Wiegmann's Archiv, 18ter Jahrgang, i. p. 107, no. 72 (1852). 
Pifrrhocentor imirufus, Cab. Mus. Hein. iv. p. 118, "Philippines " (1862). 

HaJ). Mindanao {Peale). 

I have followed Cassin in the above identification of C. melanops with C. nigrifrons. 
end I have little doubt, for reasons already stated (Walden, /. c), that P. imirufus is 
the same species in immature plumage. 

BUCEROTID.^. 

BucEEOS, Linneeus. 

66. * BuCEEOS HYDEOCORAX. 

Hydrocorax, Brisson, Orn. iv. p. 566, no. 1, pi. 45, "Moluccis insidis," av.juv. 

Buceros hydrocorax, Linn. S. N. i. p. 153, no. 2 (1766), ex Brisson ; Temm. PI. Col. 283, " Philip- 
pines," $ adult. 

Calao des Moluques, D'Aubent. PI. Enl. 283, av.juv.; Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois. vii. pp. 140, 147. 

Le Calao a casque plat, Le VaUlant, Ois. d'Afr. v. p. 127, pi. 240, rostrum. 

Le Calao roux, Le Vaillant, Ois. Rares, i. p. 13, pi. 6, av.juv. 

Buceros planicornis, Mervem.^ fide Bp. Consp. i. p. 89. 

Buceros platyrhynchus, Pearson^ J. A. S. B. 1841, p. 652. 

Buceros obscurus, Peale, Un. St. Expl. E.xped. 1st ed., Bii-ds, p. 125, "Philippines" (1848), ? juv., 
nee Gm. ; Hartlaub, Archiv fUr Naturgesch. 18ter Jahrgang, i. p. 105. 

Hob. Luzon. Iris in both sexes yellow {Meyer). 

It is with some difficulty that we can bring ourselves to recognize the large red-billed 
Philippine Hornbill in Brisson's description and plate. 

The dimensions given by that author fall far short of those possessed by the adult ; and 
a plumage is described which I have not observed, and which is not possessed by a much 
younger individual, judging by the casque obtained by Ur. Meyer. The figure by 
D'Aubenton {I. c.) bears a striking resemblance to that in the ' Ornithologia,' and would 
almost seem to have been copied from Brisson's plate. The description, too, given by 

' The reference to this title, as given by Giebel (Thesaurus, p. 499), is to me unintelligible. 

= A title pubUshed, without description, in his Catalogue of the Birds of the Asiatic Society of Bengal at 
Calcutta. Mr. Blyth (op. cit. 1843, pp. 988, 989) gave a full description of the specimen— although he erro- 
neously identified it with B. cristatus, VieiU. Later, in his Catalogue of the Calcutta Museum, p. 43, no. 17G, 
he correctly identified the species. 



INHABITIKG THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAGO. 165 

BufFon (I. c.) is incontestably not original, but extracted from Brisson ; while BufFon's 
title seems to have originated in Brisson's assertion that his type inhabited the Moluccas. 

Le Vaillant mentions (I. c.) that the example in Aubrey's cabinet, Brisson's type, was 
of a very young bird and much mutilated, both its tail and wings having been cut. It 
is diiBcult to decide, on the e\'idence we possess, how many individuals served as subjects 
for Brisson, D'Aubenton, and Le Vaillant. If we are to believe the last author, there 
were in Paris at least three examples : — first, Aubrey's — Brisson's type, and which 
Le Vaillant says he purchased when Aubrey's collection was sold ; second, the subject 
of D'Aubenton's plate, said by BufFon to have been taken from a set-up specimen, but 
without mentioning to whom it belonged ; third, the example figured by Le Vaillant 
(I. c), and which he informs us he had acquired a short time previously. But, according 
to Temminck (1. c), Le Vaillant figured the identical specimen wiiich was the original 
subject of D'Aubenton's plate, and which at the time Temminck wrote (1824) was 
still preserved, although much deteriorated, in the Paris Museum. 

On the whole, the probabilities are that there never was more than one specimen, and 
that the Brissonian type, which must have passed from Aubrey's collection to that of 
the Paris Museum. With Temmiuck's identification of this specimen as being 
the young of the large Philippine Hornbill we must rest content. Anyhow we may 
safely reject Le Vaillant's statement that le Calao of Brisson was the young of the 
Calao a casque concave of Le Vaillant, op. cit. plates 3 & 5, drawn from manufactured 
specimens with the heads only of B. hicornis. The drawing of the bill {I. c. ) was made 
by Le Vaillant from a specimen in the Leyden Museum {teste Temm.). 

The sexes of this species, as represented by the examples collected by Dr. Meyer, do 
not differ either in colouring or in dimensions. In a young bird, body-plumage dingy 
greyish tawny, the bill is entirely black, with the exception of the tip of the maxillse 
and the under surface of the rami of the mandible, which are bright blood-red. 

Buceros bicorids, Linn., and this species belong to the same natural section of the 
Hoinbills '. 

Hydrocorax philippinensis, Briss. Om. iv. p. 568, no. 2, " Philippines," a title founded 
on a head and beak in M. Aubrey's cabinet, and said to have come from the Philippines, 
is, so far as we know, not a Philippine species, but identical with B. hicornis, Linn. 

Craniorkhinus, Cabanis. 
67. * Craniorrhinus leucocephalus. (PL XXVII. fig. 1, c^ ; fig. 2, S .) 
Buceros leucocephalus, Vieillot, N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. iv. p. 592, " Moluques " (1816), fide Bp. 

Consp. i. p. 91. 
Buceros sulcatus, Reinw., Temm. PI. Col. 69, " Philippines et Mariannes " (1823) ; SclJegelj Mus. 
Pays-Bas, Buceros, p. 10. 
Hah. Mindanao [Schlegel). 

' To which must be added B. Jiomrai, Hodgs., if the Indian bird is specifically distinct from the Indo- 
Malayan. 

VOL. IX. — PART II. Ajml, 1875. z 



166 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIRDS 

Vieillot bestowed the title above quoted on an individual preserved in Temminck's 
collection, said to be from the Moluccas, and which up to that time had not been 
described. Bonaparte (/. c.) identified the individual thus named with B. sulcatum. 
Vieillot's description leaves it to be inferred that the tail is black, and in that respect 
does not agree with the male or female of this Philippine Hornbill. 

Temminck (I. c.) includes the Marianne archipelago within the range of this species — 
a statement which is contradicted by Quoy and Gaimard (Ann. Sc. Nat. vi. p. 150, note), 
who affirm from their own observation, that no species of Buceros inhabits those 
islands. In his sketch of the genus (Recueil d'Ois. 36° livr.) Temminck only assigns 
the Philippines as the habitat. And Schlegel (I. c.) mentions that Temminck's type, 
still existing at Leyden, came from Mindanao, which is also the origin of the example 
in the British Museum. 

The female difi'ers from the male in having the whole body-plumage black. 

Penelopides, Eeichenbach. 
68. * Penelopides panini. (PI. XXVIII. fig. 1, d; fig. 2, 2.) 
Le Calao male h bee cizele cle I'isle de Panmj, Sonnerat, Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 123, pi. 82, 

" Panay," 2 . 
Le Calao femelle h bee cizele de I'isle de Panay, Sonn. op. cit. pi. 83, "Panay" (1776), d . 
Calao de I'isle de Panay, D'Aubenton, PL Eul. 780, ? ; Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois. vii. p. 140, no. 8, 

p. 145, ex Sonnerat. 
Femelle du Calao de I'isle de Panay, D'Aubenton, op. cit. 781, c? • 
Buceros panini, Bodd. Tabl. PI. Enl. p. 48, ex D'Aubenton (1783). 
Buceros panay ensis, Scop. Del. Fl. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 87, no. 30, ex Sonn. (1786). 
Buceros panay ensis, Gm. S. N. i. p. 360, no. 9, ex Sonn. (1788). 
Le Calao h bee cizeli, male, Le Vaillant, Ois. Eares, i. p. 34, pi. 16, ? adult. 
Femelle du Calao h bee cizele, Le Vaillant, torn. cit. pi. 17, J adult. 

Buceros insculptus, Dumont de St. Croix, Diet. Sc. Nat. vi. p. 209, ex Buff., Sonn., Le Vaill. (181 7). 
Buceros sulcirostris, Wagler, Syst. Av. p. 201, no. 13, (^, ?, ex D'Aubenton (1827). 

Hah. Island of Guimaras, March {Meyer) ; Panay [Sonnerat). 

Sonnerat, during his visit to the island of Panay in the beginning of the year 1772, 
obtained examples, male and female, of a small Hornbill, which he brought to Paris. 

This species he described and figured [1. c). The description and figure of the male 
(female according to Sonnerat, pi. 83) are correct ; but the description of the female 
(pi. 82) is erroneous in so far that Sonnerat states that the breast and abdomen are 
coloured alike in both sexes. This error is also to be found represented in the plate 
(82)' ; and I am unable to offer a satisfactory explanation. D'Aubenton figured 
(/. r.) both sexes correctly ; but, curiously enough, Bufibn (/. c), instead of giving an 

' Le Vaillant (I. c.) remarks that the figure of the female (pi. 83) is absolutely nothing but that of the male, 
couuter-di'awn line for line and reversed. Even if this ho true, it does not account for the erroneous de- 
scription given in the letterpress. Le VaiUant figures (I. e.) and describes both sexes with sufficient accuracy. 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE ARCHIPELAGO. 167 

original description, copied that of Sonnerat, and, although he quoted D'Aubenton'a 
plates, omitted to notice the discrepancy. 

Le Vaillant's figure (/. c. pi. 17) and that by D'Aubenton (/. c. pi. 781) were drawn 
from the same example, which was preserved in the Abbe Aubrey's cabinet (Jide 
Le Vaill. /. c). At the time Le Vaillant wrote (1810), five examples of this species 
were known to him. Since that date there is no recorded evidence of any other having 
been brought to Europe. 

At some time previous to the year 1780 Poivre sent to the Royal cabinet in Paris an 
example of a small Philippine Hornbill, which D'Aubenton figured (op. cit. pi. 891) 
and which Bufi'on described (fom. cit. p. 144) under the title of Calao de ManiJle. 
This example no longer existed at the Jardin des Plantes in 1810 {fide Le Vaill.) ; but 
Le Vaillant figured [toni. cit. pi. 18) a second example, given to the Abbe Aubrey by 
Poivre. The origin of Poivre's Hornbill can only be inferred from the title bestowed 
by Buflfon. That it belonged to a new and distinct species, was perfectly recognized by 
BuflTon; yet Le Vaillant identified it (1810) as the young of Sonnerat's Hornbill, and 
this identification has been quietly acquiesced in by every author, save Meyen, cA^er 
since, even by the astute Wagler. The considerable series of individuals obtained by 
Dr. Meyer in Luzon and in the island of Guimaras, close to that of Panay, completely 
establishes the fact that the Hornbills brought to France by Poivre and by Sonnerat 
belonged to two separate species. 

The adult male has the head, including a large crest, lower throat, sides of the neck, 
breast, and abdomen, bright tawny. The upper part of the throat between the rami 
of the mandibles, a stripe from the gape, bounding the naked space below the eye, the 
cheeks, where not denuded, and the ear-coverts jet-black. The latter are mucli 
elongated, and a few of the uppermost mingle with the lateral crest-plumes. The 
abdomen is washed with ferruginous, which changes into much deeper ferruginous on 
the thighs, under tail-coverts, vent, rump, and upper tail-coverts. The back and wings 
are uniform black, strongly glossed with green. The rectrices for the first seven inches 
are of a paler ferruginous, some on the outer web narrowly fringed with black. The 
tail-feathers for the remaining three inches are black, glossed with green, like the back. 
The shafts are black throughout their lengths. The black of the apical part of the tail 
runs up the outer webs of the outer pair of rectrices for a short distance. The quills 
are black, glossed with green, on their outer webs. The chin, cheeks, and space 
surrounding the eye are devoid of feathers. 

A second example only differs in having the ferruginous portion of the rectrices of a 
paler hue, almost buff; and by the absence of the narrow black exterior fringe. 

The adult female differs from the male in being entirely black, with the exception 
of the rectrices, which are marked and coloured as in the male. In one example the 
entire outer web of tlie fifth pair of rectrices is black ; in another this is only partially 
the case. 



168 VISCOUNT WALDBN ON THE BIRDS 

To the flattened side of the maxilla is attached a plate which extends from the base 
for two thirds of the length of the maxilla. In the thickness of this plate are six 
narrow and shallow, almost perpendicular, grooves, coloured yellow in the dried 
specimen. A similar plate has grown on the sides of the mandible, and is grooved by 
narrower and more deeply cut diagonal channels. A narrow casque springs from the 
forehead, which, somewhat swollen posteriorly, is compressed anteriorly into a blunt 
broken edge. The commissure is much indented and broken. This description of the 
bill applies to the adults of both sexes; but in the male the bill is longer and 
deeper than in the female. 



Island of Guimaras. 









Longitudo 








rostr.' 


alse. 


Cauda;. 


No. 1. 


cJ, adult . 


. . 375 


10-50 


10. 


No. 2. 


Oj ?5 • ' 


. . 3-87 


10-25 


10. 


No. 3. 


¥ , adult . 


. . 3 


9-75 


9. 


No. 4. 


?, „ 


. . 3-37 


9-75 


9. 



69. * Penelopides Manilla. 

Calao de Manille, D'Aubenton, PI. Enl. 891, c? juv. 

Le Calao de Manille, BufFoii, Hist. Nat. vii. p. 144, ^ juv. p. 140, uo. 9. 

Buceros manilla, Bodd. Tabl. PI. Enl. p. 54, ex D'Aubent. (1783). 

Buceros manillensis, Gm. S. N. i. p. 361, no. 10, ex Buffon (1788). 

Le Calao h bee cizelS, dans sonjeune dge, Le Vaillant, Ois. Rares, i. p. 37, pi. 18, rf juii. 

Buceros sulcirostris {juv. viril.), Wagler, Syst. Av. p. 201, ex D'Aubenton. 

Buceros manillensis, Buffon, Meyen, Nov. Act. Ac. C. L. C. Nat. Cur. xvi. Suppl. prim. p. 91, pi. 

xiii. (S adult. 
Buceros manillensis, Linn., v. Kittlitz, Lutke, Voy. (Postels) iii. p. 326, " Manilla." 
Buceros panayensis. Scop., Schlegel, Mns. Pays-Bas, Buceros, p. 11, nee Scopoli. 
Buceros panini, Bodd., v. Martens, J. f. 0. 1866, p. 18, nee Bodd. 

Hab. Luzon, January and February {Meyer). 

The adult male (nos. 1, 2) has the back, rump, upper tail-coverts, and wings dull brown, 
with a bronze-green gloss. The primaries are brown, with a faint ferruginous fringe to 
the outer webs, the secondaries with a bolder albescent edging. The head, neck, throat, 
breast, abdomen, vent, thigh-coverts, and under tail-coverts, tawny. The throat, cheeks, 
and ear-coverts black, and marked as in P. panini. The crest is more elongated than 
in that species. The rectrices for the first five inches are bronzed brown, followed by a 
ferruginous band about one inch deep, and terminated by a black band glossed with 
green of about two inches. A narrow ferruginous fringe terminates some of the rec- 
trices. In the outer pair, and sometimes in the two outer pairs, the ferruginous band 
is pale tawny, and does not run through the outer webs. 

The adult female (no. 3) has the wings, back, and tail as in the male, the rest of the 

' Measured in a straight line Irom the nostril to the tip. 



INHABITIXa THE PHILIPPINE ARCHIPELAGO. 169 

plumage dull brownish mouse-colour. The quills are not fringed as in the male. The 
bill in this species is built on the same model as that of i .panini; but there do not 
appear to be as many grooves in the maxilla, five being the greatest number apparent. 

In a very old male (no. 6), judging by the bill, several new rectrices have come, 
which have the central band almost white, the colour above and below this band being 
black glossed with green, and not brown. The remaining old rectrices are as described 
above. In a very old female example (no. 7) the same peculiarity is to be found. A young 
male (no. 5) with the casque partially developed, but without lateral plates or grooves, 
has the rump ferruginous, and the first-plumage rectrices broadly washed mth ferru- 
ginous at their apex. 

Meyen {!. c.) most positively stated that this Lu9on chiselled-billed Buceros did not 
belong to that of Panay ; and he gave an accurate figure of the old male. 











Longitudo 














rostri. 


alK. 


caudae. 






No. I. 


<?. 


adult . 


. . 3-25 


9-25 


9 


Luzon. 




No. 2. 


(?, 


!) 


. . 3-12 


8-75 


8-25. 


)i 




No. 3. 


?, 


31 


. . 2-75 


8-50 


8-25. 


)) 




No. 4. 


¥, 


juv. . 


. . 2-25 


8 


7-50. 


5) 




No. 5. 


C?, 


;3 


. . 2-62 


9-12 


8-75. 


Manilla. 




No. 6. 


<?, 


adult . 


. . 3-1 


9-12 


8-87. 


?) 




No. 7. 


?, 


)5 


. . 2-87 


8-37 




)) 


(tail not fully 



grown). 
Dr. v. Martens (J. f. O. 1866, p. 18) enumerates as an additional species of Philip- 
pine Hombill an individual observed by him in the Military Library at Manilla. He 
describes it as being without a casque, and as having the tail long, the head crested, the 
bill and face black, the nape pale yellowish brown, the back and wings spotted and the 
under surface yellowish. Dr. v. Martens suggests that it may be £. gingalensis, Shaw, 
and bestows no title. The description above given does not agree with the Ceylon 
species, and was probably made from an immature example of one of the foregoing 
species. 

LANIID^. 

Lanius, LinnaBUs. 
70. * Lanius nasutus. 

Pie-grieche d'Antigiie, Soun. Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 114, pi. 70. 

Lanius nasutus, Scopoli, Del. Fl. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 85, no. 13 (1786), ex Sonn. 

Lanius antiguanus, Gm. S. N. i. p. 301, no. 39 (1788), ex Sonn. 

Lanius cephalomelas , Bp. Rev. et Mag. Zool. 1853, p. 436, "Manilla;" Walden, Ibis, 1868, p. 70. 

Hab. Zebu (Meyer) ; Panay (Sonnerat). 

A single example of a black-headed Shrike, obtained in Zebu by Dr. A. B. Meyer, 



170 



VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIRDS 



removes all doubts as to the existence of such a form in the Philippines ; and we may 
further safely assume that it is the same as Sonnerat's species. 

In India there appear to be two well-markeil species of black-headed Shrikes : — one, 
the largest, with the whole back in the adult bright rufous, inhabiting Nipaul, Dar- 
jeeling and Assam, and named by Mr. Hodgson L. tricolor (Ind. Rev. 1837, p. 446, 
ex Nipaul ; Gray & Mitch. Gen. pi. 71) ; the other, in the adult, with the upper 
back ashy-grey, and the lower pale ferruginous, inhabiting Goomsoor, "Bengal, and 
said to extend into Arracan (iy. m?y/r/ce/)s, Frank ; Jerd. Ill Ind. Orn. pi. 17). It is 
true that Dr. Jerdon, who at one time maintained this view, altered it (/. c.) out of 
deference to Mr. Blyth ; but my acquaintance with the two birds bears out Dr. Jerdon's 
original opinion. Dr. Meyer's Zebu example has the upper back ashy grey, as in L. 
nigriceps, this colour descending much lower than in the Indian form, the uropygium 
and upper tail-coverts only being ferruginous ; nor does the black on the nape extend 
so low down as in either of the Indian species. The Zebu bird, which is marked a 
male by Dr. Meyer, does not appear to be fully adult ; and without an opportunity of 
comparing more examples, I am disinclined to assert that it differs specifically from 
L. nigriceps. 



L.nasutus . . . 3-50 5 1-25. 6. Zebu, in April. 

L. iiigriceps . . . 3-37 4-87 1-20. Adult. Eognathpoor, Bengal. 

L. tricolor . . . 3-75 5-75 1-25. Adult. Nipaul. 

Adult. Mymensing. 

Immature. Darjeeling. 

d, not quite adult. Base of Garos. 

71. Lanius schach. 
Lanius a-scack, Osbeck, Ostind. Resa, p. 227, "vicinity of Cawton " (1757). 
Lanius schach, J. G. Georgi, Osbeck, Reise Ostind. China (German transl.) p. 296 (1765). 
Lanius schach, Linn. S. N. i. p. 136, no. 14 (1766), ex Osbeck; J. R. Forster, Osbeck, Voy. China, 

East Indies (Eng. tr.) i. p. 367 ; ii. p. 325 (1771) ; Bp. Consp. i. p. 864. 
Lanius macrourus, Cuv., Mus. Paris Pucheran, Archiv. Mus. vii. p. 324 (1854-55). 
Lanius chinensis, J. E. Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 1, "China" (1831). 

Prince Bonaparte (/. c.) includes the Philippines within the range of this Shrike ; 
and upon his authority (the only one, it is true, I have been able to discover) it is 
admitted in this list. The Javan and Timor form (Lanius bentet, T3.ovsL,=: Lanius 
pyrrhonotus, Vieillot) is considerably smaller, and the black on the forehead recedes 
more than in the Chinese species. In dimensions it agrees with Lanius erythronotus. 
Vigors, from which species it can only be distinguished by the greater extent of black 
on the forehead. In fact L. hentet is a link between L. erythronotus and L. nigriceps 
and the other black-headed forms, Lanius schach being a large form of L. erythronotus. 





Longitudo 




aliE. 


caudaj. 


tarsi. 


3-50 


5 


1-25. 


3-37 


4-87 


1-20. 


3-75 


5-75 


1-25. 


3-75 


5-13 


1-25. 


3-75 


5-12 


1-25. 


3-68 


4-88 


1-25. 



mHABITING THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELA&O. 171 

In an early phase of plumage, but after the otherwise full plumage has been adopted, 
L. nigriceps closely resembles L. erythronotus, the crown of the head changing to 
black after the forehead has become black. 

72. Lanius lucionensis. (PI. XXIX. fig. 1.) 

La Pie-griesche de Luqon, Briss. Orn, ii. p. 169, no. 11, "Isle de Lu9on." 

Lanius lucionensis, Linn. S. N. i. p. 135, no. 10 (1766), ex Briss.; Walden, Ibis, 1867, p. 215; 

Salvadori, Atti Ac. Sc. Torino, 1868, p. 273; Swinhoe, P.Z.S. 1871, p. 376. 
Laniits jeracopis, De Fil. Mus. Mediol. Aves, p. 31 {I8i7),fide Salvad. /. c. 
Lanius phmnicurus, Pall., O. Finsch, Verb, zool.-bot. Gesellseh. Wien, 1873, p. 258, no. 16, partim. 

Hab. Negros, Guimaras, and Zebu in March ; Luzon in January {Meyer). 

Were it not that an ornithologist so distinguished as Dr. O. Finsch had quite recently 
{I. c.) called in question the right of this Philippine Shrike to rank as a distinct species, 
it would have been unnecessary to do more than enumerate it in this list. The latest 
and most valuable contribution to the history of the rufous-tailed Shrikes we owe to 
Mr. Swinhoe [I.e.). Tliat gentleman had collected an unusually large series of indi- 
viduals, which, together with the knowledge acquired during a long residence in 
Eastern Asia, entitles his opinion to the greatest weight. Mr. Swinhoe admits as 
distinct species L. cristatus, L. super ciliosihs, Lath., and L. lucionensis, L. ; and he has 
given the probable general lines of their separate annual migrations'. 

These three species, when in adult plumage, are quite unmistakable ; but when im- 
mature their specific difiierences are less stiiking. Yet Dr. O. Finsch [I. c), after a study 
of the following meagre and insuflacient materials — an adult and a young female ex- 
ample from Java {L. super ciliosus), a young or female individual from Madras {L. cris- 
tatus), and a young or female bird captured fifty miles out at sea, off the Luzon coast — 
has arrived at the conclusion that all three belong to one species, which he terms 
L. phoenicurus. Pall.- It may therefore not be superfluous to give the characters which 
distinguish the three species when in full plumage. 

L. superciliosus. Lath. {L. phoenicurus. Pall. ap. Schrenck; Walden, Ibis, 1867, pi. 
v. .fig. 2), has the entire upper surface very bright uniform rufous, a very broad 

' Although ray investigations lead me to generally concur with Mr. Swinhoe's remarks on this branch of the 
question, in one particidar Mr. Swinhoe appears to have been misled by ilr. Blyth's statement that L. lucio- 
nensis occurs in Ceylon. It appears to be now pretty well ascertained that L. cristatus only is found in Ceylon, 
and that the ashy grey plumage, sometimes observable in that species and in L. stijyerciUosus, was the origin 
of the erroneous identification. The occurrence of L. luciotiensis in the Andamans has been confirmed since 
it was asserted by Mr. Blyth) Jlouat's, ' Andamans,' 1863, App. Zool. pp. 352, 360) by Mr. BaO (J. A. S. B. 
1872, p. 280, no. 21) ; and I have also lately received Andaman examides of this species. 

- L. cristatus, Linn., is the only species of which I have seen examples from Lake Baikal. More to the 
eastward in Siberia, L. siqieniliosus. Lath., may perhaps find its northern limit. Mr. Swinhoe (I. c.) states 
that examples from the Amoor, Amoy, and Malacca agree ; and I still incline to the belief that L. phanicurus, 
ap. Schrenk (lleiseu Am. i. p. 384), is Latham's bird. The evidence we possess favours the opinion that L. 
phmnicums, Pall., was described from an example of L. cristatus, Linn. 



172 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIEDS 

frontal band, a very broad superciliary stripe, and the throat pure white ; the inner 
webs of the basal parts of the primaries white underneath, which shows through on the 
upper surface of the quills at their insertion, almost forming a white, yet concealed, 
alar bar ; shoulder-edge and under shoulder-coverts pure white. 

L. cristatus, L., has the head, nape, rump, upper tail-coverts, and tail rufous, but 
less bright and browner than in Zi. superciliosus. The back is coloured with the same 
tint, but paler or less rufous. The chin and upper part of the throat are white ; but 
the tawny hue of the breast extends higher up than in either L. superciliosus or in 
L. lucionensis ; and all the throat is usually washed with tawny. 

The white frontal band is narrow and ill defined ; and the white supercilium is much 
less prominent than in L. superciliosus. The quills at their insertions show indications, 
although slight, of a rudimentary alar bar. The shoulder-edge and under shoulder- 
coverts are tawny. The female is coloured as the male, but has the subocular stripe 
brown and not black, and the sides of the breast and flanks more or less striated and 
freckled with faint brown marks. 

L. lucionensis, L., has the forehead and crown delicate pale pearl-grey, no pure white 
whatever on the forehead. A narrow white supercilium commences above the eye, 
becoming somewhat broader behind, and shading off into the grey of the head. The 
occiput, nape, and back are ashy liver-brown. The rump, upper tail-coverts, and tail 
are washed with rufous, most marked on the upper tail-coverts ; the chin and throat 
pure white, as in L. superciliosus ; shoulder-edge and under shoulder-coverts pure 
white ; indications of a concealed white alar bar, as in L. cristatus ; and the female has 
the sexual distinguishing characters of that species'. The almost entire absence of 
rufous in the plumage of the adult Philippine species suffices to distinguish it at a 
glance from L. cristatus and L. superciliosus. 

I append the wing- and tail-dimensions of a few examples from different localities, 
from which it will be seen that no certain characters can be deduced from them. 

The changes and phases of plumage these three species pass through before arriving 
at maturity have yet to be investigated ; and many hundreds of individuals will have to 
be compared before any satisfactory result can be expected. In one place I find that 
immature examples of L. superciliosus and L. lucionensis haxe the entire under surface 
pure white. Then there is that phase in which the upper surface of L. cristatus and of 
L. superciliosus is ashy, dark in the first, light in the other. A Malaccan example of 
L. superciliosus above so closely resembles L. lucionensis that there would be great 
doubt as to its distinctness, were it not that two of the tertiaries were edged with bright 
rufous ; this individual has the whole lower surface pure white. 

A Ceylon example, at first sight, seen from above, might easily be mistaken for the 
Philippine species, were it not for its ruddy rectrices and rufous-tinged forehead and the 
absence of grey on the head. 

' I haye not met with an authentic example of L. superciliosus $ . 



INHABITINa THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAaO. 



173 



Lanius schwaneri, Bp. (cf. Walden, tov!. cit. p. 223), is reduced to a synonym of 
L. lucionensis by Mr. Swinhoe {I. c.) ; yet that author {I. c.) describes a fourth species, 
entitling it L. incertus, which appears to be only distinguishable from L. lucionensis by 
the characters on which Prince Bonaparte founded L. schivaneri. 

Longitudo 







alae. 


caudae. 




L. superciliosus . 


. 3-50 


4-00. 


c? adult. Malacca. 


55 


. 3-37 


8-75. 


^ 55 55 


55 


. 3-37 


3-85. 


<? juv. 


55 


. 3-50 


4-12. 


6 adult. Java. 


55 


. 3-62 


3-87. 


(J „ Hakodadi, June. 


L. lucionensis 


. 3-37 


3-87. 


J „ Zebu, March. 


55 


. 3-37 


3-87. 


i „ Luzon, January. 


55 


. 3-50 


3-87. 


c? „ Negros, March. 


55 


. 3-12 


3-50. 


? juv. ? Guimaras, March. 


55 • 


. 3-25 


3-62. 


^ 55 55 55 


55 


. 3-60 


8-87. 


6 adult. Amoy, April 28. 


55 


. . 3-50 


3-50. 


? „ „ May. 


55 


. 3-37 


3-50. 


2 

+ 55 55 55 


55 


. 3-50 


3-75. 


<^ „ South Andaman, December 29. 


L. cristatus 


. . 8-37 


3-75. 


S „ Lake Baikal. 






. 3-37 


3-75. 


2 

+ 55 55 55 






. 3-37 


8-60. 


? „ Siberia (Lake Baikal? ). 






. 3-37 




d „ Malabar. 






. 3-37 


3-37. 


? vel 6 juv. Coorg. 






. 3-37 


3-87. 


S vel s 55 Moulmein, October. 






. 3-37 


3-65. 


6 juv.(j'?(ZeBeavan). Maunbhoom,Dec.25 






. 3-25 


3-50. 


? „ {fide Beavan). Moulmein, Sept. 






. 3-37 


3-87. 


6 „ Barrackpore, Sept. 28. 






. 3'13 


3-62. 


? „ {fide Beavan). Maunbhoom, Jan. 






. 3-37 


3-81. 


S adult. Sassowlie. 






. 3-37 


3-87. 


6 „ Ceylon, December. 






. 3-87 


3-87. 


? vel cf juv. Ceylon, October. 






. 3-37 


3-16. 


(S adult. Assam. 






. 3-50 


3-62. 


6 „ Tongoo. 



La Piegrieche rouge de Visle Panay, Sonnerat, op. cit. p. 114, pi. 71 ; 
Lanius ruber, Scopoli, torn. cit. no. 14 (1786), ex Sonn. ; 
Lanius imnayensis, Gm.^ torn. cit. p. 307, no. 41 (1788), ex Sonn., and 
' Gmelin erroneously quotes Sonnerat's 70th plate. 

VOL. IX. — PAET II. A]}ril, 1875. 2 a 



174 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIRDS 

La Piegrihche hlanche de Visle Panay, Sonnerat, op. cit. p. 115, pi. 72 ; 

Lanius alhus, Scopoli, torn. cit. p. 85, no. 15 (1786), ex Sonn. ; 

Lanins alius, Gm., torn. cit. p. 307, no. 42 (1788), ex Sonn., 
have never been determined. Bonaparte (Consp. i. p. 364) was unable to suggest 
an identification; and in the Hand-list Mr. Gray omitted all the titles founded on 
Sonnerat's two plates. The seventy-first is possibly meant to represent an African or 
else Madagascar Ploceine form, perhaps a species of Foudia ; while the species figured 
in the seventy-second plate, Lanius alhus, closely corresponds with Stitrnopastor mela- 
noptertis (Daudin). 

ARTAMIDvE. 

Artamus, Vieillot. 
73. Artamus leucortnus. 

Lanius manillensis, Briss. Orn. ii. p. 180, no. 17, "Manilla" (1760). 

Lanius leucorynus, Linn., Mantissa Plant, p. 524, "Manilla" (1771), ex Brisson; Walden, Tr. Z. 

S. viii. p. 67; Kittlitz, Kupfert. pi. 30. fig. 1. 
Lanius philippinus, Scop. Fl. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 85, no. 12 (1786), ex Sonn. 

Hab. Negros, March ; Guimaras, March ; Luzon, January (il%«r). 

Sexes (Jide Meyer) do not differ. 

Messrs. Hartlaub and Finsch (P. Z. S. 1868, pp. 116, 117, no. 5) assert that the 
Phihppines, and more especially the island of Luzon, are inhabited by two distinct 
species of the genus Artamus : — one, the darker-coloured species, which has hitherto 
borne the title of Artamus (Loxia) melaleiims, R. Forster (Descr. Anim. p. 272, no. 221, 
" New Caledonia ") ; and the other the Javan form, and, as for that, the Indo-Malayan, 
Papuan, and Australian, Leptopteryx leucorhynchus (Linn.), Horsf. (Tr. L. S. xiii. p. 244, 
"Java"). This assertion is not supplemented by any stated evidence; nor do they 
profess to have seen Philippine examples of the darker species. The darker bird, A. 
melaleucus (R. Forster), is referred by Messrs. Hartlaub and Finsch to Lanius manillensis, 
Brisson, and Sonnerat's Piegrieche dominiquaine and the subsequent titles based on 
Brisson and Sonnerat's independent, separate, and original descriptions of that Philippine 
bird ; and to it Drs. Hartlaub and Finsch apply the title of A. leucorhynchus (Gm.), 
ex Brisson, but which is really a Linnaean title {I. c). 

The oldest title of the paler form they state to be Artamus leucorhynchus, Horsf. 
(nee Gmelin ! ). The title, not being Horsfield's, cannot be retained, even if Messrs. 
Hartlaub and Finsch can show that A. melaleucus also inhabits the Philippines ; and 
that of A. leucogaster, Valenc. Mem. du Mus. vi. p. 27 (1820), would have to be 
adopted. I have never met with specimens of any other than this latter species from 
the Philippines ; and I have no doubt that from it Brisson and Sonnerat took their 
descriptions. True Loocia melaleuca, R. Forster, ex New Caledonia, only differs from 
the widely spread Lanius leucorhynchus, Linn., in having the entu-e head almost black 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE AKCHIPELAGO. 175 

instead of ash-grey, by the throat being darker, and also the smoky brown of the back 
being many shades deeper. The species that is found in the Pelew Islands I have 
never seen. 

CAMPEPHAGID^. 

Geaucalus, Cuvier. 

74. * Graucalus steiatus. (PI. XXX. fig. 1.) 

Choucas de la Nouvelle Guinee, D'Aubent. PL Enl. 629, ? vel s juv- 

Le Choucas de la Nouvelle GuinSe', Montbeillard, Hist. Nat. Ois. iii. p. 80 (1775). 

Corvus striatus, Bodd. Tabl. PI. Enl. p. 38, ex D'Aubent. (1783). 

Corvus novce-Guinece, Gm. S. N. i. p. 371, no. 28 (1788), ex MontbeiUard; Lath. Ind. Orn. i. p. 

156, no. 14. 
Coracina fasciata, Vieill.^ Nouv. Diet. viii. p. 8 (1817), ex D'Aubent. 
Ceblepyris plumbea, Wagler, Syst. Av. Corvus, p. 322 (1827), ex Gm. 
Graucalus dussuniieri, Lesson^, Tr. d'Om. p. 349, ? vel 6 juv., "Manilla"* (1831) ; Jacquin. & 

Pucberan, Voy. Astrolabe, Zool. iii. p. 65, pi. 8. fig. 1, $ , fide Pucher., " Samboagan, island of 

Mindanao ; " Pucberan, Archives du Mus. vii. p. 363. 
Graucalus lagunensis, Bp. Compt. Rend. vol. xxxviii. p. 540, cJ adult, " Ins. PbiUpp." (March 20, 

1854) ; Notes Orn. Coll. Delattre, p. 77 ; Hartl. J. f. O. 1864, p. 445, e, $," Philippines." 
Graucalus dussuniieri, Lesson, Blytb, J. A. S. B. 1861, p. 96; Gray, Hand-list, no. 5070. 
Graucalus lagunensis, Bp., Blyth, I. c, ; Gray, op. cit. no. 5080. 
Corvus papuensis, apud v. Kittlitz, Liitke, Voy. (Postels) iii. p. 326, nee Gm. 

Eab. Luzon, January, April ; Negros, March (Met/er) ; Mindanao (Jacquinot). 

Dr. Meyer obtained six examples of this handsome Graucalus, representing three 
distinct phases of plumage. Two have, with the exception of the upper tail-coverts and 
lower feathers on the rump, the whole plumage of a dark plumbeous grey, the lores 
being jet-black. The lower plumage is somewhat paler than the upper, more especially 
that of the ventral region. A few of the upper tail-coverts and rump-feathers are 
fringed with pale grey. This is the fully adult male plumage^ (G. lagunensis, Bp.). 

A third example has the head, neck, back, and breast dark plumbeous grey ; but 

' MontbeiUard leaves it to be inferred that tbia title (involving, as it does, the origin of the type) was bestowed 
by D'Aubenton. 

- This author pretends also to describe the female and the young male ; but it is impossible to determine what 
species he describes from. 

' This title and the accompanying references are omitted in Dr. Hartlaub's 'Monograph' (J.f. 0. 1864, p. 444); 
nor is it included in his valuable index to Pucheran's papers on the types in the Paris Museum {op. cit. 1855). 
Correctly enough, however, only one species of the true Grauccdits is enumerated by Dr. Hartlaub from the 
Philippines. 

•' Dr. Pucberan also states that Lesson's type came from Luzon. 

' It may also be that of the adult female, it being an unascertained fact whether in both sexes of the large 
Cuckoo-shrikes the adult plumage is the same. One of the two above described is labelled by Dr. Meyer 
" a male," and the other " a female ; " but I am not quite sure that imphcit confidence can be placed in the 
sexual determinations indicated on Dr. Meyer's labels. 

2a2 



176 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIRDS 

the rest of the under plumage, with the under tail-coverts and the rump and upper 
tail-coverts, has two or more broad, almost pure white, transverse bands on each 
feather. The black lores are faintly indicated by a darker shade of plumbeous. This 
is the phase described by Lesson {I. c), and represented in the eighth plate of the 
' Voyage de 1' Astrolabe.' It is also the phase figured by D'Aubenton, only that in the 
' Planches Enluminees ' the lores are exhibited as black. Two other examples differ : — 
one in the black and white feathers extending higher up on the breast, and being 
more numerous on the rump ; the other in their becoming less distinct — that is, 
passing into the fully adult phase. 

The Negros example ( S fide Meyer) has the whole of the under plumage, from the 
chin, barred transversely white and black ; and the black and white feathers on the 
uropygium expend to the middle of the back. This individual, I believe, represents 
the youngest of the three phases of plumage. It has not hitherto been described or 
figured. The dimensions of all six examples nearly agree. 

D'Aubenton's plate, no. 629, first made this species known to science. The individual 
then figured was brought to Paris by Sonnerat {teste Month, torn. cit. p. 82). With 
it Sonnerat also brought the individual represented by D'Aubenton on plate 630, and 
on which Gmelin founded his Corvus pafpiiensis. Unfortunately Montbeillai-d did not 
state the localities where Sonnerat procured either of the two species. The one, how- 
ever, figured on the 630th plate is undoubtedly an exclusively Papuan form ; and being 
so, we can with much certainty infer that it was obtained by Sonnerat from some part 
of the Papuan subregion during his only visit to the Papuan Islands, namely in the 
year 1772. The expedition which Sonnerat accompanied when he visited those islands, 
and which had left the Isle of France on the 29th of June, 1771, had previously, from 
the beginning of September 1771 to the beginning of February 1772, explored the 
Philippine Islands ; and Sonnerat seems to have never again travelled in the Philippine 
archipelago. He returned to France in 1772 ; and D'Aubenton's plates were published 
prior to 1775'. After this date Sonnerat returned to the East and visited India, 
Malacca, and China. The subject of PI. Enl. 629 was therefore procured during 
Sonnerat's first voyage, either along with that of PI. Enl. 630 (C. papuensis, Gra.) in 
the Papuan Islands, or else previously in one of the Philippines. No known Papuan 
Graucalus agrees with the bird figured in plate 629 ; but the female or young male of 
the common Philippine species does completely agree with it. I therefore without 
hesitation identify Le Choucas de la Nouvelle Guinee, D'Aubent., pi. 629, with the 
Philippine Cuckoo-shrike. Leaving out G. swainsonii, Gould, it being an Australian 

' I am unable to fix the exact publishing-date of PI. Enl. 629 & 630 ; but as these plates are quoted by 
MontbeLUard in the third volume of the first edition of the 'Histoire Naturelle," which is dated 1775, the 
examples brought to Paris by Sonnerat must have been obtained during his first voyage (that is, his voyage to 
the Philippines and New Guinea), and not during his second voyage, when he visited Malacca at some period 
subsequent to 1776, the year when he lelt Europe for the second time. 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAGO. 177 

member of the genus, the only other species that may have supplied Sonnerat with his 
example are the Malaccan, vSumatran, and Bornean forms (G. fasciatus, Vieill., apud 
auct. recent., = C. sumatrensis\ S. MiiWei; and Graucahcs doisoni, Ball, J.A.S.'B.xii. 
p. 281, no. 23, an excellent species, belonging to this group and recently discovered by 
Mr. Ball in the Andaman Islands. But there is no evidence that Sonnerat obtained any 
birds from the Malayan peninsula, the Andamans, Sumatra, or Borneo during his voyage 
from Port St. Louis to Manilla ; and on the other hand we have the fact that D'Auben- 
ton's plate 629 represents a Graucaliis mth a black lorum and ocular stripe — a character 
possessed by the Philippine species in some phases of plumage, and the constant 
absence of which is said to be (and is, I believe) a principal distinguishing character of 
the Malayan^. 

Two examples of this Philippine Graucalus are contained in the British Museum. 
Both are in the plumage of G. dussumieri ; yet they are catalogued under two different 
numbers and two distinct titles in the Hand-list. One, from Mindanao, through the 
brothers Verreaux, is named by them G. lagunensis ; the other, from the Cuming 
collection, procured at Cataguan, is named G. dussumieri. 

A species usually associated with the subject of PI. Enl. 629, is the so-called Grau- 
calus lineatus. Lesson, Tr. d'Orn. p. 349. The error has probably arisen in consequence 
of Lesson {I. c.) not quoting the real author of the title, and his giving Corvus novoB- 
guinece, Gm., as a synonym, and adding PI. Enl. 629 as a reference. The bird described 
by Lesson {I. c.) under this title is said by him to be from New Holland. It is clearly 
not the Malayan G. concretus, Hartl., nor the Philippine species ; and it is difficult to 
identify; for, among other characters given, is a white tail. In the Manuel d'Orn. i. p. 
220, Lesson included a Cehlepyris lineafa., Swainson, and a Ceblepyris tricolor^. Swain- 
son, introducing the two titles with the observation that " Mr. Swainson describes two 
new echenilleurs, which he names," etc. The diagnosis given in the ' Manuel ' differs 
from that given in the ' Traite,' but is evidently a condensed account of the Australian 
Graucalus [Cehlepyris) lineatus, Swains.* Zool. Journal, i. p. 466, New Holland (1825) 
= Graucalus swainsonii, Gould', Synop. Birds Austral, pt. iv. pi. — . fig. 2, " east coast 
of New South Wales." 

Mr. Blyth (J. A. S. B. 1861, p. 96) refers to, and partially describes, a species of 

^ 6. concretus, Hartl. apud nos, Ibis, 1872, p. 371. 

- The Malayan species is considerably smaller, average length of the wing being 5-50, as against 6-25. It 
is not of so dark a shade of plumbeous, and the transverse bands are narrower. It is not so well marked and 
striking as the Philippine species. The Andaman species is larger than the Philippine and possesses a 
characteristic plumage of its own. 

' Apparently = 0. humeralis, Gould, P. Z. S. 1837, p. 143, over which title it takes precedence. 

* Dr. Eiippell (Mus. Senckenb. iii. p. 30), having failed to find the reference to Swainson, is hard upon 
Lesson for the meagreness of his diagnosis. 

' This species must retain its original title of G. lineatus, Sw. Mr. Gould (J. c.) states that he altered it to 
O. swainsonii because the name lineatus had been previously given to another species of this group. But the 
" other species " was this very bird. 



178 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIRDS 

Volvocivora that was among some Philippine birds sent to him by Mr. Swinhoe to 
examine. I am unable to identify it ; and Mr. Blyth bestowed no title. 

VoLvocivoBA, Hodgson. 

75. * Volvocivora (\) c^rtjlescens. (PL XXX. fig. 2.) 

Ceblepyris cantlescens, B\yth, J. A. S.B. 1842, ^. 463, 2 vel <i jnv., " Lugoma.;" op. cH. 1846, 
p. 307; Hartlaub, J. f. O. 1865, p. 157, 6 ad. 

Hah. Luzon, January {Meyer). 

Dr. Meyer procured one example only of this anomalous form. It is in full black 
plumage and labelled a male. I am uncertain under which Graucaline genus to class 
this species. Mr. Blyth (/. c.) has remarked that it " might be regarded as the type of 
a new division." 

That gentleman (Ibis, 1866, p. 368) has stated that his type is the female of 
C. aterrima. I have failed to discover the name of the author of this title and Mr. 
Blyth is unable to inform me who bestowed it. 

Lalage, Boie. 

76. Lalage dominica. 

Le Merle des Indes, Brisson, Orn. ii. p. 24-8, no. 19, " Indes orientales." 

Le Terat-Boulau, Month. H. Nat. Ois. iii. p. 397, ex Briss. 

Merle des Indes orientales, D'Aiibenton, PI. Enl. 373. f. 3. 

Turdus dominicus, L. S. MuUer, Suppl. p. 145, no. 56 (1776), ex PI. Enl. 373. f. 3. 

Turdus terat, Bodd. Tabl. p. 17 (1783), ex PI. Enl. 273. f. 3. 

Turdus orientalis, Gm. S. N. i. p. 831, no. 71 (1788), ex Brisson. 

Lalage terat (Bodd.), O. Finscli, Centr.-Polyn. p. 80. 

Hab. Zebu, Guimaras {Meyer). 

Not distinguishable from Javan, Malaccan, and North-Bornean examples, but with a 
somewhat larger wing. On L. S. Miiller's title conf. Cassin, Pr. Ac. Nat. Sc. Philad. 
1864, p. 251. 

PSEUDOLALAGE, Blyth. 

77. * PsEUDOLALAGE MELANOLEUCA. (PI. XXIX. fig. 2.) 

Pseudolalage melanoleuca, Blyth, J. A. S. B. 1861, p. 97, "Philippine Islands;" Hartlaub, J. f. O. 

1865, p. 163; v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 12, no. 44. 
Pseudolalage melanictera, Blyth, Sclater (lapsu calami), This, 1863, p. 78 ; Gray, Hand-list, no. 5139. 
? Lalage uropygialis, Bp. Compt. Rend, xxxviii. p. 541, "Pa^-. incert." (1854); Coll. Delattre, p. 78. 

Hob. Luzon (■«. Martens). 

Feathers of the uropygium spinous ; otherwise a true Lalage. The diagnosis of L. 
uropygialis, Bp., applies well to this species ; but the spinous character of the uropygial 
feathers is not mentioned. On the stand of the specimen in the British Museum 
Bonaparte's title is inscribed, although that name is altogether ignored in the 'Hand-list,' 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAGO. 179 

where, instead, the misprint in the Ibis (I. c.) is adopted, and Mr. Blyth's original title 
attributed to Hartlaub. 

PACHYCEPHALID^. 

Hylotekpe\ Cabanis. 

78. * HyLOTERPE PHILIPPINENSIS. (PI. XXXI. fig. 2.) 

Hyloterpe philyjpinensis, Walden, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4. vol. x. p. 252, " Luzon " 
(October 1, 1872). 

Hab. Luzon {Meyer). 

Dr. Meyer's researches in the Philippines have added an additional member of a 
genus hitherto not known to be there represented. The small group of Pachycephaline 
birds to which the title of Hyloterpe is restricted, is now known to contain six species. 
They are entitled to subgeneric distinction. The sexes are, I believe, alike; and 
they possess this further peculiarity, that they wear, in adult plumage, a sombre 
garb recalling the adolescent and the female plumage of the true black-and-yellow 
Fachycephalce. This Philippine species is a representative form of H. sulphuriventris, 
Walden, ex Celebes. Above, it differs by its plumage being olive-green, and not brown, 
and underneath by the yellow extending higher, and being much brighter. The bill 
is likewise more powerful. Seen from above, E. i)hilippinensis is difficult to distinguish, 
from H. fuhot'mcta, AVallace, ex Flores; while, in the same way, H. sulplmriventris 
closely resembles //. griseiceps ex N. Guinea. Seen from below, however, the affinities 
are reversed, the Flores Hyloterpe showing a great resemblance to that of Timor, H. 
orpJieus (Jard.), and the Celebean and Philippine species but difiering slightly. 

PERICROCOTID^. 

Peeicrocotus, Boie. 

79. Peeicrocotus cineeeus. 

Pericrocotus cinereus, La Fresnaye, Rev. ZooL 1845, p. 94, " Lufon ; " Gould, Birds of Asia, pt. ix. ; 
Swinlioe, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 378, no. 315 : Scbrenck, Amuil. i. p. 381; Radde, Ost-Siberien, 

ii. p. 273. 
Pericrocotus mo(lestus,Strickl.V.Z.S.l8i6, p. 102, "Malacca;" Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. xix. 

p. 131. 

' Wiegm. Archiv f. jSTaturg. 1847, i. p. 321, type Hylocharis philomela, S. Muller. Boie (Isis, 1831, p. 546) 
gave the title of Hylocharis to a section of the TrocMlida. But Mr. G. E. Gray, besides adopting the title 
(Hand-list, i. p. 148) for a genus of that family, employs it again {torn. cit. p. 389) for the Pachycephaline genus 
named by Dr. Cabanis Hyloterpe, and attributes it also to Boie, with the date 1827. Br. Cabanis (I. c), on the 
other baud, refers the Pachycephaline genus Hylocharis to S. MiiUer, of which he states Hylochans philomela, 
S. Miiller, to be the type ; and he changed the generic title, as that of Hylocharis was preoccupied. S. Muller 
published that title, without giving any characters, in his papers on his zoological discoveries in the Sunda 
Islands (Tijdschr. Nat. Geschied. en Physiol, ii. p. 331, 1835) ; but he called the species Hylocharis htscinia, and 
the title H. philomela is not given by him. It is probable that the two titles refer to the same species 



180 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIRDS 

Ceblepyris luduosus, De Fil. Cat. Mus. Mediol. p. 31, "Philippines" (March, 1847) ; Salvad. Atti 

Acad. Scienze, Torino, 1868, p. 271. 
Phcenicornis modesta, Boie Bp., Consp. i. p. 357, "Sumatra" (1850). 
Pericrocotus motacilloides, Swinhoe, Ibis, 1860, p. 58, " Amoy, in spring." 

Eab. Philippines (La Fresnaye, Gould). 
Probably only a winter resident. 

DICRUEID^. 

DiCEUKtrs, Vieillot. 
80. *DlCKtrEUS BALICASSIUS. (PI. XXXI. fig. 1.) 
Monedulaphilippensis, Brisson, Ornith. ii. p. 31, no. 9, pi. 2 fig. 1, " Pliilippines." 
Corvus balicassius, Linn. S. N. i. p. 157, no. 11 (1776), ex Brisson. 
Le Choucas des Philippines, D'Aubent. PI. Enl. 603. 

Le Balicasse des Philippines, Montbeillard, Hist. Nat. iii. p. 83, ex Brisson. 
Edolius furcatus, Wagler, Syst. Av. p. 322 (1827), ex Linn. 
Edolius viridescens, Gould, P. Z. S. 1836, p. 6, " Manilla ; " Blyth, J. A. S. B. xi. pp. 173, 803, figs. 

10, 11; Cat. Calc. Mus. no. 1317, pp. 202 & xxii. 
5a/Jca««j«sy«JZi>/;e««is, Bp. Compt. Rend, xxxviii. p. 539, "PhUippines" (1854); Coll. Delattre, 

p. 76. 
Balicassius furcatus, Bp., ex Gm. I. c. nee Gm. 

Eab. Luzon, January and February [Meyer). 

Sexes, as determined by Dr. Meyer, do not difl'er. 

Accurately described in 1760 by Brisson, with its habitat correctly stated, this fine 
species remained unrecognized until a few years ago. It seems to be confined to the 
island of Luzon, being represented in Negros by the following species. It is the first 
species mentioned by Vieillot (Analyse, p. 41, no. 125, 1817) under his genus Dicrurus, 
and therefore may conveniently be regarded as the type, and Bonaparte's generic title 
Balicassius^ must fall. -B. viridescens, Gould, was described from a Philippine example 
now in Mr. Eyton's collection, and which I have examined. Wagler bestowed as a new 
title that oi furcatus on Corvus balicassius, Linn., as seems to have been his habit when 
he altered the genus. The fact that true D. balicassius is a purely Philippine bird 
was not fully appreciated by my lamented friend the late Dr. Jerdon; for (Ibis, 1872, 
p. 119) he alludes to the Himalayan Dicrurus as being " distinct from the Malayan 
species to which the name of balicassius was applied." The Malayan species here 
referred to is Molius affinis, Blyth (J. A. S. B. 1842, p. 174, "Malay peninsula"), and 
which, after comparison, I am unable to separate from the Himalayan J), annectens. 



■which is the Tephrodornis grisola, Blyth, J. A. S. B. 1843, p. 180*, and is described op. cit. 1842, p. 799. If 
Mr. G. E. Gray is right, and it can be shown that Hylocharis, Boie, 1825, was founded on the Hylockaris luscinia 
01 philomela of S. MtiUer, the generic title Hyloterpe wiU have to fall. 
' Adopted by Fitzinger (Fam. der Viigel, p. 198). 



IlSTIABITlNa THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAGO. 181 

Hodgs. (Ind. Rev. 1837, p. 326, "Nipaul"),= D. balicassius (Linn.), apud Jerd., Blyth. 
Horsf. and Moore, etc., nee Linn. 

The following titles have been regarded by some authors as belonging to the Luzon 
species, although they have nothing to do with it : — 

Corvus qfer, Lichtenst. M. A. A. H. Lichtenstein, in the Hamburg Catalogue\ p. 10, 
no. 99, identified with doubt what can only be the South -African i'tcrwrMS musicus yvith 
Corvus afer, Linn. (I. c. no. 12), founded on Pica senegalensis, Briss. {torn. cit. p. 40, 
no. 2). Lichtenstein did not create the title. Brisson's bird is doubtless a Senegal 
Sturnine form, and was sent to Reaumur by Adanson. 

Corvus adsimilis, Bechstein, Latham's allgemeine Uebersicht der Vogel, ii. p. 562, 
no. 47 (1791), ex M. A. A. H. Lichtenstein ; Kurze Uebersicht, p. 117, no. 44. A title 
given by Bechstein to Corvus afer, Linn, apud Lichtenstein I. c, and which therefore 
becomes the senior title for Dicrurus musicus, Vieillot. 

Oriolus furcatus, Gm. S. N. i. p. 395, no. 52. A title given to the Icterus Cauda 
bifida, Brisson, Om. ii. p. 105, no. 16, which in its tiu-n was founded originally on the 
Turdxis niger mexicnnus, Seba, Thesaurus, i. p. 102, pi. 65. fig. 4. Clearly a Dicrurus 
{Buchanga), said by Wagler (Syst. Av. p. 364) to be Dicrurus ccemlescens (Linn.), but 
which, from the crissum only being described as white, I believe to be Dicrurus 
leucoj^ygialis, Blyth. 

81 . * DiCRUBUS MIRABILIS. 
Dicrurus mirabilis, "Walden & Layard, Ibis, 1872, p. 103, pi. 5, "Negros." 

Hah. Negros (L. C. Layard, Meyer). 

Only differs from D. balicassius in having the lower breast, abdominal regions, flanks, 
and under tail-coverts white instead of black. Dr. Meyer procured several examples in 
Negros. 

In the ' Birds of India' (i. p. 438) it is stated, on Mr. Blyth's authority, that Edolius 
rangoonensis, Gould (P. Z. S. 1836, p. 5 ; and Jard. Illustr. pi. xxxviii.), is a Philippine, 
and not a Burmese species. It is not impossible that the genus Dissemurus is repre- 
sented in the Philippines ; but E. rangoonensis, Gould, although apparently unknown 
in Burma, seems to have been founded on an example of the Malaccan crestless 
Dissemurus. 

' Catahgus rerum naturalium rarlssimarum Hamhurgi., d. xxi. October, 1793. An auction catalogue of 
zoological specimens sold at Hamburg on the above date and following days, and drawn up by M. A. A. H. 
Licbtenstein, Eector of the Johannis School. Many species are described, and new titles bestowed. The work 
is rare, the only copy known to me being contained in the Library of the Tniversity of Eiel. 



VOL. IX. — PART II. April, 1875. 2 b 



182 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIRDS 



MUSCICAPID^. 

Philentoma, Eyton. 

82. * Philentoma ctaniceps. (PI. XXXII. fig. 1.) 

Muscipeta cyaniceps, Cassin, Pr. Ac. Pliilad. vii. p. 438, " Philippine Islands " (1855) ; Un. St. 

Expl. Exped. Zool. p. 145, pi. ix. fig. 1. 
Rhipidura caniceps, Cassin, ap. G. R. Gray {lapsu calami), Hand-list, no 4966. 

Hab. Luzon, January [Meyer). 

A small representative form oi Philentoma pyrrhopterum (Temm.). 

Leucocerca, Swainson. 

83. * Leucoceeca nigeitoequis. 

Rhipidura nigritorquis, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 97, " neighbourhood of Manilla." 

Mmcicapa bambusce, Kittlitz, Kupf. p. 7, pi. 9. f. 2, " Luzon " (1832) ; Mem. presentes k I'Ac. 

St. Pe'tersb. ii. p. 5, pi. 6, "Luzon" (1833). 
7 Leucocerca javanica, ap. Blyth, Ibis, 1865, p. 30. 

Hob. Luzon, Zebu ; bill, feet, and claws black ; sexes alike [Meyer). 
L. javanica may also inhabit the Philippines ; but before including it in their fauna 
it wiU be better to wait for further evidence. 

Ctoenis, Blyth. 

84. CroENis banyumas. 

Muscicapa banyumas, Horsf. Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 146, " Java " (1820) ; Waldeu, Tr. Zool. Soc. 
viii. p. 117 ; v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 11, no. 32, "Luzon." 

Hab. Zebu, April [Meyer) ; Luzon [Jagor). 

The only individual obtained by Dr. Meyer appears to differ from Javan examples 
by being of a much darker shade of blue, and by wanting the pale bright blue frontal 
and superciliary plumes. The bill also is considerably longer aad stouter. 

Hypothtmis, Boie. 

85. Hypothymis azueea. 

Gobemouches bleu des Philippines, D'Aubent. PL Enl. 666. fig. 1 . 

Le petit Azur, Month. Hist. Nat. Ois. iv. p. 534. 

Muscicapa azurea, Bodd. Tabl. PI. Enl. p. 41 (1783), ex D'Aubent.; Walden & Layard, Ibis, 1872, 

102, " Negros." 
Muscicapa crpruka, Gm. S. N. i. p. 943, no. 64 (1788), ex Month. ; Kittlitz, Kupfert. p. 7, pi. 9. 

fig. 1; V. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 11, no. 38. 
L'Azur a calotte et a collier noir, Le Vaillant, Ois. d'Afr. iv. p. 11, pi. 153. figs. 1, 2. 



IKHABITING THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAGO. 183 

Muscicapa occipitalis, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 97, " neighbourhood of Manilla ; " v. Martens, torn. 

cit. no. 31. 
Muscicapa caruleocephala, Sykes, P. Z. S. 183.2, p. 85, no. 43, S, " Deccan ; " J. A. S.B. 1834, 

p. 423. 
? Myiagra torquata, Swains.' Nat. Libr. Flycatchers, p. 208(^rfeG. R. Gray, Hand-list, no. 4930). 
Muscicapa manadensis, Quoy et Gaim. ap. Bp. Consp. i. p. 321, nee Quoy et Gaim. 

Hah. Guimaras, March {Meyer) ; Negros {L. C. Layard) ; Luzon ( Vigors). 

The proportion of blue, of bluish grey, and of pure white varies considerably among 
individuals (males) from the same locality. In some the lower breast and the whole 
abdominal region is pure white. In the others the entire breast and the abdomen is 
bluish grey. Again, the presence of the black nuchal patch and black gorget is not 
constant. In a Malabar male, in apparently otherwise full plumage, the black gorget 
is absent. A Ceylon male in brilliant azure plumage wants both the black nuchal 
patch and the gorget. A second specimen from that island also wants these characters. 
If constant in the Ceylon Hypothymis, this form will deserve specific separation. 
Examples from Maunbhoom, Garoo Hills, Tongoo, Moulmein, Malacca, Java, Flores, 
Banjarmassing, and the island of Negros perfectly agree with the only individual 
obtained by Dr. Meyer. 

BuTALis, Bole. 

86. * BUTALIS MANILLENSIS. 

Butalis manillensis, Bp. Compt. Eend. xxxviii. p. 652, "Manilla" (1854) ; Coll. Delattre, p. 80. 

Hah. Manilla [Bonajparte). 

The short notice given of this species makes it difiicult to identify. It is stated to be 
of small size as compared with B. grisola, and may prove to be Butalis latirostris 
(Eaffles, Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 312), or else Butalis griseosticta (Swinh., Ibis, 1861, 
p. 330), both these migratory forms occurring in the Malay archipelago during the winter 
months. 

Zeocephus, Bonaparte. 

87. * Zeocephus eufus. 

Tchitrea nifa, G. R. Gray, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. xi. p. 371, "Philippine Islands" (1843) ; Gray 

& Mitch. Genera of Birds, pi. 64. 
Zeocephus rvfa (G. R. Gray), Bp. Comptes Rend, xxxviii. p. 652 (1854) ; Coll. Delattre, p. 80 ; 

Cassin, Un. St. Expl. Exp. Zool. p. 144. 

Hah. Philippines. 

The precise localities in the Philippines inhabited by this Flycatcher are not known. 

• Treated as a distinct species by Bonaparte (Consp. p. 321), and united by Mr. G. E. Gray with the 
Philippine species. I have failed to find Swainson's description. He merely refers to it (J. c.) as a recognized 
species additional to H. azurea. 

2b2 



184 VISCOUNT "WALDEN ON THE BIEDS 

The following Muscicapine forms attributed to the Philippines have not been 
rediscovered in those islands. 

Le Gohe-mouche a tete hleudtre de I'isle de Lugon, Sonnerat, Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 57, 
pi. 26. no. 1. 

Muscicapa coeruleocephala. Scop. Del. Fl. Faun. Insubr. p. 95, no. 106 (1786), 
ex Sonn. 

Muscicapa cyanocephala, Gm. S. N. i. p. 94.3, no. 65 (1788), ex Sonn.; v. Martens, 
J. f. O. 1866, p. 11, no. 35. 

Not since recognized. 

Le Gohe-mouche a gorge jaune de I'isle de Lugon^, Sonn. torn. cit. p. 57, pi. 26. f 2. 
Muscica])a manillensis, Gm. torn. cit. p. 943, no. 66 (1788), ex Sonn. 

Judged by the description, a well-marked species ; I am, however, quite unable to 
identify it. 

Le Gohe-mouche a tete hleue de I'isle de Lugon^, Sonnerat, torn. cit. p. 58, pi. 27. f. 1. 
Muscicapa macroura, Scopoli, torn. cit. p. 95, no. 107 (1786), ex Sonn. 
Not since recognized. 

Gohe-mouche noir de I'isle de Lugon, Sonn. torn. cit. p. 59, pi. 27. f. 2. 
Muscicajja tessacourhe, Scopoli, torn. cit. p. 95, no. 108 (1786), ex Sonn. 
MusHcapa luzoniensis, Gm. torn. cit. p. 942, no. 62 (1788), ex Sonn. 

Stated by Sonnerat to occur in Madagascar, where it is called by the natives tessa- 
courhe, as well as in the Philippines. It has not been recognized in the Philippines 
since Sonnerat wrote, and it is in all probability a purely Madagascar form, namely 
Turdus alhospecularis, Eyd. & Gerv. (Guerin, Mag. Zool. Ois. pi. 64, 65, " Mada- 
gascar," 1836 ; Voy. Favorite, Zool. p. 35, pi. 12, 13). 

Buffon (Hist. Nat. iv. p. 565), under the title of Le Moucherolle des Philippines, 
described an apparently Muscicapine bird, which I am unable to identify. On it Gmelin 
based his Muscicapa phibppinensis (S. N. i. p. 943, no. 63); v. Martens, J. fiir O. 
1866, p. 11, no. 34. 

HIRUNDINID^. 

HiEUNDO, Linnseus. 

88. HiRUNDO GUTT0RALIS. 

L'Hirondelle d'Antigue, Sonu. Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 118, pi. 76. 

Hirundo gutturalis, Scopoli, Del. Fl. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 96, no. 115 (1786), ex Soun. ; Swiuhoe, 

P. Z. S. 1871, p. 346, no. 66 ; Walden, Tr. Zool. Soc. viii. p. 65, no. 76. 
Hirundo panay una, Gm. S. N. i. p. 1018 (1788), ex Sonn. 

Hah. Island of Panay {Sonnerat). 

' Omitted by Scopoli. - Omitted by both Gmeliu aud Latham. 



INHABITINa THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAGO. 185 

Cecropis, Boie. 
89. Cecropis daurica. 

Hirundo daurica, Linn. Mantissa Plant, p. 528 (1771), ex Laxman ' ; Brandt, Ann. & Mag. Nat. 

Hist. xi. p. 114. 
Hirundo alpestris, Pallas, Eeisen Russischen Reichs, ii. p. 709, no. 19, "Altai and Siberian Alps" 

(1773) ; Zoogr. Rosso-Asiatica, i. p. 534, pi. xxx. ; Kittlitz, Liitke, Voy. (Postals) iii. p. 327. 

Hab. Manilla {Kittlitz). 

Brandt {I.e.) thus identified a Swallow brought from Manilla by Kittlitz. It pro- 
babl}' belongs to the race designated Hirundo striolata, Temm., ex Java, in the ' Fauna 
Japonica,' and which is said to frequent the islands of the Malay archipelago {cf. 
Swinh. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 346). 

Dr. V. Martens mentions having observed a Swallow with the uropygium of a pale 
isabelline colour^, very common about and in the houses of Bahos. With doubt he 
identified it with //. daurica (Preus. Exp. O.-Asien, Zool. i. p. 188). 



ORIOLID^. 

Broderipds, Bonaparte. 

90. * Broderipus acrorhynchtjs. 
Oriohis acrorhynchus , Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 97, "neighbourhood of Manilla;" Gray & Mitch. 
Gen. Birds, pi. 58 ; Walden & Layard, Ibis, 1872, p. 101. 

Hab. Zebu, Negros, Guimaras, Luzon. Bill pink, rose-coloured; feet and claws 
blue-grey ; Luzon examples {Meyer). 

A large series of individuals obtained by Dr. Meyer illustrates the varying relative 
proportion of yellow and black on the head in different examples of this fine Oriole. In 
a Luzon female, immature, middle rectrices tinged with green ; the enclosed yellow- 
frontal space extends back fully for f of an inch from the base of the culmen. In a 
perfectly adult Guimaras male with jet-black middle rectrices and quills, and rich orange- 
golden dorsal plumage, the forehead only is yellow, that colour occupying a depth of 
only I of an inch. This example, in the distribution and proportions of its black and 
yellow plumage, is almost absolutely identical mth a Sula-Island specimen of B. fron- 
talis (Wallace). The Sula example, however, has the middle pair of rectiices entirely 
black, whereas all the Philippme examples have those feathers more or less tipped with 
yellow. Moreover the Philippine is a much larger bird, with a longer wing and bill. 
The extent of yellow at the termination of the middle pair of rectrices varies very con- 
siderably. In a Negros male in full golden-orange plumage the tips of the middle pair 

> I have not been able to consult Laxman (Act. Holm. 1769, xxx. pi. 7. fig. 1) ; but it may be that he first 
bestowed the title of daurica, which Linnceus adopted. 
■ In the later list (J. f. 0. 1866) this colour is described as being isabelline yellow. 



186 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIKDS 

are but barely fringed with yellow. lu a Luzon male in similar dress the two middle 
rectrices have a yellow terminal band nearly half an inch in depth. 

The tendency in this species seems to be for the entire head to become black as in 
0. melanoce])halus and its allies. In an immature Luzon male {fide Meyer), with dingy 
greenish-yellow plumage and streaked breast, the feathers of the nape, occiput, and lores 
are dingy greenish yellow with greenish black, those of the forehead being dingy 
golden. Now in the adult these nuchal, occipital, and loral feathers become jet-black 
at their tips, those on the neck being ashy or greenish ash at their roots, but those on 
the occiput being bright yellow at their insertions. The direction of variation in this 
species may therefore be said to be towards 0. melanocephalus, and from 0. galbula ; or, 
in other words, 0. galhula is the older species, B. acrorhynchus and its allies being sub- 
sequent forms, and 0. melanocephahis and its allies the most recent '. A third species, 
allied to B. acrorliynclms and B. frontalis, exists in Oriolus formosus, Cabanis, J. f. O. 
1872, p. 392, "Island of Siou," the largest of all known Orioles. 

Oeiolus, Linnaeus. 

91. * OeIOLTJS PHILIPPENSIS. 
Oriolus philippensis, J. E. Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 3, " Philippine Islands " (1831); Bp. Consp. i. p. 346. 

Stated by its describer to have been discovered by Captain Hay in the Philippine 
Islands. It is not represented in the British Museum, and does not appear to have 
been again obtained. The type specimen was without feet or wings, and was procured 
from the natives. Its origin might be considered more than doubtful, were it not that 
it was procured along with an imdoubted Phihppine species (Melanojntta sordida). 



MERULID^. 

TuEDUS, Linnaeus. 



92. TuEDUS OBSCUEUS. 



Dark Thrush, Lath. Synop. ii. p. 31, no. 24, " Siberia, woods beyond Lake Baikal." 

Turdus obscurus, Gm. S. N. i. p. 816, no. 48 (1788), ex Lath.; Bp. Compt. Rend, xxxviii. p. 4; 

Coll. Delattre, p. 28. 
Turdus riifulus, Drapiez, Diet. Class. d'Hist. Nat. x. p. 443, "Java" (1826). 
Turdus paUens, Pallas, Zoographia Rosso- Asiatica, i. p. 457, no. 98, "Dauria" (1831) ; Temm. & 

Schlegel, Faun. Japou. Aves, p. 63, pi. 27. 
Turdus iliacus pallidus, Naumanu. 
Turdus seyffertitzii, Brelim, Vog. Deutschlands, p. 387, " Herzbiu-g, in Saxony " (1831). 

' This generalization is not grounded on the phenomena presented hy tlie Orioles alone. It is impossible not 
to be struck hy the numberless proofs the study of birds affords of the tendency of one species to develop into 
another. On the phases of plumage in B. sinensis, conf. Swiuh. Ibis, 1803, p. 292. 



ESTHABITma THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAGO. 187 

Tardus modestus, Eyton, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 103, "Malaya." 

Tardus verneri, Gene, Mem. Accad. Torino, xxxvii. p. 291, pi. — (1833). 

Tardus javanicus,? Horsf., apud Blyth, Cat. Calc. Mus. p. 161, no. 943, " Malacca," nee Horsf. 

Tardus davidianus, Milne-Edwards, Nouv. Archives, i. Bulletin, p. 26, " North China " (1865). 

Tardus chrysolaus, Temm., apud Godwin-Austen, J. A. S. B. xxxix. p. 103, nee Temm. 

Hah. Philippines (Bonaparte). 

The occurrence of this species in the Philippines, in itself highly probable, appears 
to rest on no other good ground than the statement of Bonaparte [l. c). 

93. TURDUS CHETSOLAUS. 

Tardus chrysolaus, Temm. PI. Col. 537, "Japan" (1831); Fauna Japonica, Aves, p. 64, pi. 28; 
Sclater, Ibis, 1863, p. 197, "Manilla." 

Mr. Sclater {I. c.) thus identified an example of a Philippine Thrush in Mr. Gould's 
collection. 

Professor Newton (Hist. Brit. Birds, pt. iv. p. 254) mentions that Mr. Gould had 
received an example of Tardus varius, Pallas, from Manilla. 



PITTID^. 

Erytheopitta, Bonaparte. 
94. * Ertthropitta eeythrogastra. 

Pitta eiythroffostra, Temm. PI. Col. 212, " Pliilippines (1823). 

Brachyurus erythrogaster (Temm.), Elliot, Monogr. Pittidse, pi. xvi. ; Ibis, 1870, p. 417, no. 17. 

Apparently confined to the Philippines ; but the exact limits of its range within that 
archipelago have yet to be ascertained. 



Melanopitta, Bonaparte. 
95. * Melanopitta sordida. 
Merula viridis atricapilla moluccensis, Brisson, Orn. ii. p. 319, no. 57, "Moluccas." 
Merle des Philippines, D'Aubent. PI. Enl. 89. 

Breve des Philippines, Month. Hist. Nat. Ois. iii. p. 412, " Philippines." 
Tardus sordidus, L. S. Muller, Suppl. p. 143, no. 51 (1776), ex D'Aubent. 
Tardus brevicauda, Bodd. Tabl. PI. Enl. p. 6 (1783), ex D'Aubent. 

Corvus philippensis (C. brachyurus, var. /3) Gm. S. N. i. p. 375, no. 15 (1788), ex Brisson. 
Citta melanocephala, Wagler, Syst. Av. " Corvus," no. 14 (1837), ex Gm. ; nee Forster. 
Pitta atricapilla, Cuv., Lesson, Tr. p. 394, "ManiUe" (1831) ; Compl. Buffon, p. 501 (1840), nen 

Muller & Scblegel. 
Pitta macrorhyncha, J. E. Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 3, "Philippine Islands" (1831). 
Pitta atricapilla, Temm. PI. Col. Tabl. Method, p. 16 (1832), ex D'Aubent. 



188 VISCOUNT AVALDEN OX THE BIEDS 

'f Pitta leucoptera, Elliot, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1861, p. 153, " Ceylon," av. juv.? 
Brackyurus atricapillus, Elliot, Monogr. Pittida, pi. xxv. 
Brachyums sorclidus (L. S. Miiller), EUiot, Ibis, 1870, p. 419, in pt. 

Hah. Luzon, Negros ; iris brown [Meyer). 

The synonymy of this species is somewhat perplexing, in consequence of Brisson (/. c.) 
having given a description, applying in all its details to the Philippine bird, to an 
individual said by him to have been sent to I'Abbe Aubrey from the Moluccas. Mont- 
beillard [I. c.) some years later described seemingly the same bird (and it was figured 
by D'Aubenton /. c), but attributed its origin to the Philippines. The difficulty thus 
caused would probably have remained through all time unsolved had not Le Vaillant, by 
one of his gi-atuitous and carping criticisms, unintentionally assisted us. With the view 
of showing that Buffon was in the habit of describing as good species individuals that 
had been manufactured by dishonest dealers, Le Vaillant (Ois. de Par. vol. i. p. 106) in- 
cidentally alludes to this species. He asserts that the description given by Buffon 
(Montbeillard) of his "Breve des Philijjpines" -w^s taken from a specimen of the '■^ Breve 
de Ceylan" {=Corvus hrachyurus, Limi.), in which the head of the common blackbird 
liad been substituted. This example, Le Vaillant says, formed part of the Abbe 
Aubrey's cabinet ; and adds that he purchased it when that collection was sold, and at 
once discovered the imposition. This story Cuvier (R. A. 1817, p. 356, note 2) repeated 
on Le Vaillant's authority. Vieillot (Nouv. Diet. p. 358, and Tabl. Method. Orn. p. 686) 
did the same without mentioning his authority. It remained uncontradicted until 
Wagler [I.e.) showed that Le Vaillant was in eri'or. And Cuvier in the second edition 
of the ' Eegne Animal ' (p. 373, note) also corrected Le Vaillant. The statement that 
Montbeillard described from the specimen in Aubrey's cabinet may be accepted ; for it 
is supported by the collateral evidence of Montbeillard [I. c), who, in a footnote, 
remarks that it is the same bird that Brisson made his 57th " Grive." As no species of 
Melanopitta is known to exist in the Moluccas, we are justified in assuming that Brisson 
and Montbeillard described from the same, a Philippine example, and in regarding 
their descriptions as having formed tlie common basis of all subsequent synonyms 
applied to this Philippine form of Pitta '. 

Six species of black-headed green-bodied Pittce are fully established as meriting 
specific distinction : — 

1. P. iiovce-guhiece, Miiller «& Schlegel. New Guinea and the Aru Islands, and 
most of the Papuan Islands. 

2. P. sanghirana, Schlegel. Sanghii- Islands. 

3. P. rosenhergi-i, Schlegel. Soek Island in the Bay of Geelvink. 

' The title of Pitta philippensis, VieiU., is quoted by some authors ; but I cannot find that Vieillot ever 
applied a Latin title to the species, his opinion being that Montbeillard's type was fictitious. 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE ABCHIPELAGO. 189 

4. P. forsteni, Bp. Celebes. 

5. P. muelleri, Bp. Borneo. 

6. P. sordida (L. S. Miiller). Philippines. 

The first three species are representative forms of a Papuan type ; the remaining three 
of an Indo-Malayan. 

Dr. Cabanis (Mus. Hein. ii. p. 4, no. 10) identifies an example oi Melanopitta in the 
Halberstadt collection, and said to be from Timor, as Turdus irevicaudus, Bodd. 
This is seemingly an error, P. irena being the only known Timorese species. 

Sumatra is brought within the range of the Philippine Melanopitta by Mr. Elliot 
{I. c); but no authority is quoted. 

The examples obtained by Dr. Meyer ( J ? ) in no way differ. 



CRATEEOPODID^. 

Megalurus, Horsfield. 

96. Megalurus palusteis. 

Megalurm palustris, Horsf. Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 159^ "Java" (1820); Blyth, J. A. S. B. 1844 

p. 373; Ibis, 1865, p. 30; op. cit. 1867, p. 6. 
Malwus marginalis,'Remw., Temm. PL Col. 65. fig. 2, "Java" (1823); Kittlitz, Voy. Liitke 

(Postels) iii. p. 326. 

Hab. Luzon (Kittlitz) ; Philippines {Blyth). 

Kittlitz mentions {I. c.) this species among the birds he observed in the island of 
Luzon. He remarks that it runs on the ground, and moves along and among the 
branches of low shrubs without jumping. Mr. Blyth (/. c.) identified the same species 
among the Philippine birds contained in the Derby Museum at Liverpool. Javan and 
Philippine examples have yet to be compared ; and it may here be observed that the 
Megalurus of continental India {Turdus takko, Buch. Hamilton, M. S. ii. p. 75), does 
not appear to have been critically compared with the Javan type. 

Cratekopus, Swainson. 

97. Crateropus caudatus. 

Gramla caudata^, Ciivier, in Mus. Paris ; Pucheran, Archives du Mus. vii. p. 342 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, 
p. 6. 

Hab. Philippines {Eydoux & Oervais). 

The above specific title is, by most authors, attributed to Dumeril ; but no reference is 

' It is possible that, under the title of Cossyphus cawlatus, Dumeril may have described the Cuvieran type , 
but I have failed to discover the place. The earliest description of the species I can find is by Drapiez, Diet. 
Class, vol. X. p. 219 (1826) ; but he quotes Dumeril as the author of the title. 

VOL. IX. — PART II. April, 1875. 2 c 



190 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIRDS 

ever cited. Cuvier bestowed the Museum title of Gracula caudata on two examples in 
the Paris Museum — one said to have been obtained in Australia, the other in Bengal. 
Dr. Pucheran, however {I. c), is of opinion that the second example in reality came 
from the Philippines, as Manilla is inscribed on its stand, and also because it agrees 
with an authentic Philippine individual in the Paris Museum, obtained by MM. Eydoux 
and Souleyet. I can find no other record of a species of this genus having been 
observed or obtained in the Philippines. Indian authors seem to have been somewhat 
hasty in identifying the common Indian Timalia chatarrhwa, Frankl., with Gracula 
caudata, Cuv. Dr. Pucheran [l. c.) does not say that the Bengal bird is equally found 
in the Philippines, as stated by Mr. Blyth {I. c). 

Timalia leucotis, Strickl., is erroneously given from Manilla by Mr. G. R. Gray in the 
Hand-list, no. 4748. 

Homoclilamys luscinia, Salvadori, Atti R. Accad. So. Torino, v. p. 510, " Filippine o 
China 1" '- (1870) is, according to its author, a Timaliine form, which was contained in 
a collection of Chinese and Philippine birds sent to the Turin Museum. As the 
describer is not certain of its origin, it is not included in this list. 



IRENID^. 

Ieena, Horsfield. 



98. * Ikena cyanogastra. 



Irena cyanogastra, Vig. P. Z. S. 1831, p. 67, "neighbourhood of Manilla;" Gray & Mitch. Genera 
pi. 70 ; Cassin, United-St. Expl. Exped. p. 143. 

Hob. Luzon, iris red [Meyer) ; Panay (Cassin). 
The sexes (Jide Meyer) do not differ. 



BRACHYPODIDiE. 
Ixus, Temminck. 



99. *IXUS GOIAVIEE. 



Petit ffoiavier de Manille, Sonnerat, Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 59, pi. 28. 

Muscicapa goiavier, Scop. Del. FI. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 96, no. 109 (1786), ex Sonn. 

Muscicapa psidii, Gm. S. N. i. p. 941, no. 54 (1788), ex Sonn. 

Hab. Manilla, February [Meyer). 

' Erroneously stated in the ' Zoological Record ' for 1870, p. 47, to be irom the PhiUijpines and China, an 
error repeated ia the Hand-list, iii. p. 263, no. 4763*. Count Salyadori has since (Ibis, 1873, April, p. 179) 
identified it with Calamoherpe (HerUvox) canturietis, Swinhoe, a Chinese and Formosan species, but which 
may migrate to the Philippines. Count Salvadori's generic title has precedence. 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPmE AECHIPELAGO. 191 

Luzon individuals diflPer from those inhabiting Java, Malacca, Sumatra, the islands of 
Madura, Lombock (P. analis, Horsf.), and Banjarmassing (P. gourdini, G. R. Gray, ex 
Hombr. & Jacq. Voy. Pole Sud, pi. 14. fig. 1) in being smaller, with a weaker bill, 
and in having the ear-coverts and sides of the head dark brown, and not white or 
albescent brown. The Banjarmassing race is not separable from Ixos analis. 

100. IXUS SINENSIS. 

Le Gobe-moiiches verddtre de la Chine, Sonnerat, Voy. Indes, ii. p. 197. 

Muscicapa sinensis, Gm. S. N. i. p. 942, no 56 (1788), ex Sonn. 

Turdiis occipitalis, Temm., Lesson, Tr. p. 410 [sine desa\), "Manilla" (1831) ; Eydoux et Gervais, 

Mag. de Zool. 1836, p. 10, pi. 66, " Manille ; " Voy. Favorite, v. p. 36, pi. 14, " Manilla." 
Turdus palmarmn, Temm. nee Linn., Mns. Lugd.,^rfe Bp., Consp. i. p. 366, no. 17. 

Hah. Manilla {Eydoux & Gervais). 

Lesson (/. c.) adopted the title of occipitalis, Temm., for an example of this species iu 
the Paris Museum, said to have been brought by vSonnerat from Manilla. Temminck, 
on being applied to by Eydoux and Gervais, denied having ever named the species. 
On comparing a bird brought by them from Manilla, Eydoux and Gervais found it to 
agree with the individual in the Paris Museum, and adopted the title of occipitalis. 
If the Philippine habitat of this well-known Chinese form had rested solely on the 
locality inscribed on the Paris-Museum label, I should have felt disinclined to trust it ; 
but Eydoux and Gervais's statement that they obtained a similar bird at Manilla 
seems a sufficient authority for its admission here. 

101. *1XUS] UEOSTICTUS. (PI. XXXII. fig. 2.) 

Brachypus urostictus, Salvadori, Atti R. Accad. Sc. Torino, v. p. 509, " PhiUppines " (March 27, 
1870). 

Hab. Luzon (Meyer). 

A well-marked species, combining the crested head and general characters of an 
Otocompisa with the pufly plumage of Brachypus eujptilosus, J. & S. 

Turdus (Criniffer) gularis, Horsf., is stated by Mr. Blyth (Ibis, 1865, p. 48) to be 
found in the Philippines. But Dr. O. Finsch (J. f. O. 1867, p. 15) observes that Java 
is the only locality it is known, with certainty, to inhabit. 

Hypsipetes, Vigors. 

102. * Hypsipetes philippinensis. 

La petite grive des Philippines, Month. Hist. Nat. Ois. iii. p. 316, "Philippines" {descr. orig.). 
Turdus philippensis, Gm. S. N. i. p. 814, no. 40 (1788), ex Month. ; Gray, Hand-list, no. 3917 ; v. 

Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 13, no. 51. 

2c2 



192 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIBDS 

Galgulus philippensis, Kittlitz, mot. propr. Kupfert. p. 8, pi. 13. fig. 2, "Philippines" (1832). 
Hypsipetes pMlippensis, Strickl. mot. propr. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. xiii. p. 413, " Manilla" (1844) ; 

V. Martens, tom. cit. no. 55. 
Philedon ffularis, Cny. Mns. Paris; Pucheran, Archives du Mus. vii. p. 344, pi. 18, "China?;" 

Gray, Hand-list, no. 3992. 

Ilab. Guimaras, Luzon, Zebu {Meyer). 

The sexes, as determined by Dr. Meyer, do not differ. In the Hand-list, no. 3917, this 
species is classed along with Microscelis amaurotis under the Pycnonotince, while Hypsi- 
petes m'clellandii is included in the PhyllornithincB. It is difficult to discern in what 
respect Microscelis differs from Hypsipetes ; but anyhow this Philippine species is 
nothing more than a representative form of H. ntclellandii. 

Montbeillard's type was obtained in the Philippines by Sonnerat. Cuvier's is said to 
have been brought from China by Dussumier (October, \?>2Q),fide Pucheran, I. c. The 
species is not included in Swinhoe's list of the birds of China (P. Z. S. 1871). It has 
received the same specific title three times over, each author believing the individual 
before him to be undescribed. 

Pucheran's plate {I. c.) represents the top of the head rufous, whereas it is dark 
cinereous; and the plate on the whole is an indiflerent representation of the Philippine 
bird. 



SAXICOLID.^. 
MoNTicoLA, Boie. 



103. MONTICOLA SOLITARIUS. 



Tardus solitarius, L. S. MUUer, N. S. Suppl. p. 143, no. 46 (1776). 

Monticola eremita (Gm.), v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 9, no. 18. 

Monticola manillensis (Gm.), v. Martens, tom. cit. p. 10, no. 19; conf. Sharpe & Dresser, Birds 

of Europe, Append. ; Walden, Tr. Zool. See. viii. p. 63 ; Walden & Layard, Ibis, 1872, 

p. 101. 

Hab. Luzon, January ; Guimaras, March (Meyer) ; Negros, March (L. C. Layard). 

One Guimaras individual {^fide Meyer) is in perfect unspotted blue and rufous 
plumage. Another, also a male by the label, is in blue and rufous plumage, but 
has the occiput sullied by brown feathers, some of the breast-feathers edged 
with albescent and some of the rufous abdominal plumage edged with blue. The 
Luzon bird is generally rufous and blue, but with many of the feathers edged with 
albescent or brown, noted a male on the label. The dimensions of all three agree 
with examples from Japan. 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAGO. 193 



Peatincola, Koch. 
104. Peatincola capkata. 

Rubetra lucionensis, Brissoiij Orn. iii. p. 442, no. 30, " Isle de Lu9on." 

Motacilla caprata, Linn. S. N. i. p. 335, no. 33 (1766), ex Brisson ; v. Martens, J. f. 0. 1866, 

p. 10, no. 22; Walden, Tr. Zool. Soc. viii. p. 63, no. 72. 
Traquet de I'isle de Luc^on, D'Aubenton, PI. Enl. 235. fig. 1 i , fig. 2 ? . 
Saxicola fruticola, Horsf . Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 157, " Java " (1820) . 
Saxicola bicolor, Sykes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 92, no. 90, i, "Dukhun. 
Saxicola erythropygia, Sykes, /. c. no. 92, $ . 

Motacilla sylvatica, Tickell, J. A. S. B. 1833, p. 575, "Jungles of Borablium and Dolbhum.-" 
Saxicola Melaleuca, Hodgs. Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 83, "Nipaul" (1844) (descr. nulla). 

Hab. Luzon (Jagor). 

The type of the following species is stated by Brisson to have been sent from the 
Philippines to M. Aubrey. It has not been since recorded as inhabiting these islands, 
and appears to be restricted to Ceylon and peninsular India. 

Rubetra philippinensis, Brisson, Om. iii. p. 444, no. 3Ij " Philippines." 
Motacilla (Thamnobia) fulicata, Linn. S. N. i. p. 336, no. 39, ex Brisson. 
Le Traquet noir des Philippines, D'Aubenton, PL Enl. 185. fig. 1. 
Autre Traquet des Philippines, Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois. v. p. 230. 



ClTTOCINCLA^, Gould. 
105. * CiTTOClNCLA LUZONIENSIS. 

Turdus luzoniensis, Kittlitz, Kupfert. p. 7 , pi. II. fig. 2, " Luzon " (1832) ; Mem. presentes k TAcad. 
St. Petersb. vol. ii. pt. 1 & 2, p. 5, pi. 7, "Luzon" (1833). 

Hob. Luzon {Kittlitz). 

' Mr. G. E. Gray (Hand-list, i. p. 266) adopts Cercotnchas, Boie. The genus Cercotrkhas was established by 
Boie (Isis, 1831, p. 542), without characters, in these words. " Under this name I unite Turdus phcenicopterus, 
Temm., T. e-ryihropterus, T. macroiirus, Lath., T. tricolor, VieiU., Sax. leucmnpter, Museum Berl." Thus four 
distinct generic forms are united under one generic title, namely : — 

1. Turdus phoenicopterus, Temin.,=Ampelis pkoenicea, Lath., a Can^pephaga ; type of Cyrtes, Eeichenbach. 

2. Turdus erythropterus. Lath., ex G-nx. = Turdus podohe, L. S. Miiller ; a Saxiooline form near to Thamnobiu 
(conf. Blanford, Observ. Geol. & Zool. Abyssinia, p. 360, no. 127). 

3. Turdus macrounis, Lath., ex Gm., = Turdus tricolor, Vieill., type oi Kittacincla. 

4. Saxicola hucocampter, Lichteust. Mus. '&ero\.=^ Motacilla fulicata, Linn., type of Thamnobia. 

Dr. Cabanis (Mus. Hein. i. p. 41), following Kuppell (Syst. Uebers. p. 60), adopted the second species named 
by Boie as the type of Cercotricltas. Messrs. Tiusch and Hartlaub, finding it impossible to recognize the 
incongruous group which Boie had brought together, appropriated (Viig. Ost-Afi'ik. p. 149) his generic title, 
re-establishing it as their own, and restricted it to Turdus erythropterus. Lath., and Orgya luctuosa, Lafr. Mr. 
G. E. Gray, however, has made the third species the type of Cercotrichas and superseded Kittacincla, Gould, 
an arrangement which cannot be uj)held. 



194 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIRDS 



CopsYCHUS, Wagler. 

106. *COPSTCHUS MINDANENSIS. (PI. XXXIII. fig. 1.) 

Le Merle de Mindanao, Montb. Hist. Nat. Ois. iii. p. 387 ; D'Aubenton, PI. Enl. 627. f. 1. 
Turdus mindanensis, Gm. S. N. i. p. 833, no. 76 (1788), ex Montb. 

Cops%jchus mindanensis (Gm.), Sundevall, Kritisk Framst. p. 36, note (1857) ; v. Martens, J. f. O. 
1866, p. 10, no. 20; Walden & Layard, Ibis, 1872, p. 103, "Negros." 

Hah. Zebu, April ; Guimaras, March (Meyer) ; Negros (L. C. Layard) ; Mindanao 
(v. Martens). 

Professor Sundevall (/. c.) was the first author who identified this purely Philippine 
species, which previously was, and since has continued to be, confounded with the 
Malayan, C. mnsicus (Eaffles). 

In a Guimaras male {fide Meyer), otherwise in full plumage, the under shoulder- 
coverts are tipped with white. In Zebu and Negros examples of the male they are 
entirely black; in a Zebu female {fide Meyer) they are ashy; no white on the 
rectrices of any, — thus agreeingwith Montbeillard's account of his type, which was brought 
to Paris by Sonnerat, presumedly from Mindanao, although its origin is only to be in- 
ferred from the title. 

Calliope, Gould. 

107. Calliope camtschatkensis. 

Motacilla calliope, Pallas, Rcisen Russiscben Reichs, iii. p. 697, no. 17, " Siberia" (1776). 
Kamtschatka Thrush, Latbam, Synopsis, iii. p. 28, no. 14; Synop. Suppl. p. 140, tab. in titul. 
Tardus camtschatkensis, Gm. S. N. i. p. 817, no. 58 (1788), ex Latham ; Blytb, Ibis, 1865, p. 30, 
" Philippines." 
Mr. Blyth {I. c.) includes this bird among the Philippine species he observed in the 
Derby Museum at Liverpool. It is probably only a winter resident. 



SYLVIID^. 

Sylvin^. 

Geeygone, Gould. 
108. * Gerygone simplex. 
Gerygone modesta. Cab. J. f. 0. 1866, p. 10, no. 23, "Luzon" [descr. nulla), nee v. Pelzelu. 
Gerygone simplex, Cab. op. cit. 1872, p. 316, no. 4 [descr. princeps). 

According to its describer, nearly allied to G. inornata, Wallace. 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE ARCHIPELAGO. 195 

109. Phyllopneuste magnirosteis. 

Phylloscopus magnirostris, Blytli, J. A. S. B. 1843, p. 966, "vicinity of Calcutta;" p. 1008, 
« Arracan ; " Ibis, 1870, p. 168. 

Mr. Blyth {I. c.) states that his Warbler also occurs in the Philippines ; it may, how- 
ever, prove to be the nearly allied P. horealis, Blasius. 

Calamodytin^. 
AcROCEPHALUS, Naumann. 

110. AcROCEPHALUS ORIENTALIS. 

Salicaria turdina orientalis, ScMegel, Faun. Jap. Aves, p. 50, pi. 21, " Japan." 

Calamoherpe orientalis, Bp. Consp. i. p. 285 (1850), ex ScKlegel; Walden, Tr. Zool. Soc. viii. p. 64. 

Sylvia turdo'ides, ap. Kittlitz, Liitke, Voy. (Postels), iii. p. 327, " Manilla." 

Hab. Luzon, February 7 ; Zebu, March ; bill above grey-brown ; below reddish ; legs 
and nails pale grey {Meyer). 

I am unable to separate these Philippine individuals from Amoy examples. Wing 
3"25 ; tail 3-12 ; tarsus 1-12. It must have been specimens of this species, brought to 
France by Sonnerat from the Philippines, which were confounded by Montbeillard with 
La Rousserole (Month. Hist. Nat. iii. p. 294). 

Detmoicin.^. 
CisTicoLA, Kaup. 

111. * CiSTICOLA SEMIRUFA. 

Cisticola semirufa. Cab. J. f . O. 1866, p. 10, no. 25, " Luzon " [descr. nulla) ; op. cit. (1872) p. 316, 
no. 5 [descr. princeps). 

According to Dr. Cabanis, closely allied to G. ruficeps, Gould. 

Orthotomus, Horsfield. 

112. * Orthotomus derbianus. 

Orthotomus derbianus, F. Moore, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 309, pi. 76, "Philippines." 

Described from an example obtained by Cuming and preserved in the Derby Museum, 
Liverpool. 

113. * Orthotomus castaneiceps. 

Orthotomus castaneiceps, Walden, Ann. N. H. (4) x. p. 252, " Guimaras " (1st October, 1872) . 

Hab. Guimaras {Meyer). 

To be readily distinguished from all described species by its dark chestnut head, iron- 
grey mantle, and bright golden olive-green wings and tail. Its nearest known ally is 
0. derbianus. 



196 VISCOUNT "WALDEN ON THE BIEDS 

MOTACILLID.E. 

MOTACILLIN^. 

BuDYTES, Cuvier. 

114. BuDYTES VIRIDIS. 

Green Wagtail, Brown, Illustr. p. 86, pi. 33, " Ceylon." 

Motacilla viridis, Gm. S. N. i. p. 962, no. 81 (1788), ex Brown; v. Martens, J. f. O. 186G, p. 10, 

no. 28, " Manilla." 
? Motacilla flava, ap. Kittlitz, Lutke, Voy. (Postels), iii. p. 327, "Manilla" (1836). 

Observed by Dr. v. Martens at Manilla, both alive in the open country and preserved 
in the Military Library. 

Calobates, Kaup. 

115. Calobates melanope. 

Motacilla melanops, Pallas, Reisen B,ussisclien Reichs,iii.p. 696, no. 16, " Dauria" (1776) ; Zoogr. 

Rosso-Asiatica, i. p. 500, no. 135. 
Motacilla bistrigata, Raffles, Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 312, " Sumatra" (1821). 
Motacilla xanthochistus , Hodgs. Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 83, "Nipaul " (1844). 
Pallenura javensis, Bp. Consp. i. p. 250, "Java" (1850). 

Calobates sulphurea (Bechstein), Jerd. Birds of India, ii. p. 220, no. 592, " All India and Ceylon." 
Calobates melanope (Pallas), Swinh. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 364, no. 202, "China, Formosa, Hainan." 

Hab. Luzon, January ; Zebu, April [Meyer). 

Mr. Swinhoe {I. c.) has already remarked that the species of Calobates found in China, 
Formosa, and Hainan has a constantly shorter tail than the European bird, and has 
separated it under the title given by Pallas to the species observed in Dauria. My own 
observations fully support Mr. Swinhoe's conclusions, which apply to the Philip- 
pine bird also, as well as to all those I have examined from continental India. Although 
a small difference in the length of the tail is, by itself, a character too insignificant 
whereon to base a species, still it must be recollected that the lines of migration of the 
two forms are perfectly distinct, the short-tailed birds breeding in Northern Asia 
and visiting Southern Asia and its islands, those with the long tails breeding in 
Northern Europe and wintering in Southern Europe, Asia Minor, and Northern 
Africa ^ Where the two races osculate remains an interesting point for future investi- 
gation ; and it is not impossible that the race which winters in Abyssinia will be found 
to breed in Siberia. 

' The great body of the migrants is referred to. Many individuals are known to halt and breed at inter- 
mediate points. 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAGO. 



197 



Calohates melanope. 



Longitudo 
e. caudse. 



a. Luzon 

h. Zebu . . . 

c. Malacca . . 

d. 

e. Maunbhoom 

/• 

g. Coorg . . 

h. N. W. India 



i. Simla . . 
j. Java . . . 
k. Lake Baikal 

I. Central Asia 

Calohates sulphurea. 
m. Hampstead . 

n. 

0. 

p. 

q. Cookham 



r. 
s. 
t. 



3-25 
3-25 
3-25 
3-00 
3-12 
3-25 
3-25 
3-25 

3-25 
3-25 
3-25 
3-25 



3-12 
3-25 
3.25 
3-12 
3-25 
3-25 
3-25 
3-00. 



V. Highgate . . 
w. Constantinople 
X. Ortakeuy . , 
1/. Rostanjee . 
z. Arnoutkeuy 



aa. 



U. Abadeh (Persia, 6000 ft.) 
cc. Resht (Persia) .... 
dd. Asia Minor 



ee. 



5j >; 



ff. Ortakeuy 

VOL. IX. — PART II. April, 1875. 



3-25 
3-25 
3-25 
3-12 
3-25 
3-25 
3-25 
3-12 
3-25 
3-25 

3-25 

3-35 



3-86. 
3-75. 
3-86. 
3-62. 
3-86. 
4-00. 
3-62. 
3-75. 

3'86. 
8-86. 
3-86. 
400. 



4-25. 
4-62. 
4-36. 
4-25. 
4-25. 
4-12. 
4-25. 
400 

4-36. 
4-12. 
4-50. 
4-25. 
4-37. 
4-12. 
4-25. 
4-20. 
4-25. 
4-50. 

4-25. 

4-50. 



c?, January. Throat white. 
6 , April. 
S. 

January. 
March. 
?, December 15. Throat yellow. 

)) "ii 

(J , March. Throat black ; nearly 
full breeding-dress. 

$ , December. Throat yellow. 

= «. 

S, May 26. =a. 

c?, December 18. White throat- 
feathers fringed with black. 

September 16. Breast buff. 

October 24. 

November 18. 

October 24. 

cJ, January 5. 

(?, May 10. 

cJ, September 20. 

5, „ 26. „ „ (A 
young bird.) 

(J, September 26. Breast buff. 

<?, December 1. „ „ 

(J, November 19. „ „ 
cJ, September 19. „ „ 
? , December 7. „ „ 
¥ , July. „ „ 

c?, November. „ „ 
d , March 22 . Throat nearly black 
(=C. melanope, h). 

6 , March 29. Throat nearly black 
(=C melanope, h). 

S , March 1 6 . Throat nearly black 
(=C. melanope, h). 



198 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIEDS 

MoTACiLLA, Linnaeus. 

116. MOTACILLA LUZONENSIS. 

La Bergeronette a collier de I'isle de Luqon, Sonn. Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 61, pi. 29. 
Motacilla luzonensis, Scopoli, Del. Fl. Faim. Insubr. ii. p. 94, no. 105 (1786), ex Sonn. 
Motacilla alba, var. /S, Gm. S. N. i. p. 961, no. 11, ex Sonn. 
Motacilla alba, var. 7, Lath. Ind. Orn. ii. p. 503, no. 1, ex Sonn. 

I have never met with authentic Philippine examples of any Pied Wagtail ; and 
I am therefore unable to identify Sonnerat's species {cf. Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 1870, 
p. 120). 

Anthin^e. 
CoRYDALLA, Vigors. 

117. *C0EYDALLA LUGUBEIS, sp. nOV. 

? Anthus malayanus, Eyton? ap. v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 10, " Luzon." 

Hah. Guimaras, March {Meyer). 

Above, the general ground-colour is olive-grey, each feather broadly centred with 
brown, most marked on the head and nape. The rump, upper tail-coverts, and shoulder- 
coverts are almost uniform olive-grey, the brown centres not being very evident. The 
whole of the wing-feathers are brown edged with albescent. The first primary con- 
spicuously edged with greyish albescent, as in G. richardi and C. rufida. Between the 
base of the bill and the eye is a bald patch of albescent feathers, which are continued 
over the eye rather more narrowly, and then dilate into a broad albescent stripe above 
the ear-coverts. Lores brown, bordered underneath by an albescent stripe, which extends 
below the eye and loses itself in the cheek. Ear-coverts dark brown. Under surface 
of body albescent. Throat almost pure white. A few of the breast-feathers with 
narrow dark brown centres. Middle pair of rectrices brown, with albescent fringes ; 
outer pair almost pure white ; penultimate pair white, with half of the inner web 
brown ; remaining pairs brown. A narrow brown line foUows the rami of the mandible. 
Legs yellow ; maxilla brown ; mandible yellowish. Neither example exhibits a trace 
of rufous or ferruginous. The bill is thicker than in C. rvfula (ex Malacca), of which 
species this Guimaras bird is a representative. 

Wing 3 inches; tail 2-50 ; bill, from nostril 0'37; tarsus 1-12; hind claw 0'50. 

This Pipit is closely allied to Corydalla hasselUi, Temm.', ex Borneo, of Gray's Hand- 
list, no. 3655 ; but, judging from the single example so entitled in the British Museum, 
the Bornean species differs sufficiently to make a comparison with a greater number of 
individuals desirable. 

Corydalla infuscata, Blyth (J. A. S. B. 1861, p. 96, "Philippines"), was described 
from a Foochow-hills specimen, a small and dark-plumaged race of C. richardi, sent by 
Mr. Swinhoe to Mr. Blyth {cf. Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 272, no. 75). 

' Apparently a Museum title. No description of the species has hitherto appeared. 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPmE AKCHIPELAGO. 199 

PARID^. 

Paring. 

Machlolophus, Cabanis. 
118. * Machlolophus ELEGANS. 

Panis elegans, Lesson, Tr. p. 456, pair, non indie. (1831) ; Pucheran, Rev. at Mag. Zool. 1854, 
p. 68 ; Bp. Compt. Eend. xxxviii. p. 63 ; Coll. Delatre, p. 45 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 34, note. 
Parus quadriviitatus, La Fresnaye, R. Z. 1840, p. 129, "Manilla or India." 

Hab. Philippines {Pucheran). 

Lesson's type was brought to Paris from the Philippines by Dussumier in 1820 {fide 
Puch. I. c). Bonaparte [l. c.) mentions that numbers of individuals were sent to the 
Brothers Verreaux about the year 1854 ; but the exact habitat still remains unrecorded. 



MELlPHAGIDiE. 

ZoSTEKOPS, Vigors & Horsfield. 

119. * ZOSTEEOPS METENI. 

Dicaum flavum, Kittlitz, Kupfert. pt. 2, p. 15, pi. 19. f . 3, "Luzon " (1833) ; Mem. pr&entes k I'Acad. 

St. Petersb. ii. p. 143, pi. 3. f. 3, "Luzon" (1833), nee Horsf. 
Sylvia flava, Meyen, Nov. Act. Ac. C. L. C. Nat. Cur. xvi. suppl. p. 79, "Manilla" (1834). 
Zosterops meyeni, Bp. Consp. i. p. 398, ex Kittlitz (1850) ; Hartl. J. f. O. 1865, p. 17. 

Hah. Luzon, February {3£eyer). 

Closely resembles Z.- palpebrosa and Z. simplex, but differs from both in having the 
breast and belly nearly pure white, and in wanting the black lores and dark subocular 
shading. Above, the shade of green is intermediate between the two. The yellow of 
the throat and crimson agrees best in shade with Z. simplex, but descends lower. 

The Zosterops mentioned by Mr. Sclater (P. Z. S. 1863, p. 219) is in all probability 
Z. parvula, Hombr. & Jacquin. Voy. Pole Sud, Ois. pi. 19. fig. 4, ex Banjarmassing, 
and considered by Hartlaub {torn. cit. p. 15) to be the same as Z. melanura, Temm., ex 
Pontianak. It is erroneously identified with Z. fiava (Horsf.) in Gray's Hand-list, 
no. 2119. 

NECTAEINIID^. 
DiCiEUM, Cuvier. 

120. *DlCJEUMEETEOCINCTUM. 

Dicaum retrocinctum, Gould, Ann. N. H. (4) x. p. 114, "Manilla, Mindanao" (Aug. 1872). 
Hab. Manilla, Mindanao (Gould); Zebu {Meyer). 

2d2 



200 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIRDS 

It is to be observed that the single example obtained by Dr. A. B. Meyer is noted a 
male by that gentleman, although it wears the plumage described by Mr. Gould {I. c.) 
as being that of the female. 

Myzanthe, Hodgson. 
121. * Myzanthe PYGM^A. 

Nectarinia pygmaea, Kittlitz, M^m. pr&ent^s k TAcad. de St. Petei-sb. vol. ii. pt. 1 & 2, p. 2, pi. 2, 
"Luzon" (1833). 

Hah. Luzon, Guimaras {Meyer). 

The female (sex as determined by Dr. Meyer) differs from the male in having the 
entire upper surface and wings greenish olive, and in wanting the ashy breast of the 
male. When seen from above, it is indistinguishable from M. ignijiectus, Hodgs., ? . 



Nectakiniin^e. 

Nectakophila, Reichenbach. 

122. * Nectakophila sperata. 

Certhia philippensis purpurea, Briss. Om. iii. p. 655, no. 27, "Ins. Philippensibus " (1760). 
Certhia sperata, Linn. S. N. i. p. 186, no. 13 (1766), ex Briss.; Walden, Ibis, 1870, p. 42. 

Hah. Luzon, February ; S , iris yellow-brown {Meyer). 

Two examples were obtained by Dr. Meyer. One has the head golden gi-een, the 
uropygium and upper tail-coverts pm-e brilliant metallic green, and the throat violet. 
The other has the head coppery green, the uropygium and upper tail-coverts violet- 
green, and the throat purple. 

Aeachnechthea, Cabanis. 

123. *Arachnechthka jugulakis'. 

Certhia philippensis minor, Briss, Om. iii. p. 616, no. 6, iS adolesc. " Ins. PhUippensibus " (1760). 
Certhia jugular is, Linn. S. N. i. p. 185, no. 7 (1766), es Briss. no. 6; Walden, Ibis, 1870, p. 27. 
Nectarinia eximia (Temm.), v. Kittlitz, Voy. Liitke (Postels), iii. p. 328, " Manilla," nee Temm. 

Hab. Negros, March ; Guimaras, March ; Zebu, April {Meyer). 

Dr. Meyer obtained numerous examples from the islands named, but none in Luzon. 
This species most resembles A. frenata (S. Miiller), but is distinguished by the dingy 
colouring of the upper plumage (which is brownish olive, and not yellowish olive), 
by entirely wanting the yellow super- and subocular stripes of A. frenata, and by 
the yellow of the under plumage being pale primrose-yellow, and not deep yellow. 
The dimensions are about equal. A Zebu and a Negros male display each some 
bright orange feathers bordering the dark blue plastron. The Philippine female 

' For the synonymy of this and the preceding species cf. Walden, op. cit. 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAGO. 201 

examples possess, in common with A. frenata ? , a yellow superciliary stripe, but 
it is much paler in tint. 

A. jugulan's differs from A. flammaxiUaris (Blyth)' in wanting the deep maroon 
pectoral band and the flame-coloured axillaries of the Burmese species; from A. 
pectoralis (Horsf.), from which it is otherwise difficult to be distinguished, in wanting 
the steel-blue frontal patch. 

The examples of the female agree in all respects with Brisson's description of his 
Certhia fhiU^^pensis (no. 4), excepting that he omits to mention the pale supercilium. 
The dimensions of the bill, one inch from the gape, given by Brisson are too large for 
N. sperata (L.) [cf. Walden, torn. cit. p. 28). 

Le Somimanga de I'isle de Lugon, Montbeillard, Hist. Nat. Ois. v. p. 496. Certhia 
manillensis, Gm. (S. N. i. p. 471, no. 32, 1788, ex Montbeillard; Walden, Ibis, 1870, 
p. 45), is probably Nectarinia insignis, Jard., from the Malay Islands, and not a Philip- 
pine species {if. Walden, I. c). 

CERTHIID^. 

Rhabdornis, Reichenbach. 

124. * Rhabdornis MYSTACALis. 

Meliphaga mystacalis, Temm. PI. Col. 335. f. 2, "environs de Manille" (1825). 
Climacteris striolata, Kitthtz, Kupft. p. 5, pi. 6. f. 2, "Luzon" (1832). 

Hob. Luzon [Meyer). 

CORVID^. 

Corvine. 
CoEVUS, Linnseus. 

125. * CORVUS PHILIPPINTJS. 

Corvus philippiniis, H^. Compt. Rend, xxxvii. p. 830, "Philippines" (1853); Notes Orn. Coll. 

Delattre, p. 8 ; G. R. Gray, Hand-list, no. 6207. 
? Corvus brevipennis, Sclilegel, Bijdr. Dierk. pt. 8, p. 9, pi. 1. fig. 8, "Philippines" (1859) ; Mus. 
Pays-Bas, Coraces, p. 22. 
Hab. Luzon, April; Negros, March; Cujo, December {Meyer). 
Dr. Meyer obtained two examples ( cJ, ? ) of this genus in Negros, one ( 2 ) in Luzon, 
and one (?) in the island of Cujo. All the four are in perfect and identical plumage. 
Head, nape, and under plumage black ; primaries black, washed with green ; remainder 

' A. rJiizophorce, Swinh., differs bom A. fiammaxillaris in possessing a steel-blue frontal patch and in having 
a dark band below the maroon. The Penang specimen aDuded to (P.Z. S. 1871, p, 349, no. 86) is probably 
A. pectoralis ; but I have observed a tendency in some species, in A. ztnohia and A. frendta for instance, to 
develop a frontal patch. 



202 VISCOUIVT WALDEN ON THE BIEDS 

of the wings, the hack, and the rectrices purple-black. In all, the basal portion of the 
body feathers is white, the gradation of the quills is the same, and the form of the bill 
scarcely differs. I do not doubt that the Luzon and Cujo individuals belong to 
Bonaparte's species ; and the Negros examples only differ in their dimensions, which 
are greater. These Philippine Crows, while nearly allied to C. enca of Java and Celebes, 
are distinguishable by the under plumage being shaded with green, and not with purple, 
and by their larger size. 

Professor Schlegel (I. c.) founded on a specimen procured by Cuming in the Philip- 
pines his C. brevipennis. He did not treat C. philippinus as a distinct species either in 
liis well-known Monograph or in his list of the Corvinw in the Leyden Museum, but 
left it to be inferred that C. pMlippiiius was the same as C. validus (Bijdr. t. d. Dierk. 
p. 13, C. enca). From C. validus, ap. nos, ex Malacca, Bonaparte's species differs in 
being smaller, and in its green coloration. Whether a second species, C. brevipennis, 
occurs in the Philippines, must remain for future collectors to ascertain. Mr. G. R. 
Gray (I. c.) has united the two titles. 



2. 11-50 
rf. 12-25 
2. 12-13 
S. 11-50 





Longitudo 






caudse. 


rostr. a nar. 


tarsi. 




8-25 


1-50 


2-25. 


Luzon. 


8-75 


1-75 


2-35. 


Negros. 


8-75 


1-67 


2-35. 


9J 


8 


1-37 

STUENID^. 

Sturnin^. 


2-25. 


Cujo. 



AcEiDOTHERES, VieiUot. 

126. ACEIDOTHEEES CRIST ATELLUS. 

The Chinese Starling or Blackbird, Edwards, Nat. Hist. i. p. 19, pi. 19, " China," (1743). 

Sturnus crinibus cinereis, etc., Klein, Hist. Av. p. 64, no. 3 (1750), ex Edwards. 

Merula sinensis cristata, Briss. Om. ii. p. 253, no. 21 (1760), ex Edwards. 

Gracula cristatella, Linn. S. N. i. p. 165, no. 5, " China" (1766), ex Edwards. 

Le Merle hiippe de la Chine, Month. Hist. Nat. Ois. iii. p. 367, ex Brisson ; D'Auhenton, PI. 

Enl. 507. 
Merula philippetisis, Brisson, apud Bp. Cousp. i. p. 420, no. 6, nee Brisson; Coll. Delattre, p. 9. 
Acridofheres fulifftJiosus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiii. p. 362, av.juv., " Macao " (1844) . 
Acridotheres philippensis (Temm.), apud Swinhoe, Ihis, 1870, p. 352, "Hainan." 
Acridotheres a-istatellus (Linn.), Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 384, " S. China to Shanghai, westwards 

to Szechuen, Hainan, Formosa." 

Tldb. Luzon, January and April {Meyer). 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPBLAGO. 203 

Two examples in adult plumage. The female {fide Meyer) has the wing a quarter 
of an inch shorter than the male. Dr. Meyer has this note on one of the labels, " Said 
to have been introduced from China " — a tradition already recorded by Mr. Swinhoe 
(Ibis, 1867, pp. 387, 388). There is no difference to be detected between these Luzon 
individuals and examples from Hainan and Shanghai. 

Dr. Cabanis (Mus. Hein. i. p. 205, no. 968), as in so many other instances, was the 
author who first cleared up the confusion into which the synonymy of this species had 
been thrown. His identification oi Pastor cristatellus (Gm.), Wagler(Syst. Av. Pastor, 
p. 90, no. 14, "China and Java"), with Pastor griseus, Horsf. (=AcridotJieresjava)ncus^, 
Cab. I. c), is undoubtedly correct. 

Turdus griseus, Gm., apud Bp. (l. c), nee Gm., agrees with the Javan species. 
Gi'aeula cristatella, L., apud Bp. \op. cit.) is probably Pastor fuscvs, Wagler {op. cit.), 
of India and Burma, and not, as suggested by Mr. Swinhoe (Ibis, 1867, p. 387), Acri- 
dotheres siamensis, Swinh. P. Z. S. 1863, p. 308, which is a representative form of the 
Philippine A. cristatellus, but to be readily distinguished by its pure white under tail- 
coverts, broadly white-tipped rectrices, and unicoloured bill. 

Merula philippensis, Briss. Orn. ii. p. 278, no. 35, " Philippines," = Paradisea tristis, 
Linn. S. N. i. p. 167, no. 3 (1766), ex Briss., the Acridotheres tristis of modern authors, 
is now well known to be indigenous to India and Ceylon only, although Brisson 
expressly states that his type specimen was sent to M. Aubrey from the Philippines. 



Stuknia, Lesson. 
127, Stubnia violacea. 

Rubetra pMlippeiisis major, Brissou, Om. iii. p. 446, no. 32, pi. 22. fig. 3, "Philippines'^ {adult). 
Le grand Traquet des Philippines, Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois. v. p. 230 ; D'Aubenton, PI. Enl. 185 

fig. 2. 
Motacilla violacea, Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Enl. p. 11 (1783), ex D'Aubent. 
Motacilla pUlippinensis, Gm. S. N. i. p. 968, no. 101 (1788), ex Briss. 
Pastor ruficollis, Wagler, Syst. Av., Pastor, no. 19, "ManiUa" (1829) ; v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, 

p. 15, no. 64. 
Lamprotornis pyrrhogenys, Temm. & ScHegel, Faun. Jap. Aves, p. 86, " Japan, Borneo " (1842) ; 

Walden, Tr. Z. S. viii. p. 78, " Celebes." 
Lamprotornis pyrrhopogon, Temm. & Scblegel, torn. cit. pi. 46. 
? Calornis albifrons, Blyth, J. A. S. B. 1861, p. 96, " PhHippines," fide Swinboe, P. Z. S. 1863, 

p. 302, no. 217. 

' Daudin (Orn. ii. p. 286, 1800) bestowed the specific title of rjriseus on Le Vaillant's Martin r/ris de fer 
(Ois. d'Afr. pi. 95. f. 2), which is the same species as Turdus gingiamts. Lath. Ind. Orn. i. p. 362, based 
on le petit Martin de Giiu/i of Sonnerat (Voy. Indes, ii. p. 194). Horsfield's title of griseus for the Javan 
Acridotheres was therefore anticipated, and Dr. Cabanis proposed that otjavanicus, which stands. 



204 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIRDS 

Le Merle dominiquain des Philippines, Montb. Hist. Nat. Ois. iii. p. 396 {juv.) ; D'Aubenton, PI. 

Enl. 627. fig. 2. 
Tardus dominicanus, Boddaert, op. cit. p. 38 (1783), ex D'Aubent. 
Tardus dominicanus, Gm. torn. cit. p. 836, no. 123 (1788), ex Montb. 

There can be no doubt that the Philippine bird described by Brisson (/. c.) and 
figured by D'Aubenton, pi. 185. fig. 2, belongs to the same species as that figured in 
tlie ' Fauna Japonica,' pi. 46. That the Japanese species is a winter resident in the 
Philippines, we are assured by Mr. Swinhoe (P. Z. S. 1863, p. 302, no. 217). And Pastor 
rujicollis, described by Wagler from a Manilla specimen, is also undoubtedly the same 
as the Japanese species. I have already shown that it ranges as far as Celebes {I. c); 
and Sclilegel (?. c.) notes it from Borneo. It has not, however, been observed in China 
nor in the island of Formosa. 

The type of Turdus dominicamis, Bodd., was described by Montbeillard (I. c.) from 
an individual said to have been obtained in the Philippines by Sonnerat. It may, how- 
ever, have been in reality of African origin. This example, so indifi"erently figured by 
D'Aubenton (I. c), and insufficiently described by Montbeillard {I. c), was clearly that 
of an immature bird. Wagler {I. c. no. 20) appears to have been the first author who 
referred Gracula sturnina, Pallas, =<SY«r««s dauricus, Pallas, to this species. He states 
that it inhabits the Philippines and China, and that it nests in Dauria. G. sturnina, 
Pallas, is known to winter in Java, Sumatra, Malacca, and Tenasserim, to occur during 
its migration in North China, and to breed in Dauria. Does it also occur along with 
<S'. violacea {=:])yrrhogenys) in the Philippines during the winter] If so, it may have 
supplied the type of DAubenton's 627th plate. If iS'. sturnina is found not to migrate 
to the Philippines, then S. dominicanus must become a synonym of S. violacea. One 
of the salient differentiating characters of T. sturnina, even in the earliest plumage, is 
the occipital spot formed by the black or purple-black tips of the occipital feathers. 
In Mr. Blyth's description of Caloniis albifrons, taken from an undoubted but immature 
Philippine individual [cf. Swinhoe, I. c), this spot is stated to be present. It is true 
that Mr. Swinhoe identified it with S. pyrrhogenys, a species which I believe never 
exhibits an occipital black spot. Unless T. dominicanus prove to be an African form, 
it is a title that must fall, being junior to both 8. violacea and S. sturnina. 

The synonymy of Gracula sturnina is as follows : — 

Gracula sturnina, Pallas, Eeisen Russischen Reichs, iii. p. 695, no. 11, "South 
Dauria" (1776). 

Sturnus dauricus, Pallas, Act. Holmiens. 1778, p. 197, pi. 7 ; Zoogr. Rosso-Asiatica, 
i. p. 422, no. 72 (1811-31). 

Turdus striga, Raffles, Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 311, no. 8, " Sumatra" (1821). 

Pastor sturninus (Pallas), Wagler, Syst. Av. Pastor, no. 20 (1827). 

Pastor malayensis, Eyton, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 103, " Malaya ;" Blyth, J. A. S. B. 1846, 
p. 35, " Common at Malacca." 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE ARCHIPELAGO. 205 

Pastor dominicanus (Gm.), Strickl. J. A. S. B. 1847, p. 470. 

Stwrnnts 2}t/>'rho(/eiii/s (Teram. 8c Schlegel), Swinhoe, Ibis, 1861, p. 338, "between 
Takoo and Peking," nee T. & S. 

Calornis dauricus (Pallas), Horsf. & Moore, Cat. Mus. E. I. C. ii. p. 544, no. 814. 
Temenuchus dauricus (Pall.), Swinhoe, P. Z. vS. 1871, p. 384, no. 365. 

Calornis, G. R. Gray. 

128. * Calornis panayensis. 

Le petit Merle ou Musicien de I'isle Panay, Sonn. Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 115, pi. 73. 

Muscicapa panayensis, Scop. Del. Fl. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 96, no. 110, ex Sonn. (1786) ; Walden, 

Tr. Z. S. viii. p. 79. 
Turdus cantor, Gm. S. N. i. p. 837, no. 124 (1788), ex Sonn. ; v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 15, 

no. 66. 
Le Merle des colonibiers, Montb. Hist. Nat. Ois. iii. p. 381, " Philippines." 
Turdus columbinus, Gm. op. cit. p. 836, no. 122 (1788), ex Montb. 
Turdus cantor, Lath., Kittliz, Kupft. p. 11, pi. 15. f. 1, "Philippines." 
Lamprotornis panayensis (Scop.), Cab. M. Hein. i. p. 200. 

Calornis panayensis. Scop., et Calornis columbina, Gm., apud G. R. Gray, Hand-list, nos. 6373, 
6384. 

Hah. Zebu, April ; Luzon, January ; Negros, March {Meyer). 

The Philippine Calornis, for long confounded by several authors with the Javan 
and the Malaccan species, was first recognized as distinct by Dr. Cabanis (/. c). A 
good series in Dr. Meyer's collection enables me to fully confirm the opinion of 
Dr. Cabanis. 

It is a large species of a dark bronze-green colour, and ranges nearest to Calornis 
neglecta, nob. As labelled by Dr. Meyer, the sexes do not differ ; we must therefore 
assume that examples in streaked plumage are young individuals. The eggs are 
described in 'The Ibis,' 1872, p. 97. 

Lamprotornis magnus, von Rosenb., Schlegel (Ned. Tijdsch. Dierk. iv. p. 18, " Island 
of Soek" — 1871), is a Calornis with the two pairs of middle rectrices exceedingly deve- 
loped and measuring more than twice the length of the body. 

EULABETIN^. 

Sarcops, Walden. 

129. * Sarcops calvus. 

Merula calva, Brisson, Orn. ii. p. 280, no. 36, " Philippines." 

Gracula calva, Linn. S. N. i. p. 164, no. 2 (1766), ex Brisson; v. Kittlitz, Kupft. p. 9, pi. 

xiii. f . 2. 
Le Goulin, Montb. Hist. Nat. Ois. iii. p. 420. 
Le Goulin gris, Cuv. R. A. i. p. 381 (1829) . 

VOL. IX. — PART II. April, 1875. 2 e 



206 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIEDS 

Gymnops^ calvus (Gm.), Cuv., I.e. 

Gymnops griseus, Cuv., ap. Meyen, Nov. Acta Acad. C. L. C. Nat. Cur. xvi. suppl. prim. p. 78. 
Gymnops tricolor (L. S. Miiller), ap. G. R. Gray, Hand-list, no. 6275, nee L. S. Muller. 
Gymnops calvus (Linn.), Walden & Layard, Ibis, 1872, p. 103. 

Ilab. Luzon (nms. nostr.) ; Guimaras, Negros [Meyer). 

Inhabitants from localities cited identical. Sexes {fide Meyer) alike. 

The two following species of IcteriDjE are described and figured by Sonnerat, who 
informs us that they are found at Antigua (Panay), and also on the New Continent. 
Beyond his statement, there is not a tittle of evidence in favour of their Philippine 
habitat. 

(1) Le TroKfiale rouge d'Antigue, Sonnerat, Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 113, pi. 68. 
Xantliornus holosericeus 6, Scopoli, Del. Fl. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 88, no. 36 (1786), 

ex Sonn. ; G. R. Gray, Hand-list, no. 6501 ; Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, no. 831 ; Cab. 
Mus. Hein. i. p. 190, no. 919. 

Oriolus ruber, Gm. S. N. i. p. 388, no. 34 (1788), ex Sonn.; Bp. Consp. i. p. 129. 

Amblyramplms bicolor. Leach, Zool. Misc. p. 82, pi. 36, "Cayenne" (1814). 
And 

(2) Le Trou]}iale jaune d'Antigue, Sonnerat, I.e. pi. 59. 
Xantliornus holosericeus ? , Scopoli, I. c. (1786), ex Sonn. 
Oriolus fiavus, Gm. t07n. dt. p. 389, no. 35 (1788), ex Sonn. 

Xanthosomus fiavus (Gm.), Sclater, op. cit. no. 830 ; G. R. Gray, op. cit. no. 6491. 



FRINGILLID^. 

Fringillin^. 
Ptrgita, Cuvier. 



130. Ptrgita montanus. 



Fringilla montana, Linn. S. N. i. p. 324, no. 37, " Europe" (1766) ; Cab. Mus. Hein. i. p. 156, 
no. 792. 

The occurrence of the Tree-sparrow in the Philippines, in itself not unlikely, rests 
solely on the authority of Dr. Cabanis [l. c.) 

Passer jugiferus, Temm., Bp. Consp. i. p. 508, " Philippines " (1850), is stated by 
Mr. Blyth (Ibis, 1870, p. 172) to be the same as his Passer flaveolus, J. A. S. B. xiii. 
p. 946, " Arracan" (1844) ; and he regards its Philippine habitat as dubious. 

' Previously employed by Spii (Av. Brasil. i. p. 11, 1824) for Falco aterrimus, Temm. PI. Col. pi. 37,= 
Daptrius ater, Vieillot (Analyse, p. 69a). 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAGO. 207 

PLOCEID^. 

Plocein^. 

Padda, Reichenbach. 

131. Padda oeyzivora. 

The cock Padda, or Rice-bird, Edwards, Nat. Hist. i. pi. 41, " China." 

Loxia oryzivora, Linn. Amoen. Acad. iv. p. 243, no. 16 (1759), ex Edwards; v. Martens, J. f. O. 
1866, p. 14, no. 59 ; Walden, Tr. Zool. See. viii. p. 72. 

Observed by Dr. v. Martens in the Museum of the Military Library at Manilla, and, 
in all likelihood, an indigenous species. 

MuNiA, Hodgson. 

132. *MUNIA JAG.OEI. 

Munia (Dermophnjs) jagori. Cab., v. Martens, J. f . O. 1866, p. 14, no. 60, " Luzon." 
Dermophrys jagori, Cab. op. cit. 1872, p. 316, no. 6. 
Munia minuta (Meyen), G. R. Gray, Hand-list, no. 6761. 

Hah. Zebu, April {Meyer). 

Two examples ( rf ? , fide Meyer) of an almost black-headed Munia were obtained in 
Zebu, by Dr. B. Meyer. Both have the upper tail-coverts glistening dark chestnut, 
and the middle pair of rectrices rich glistening ferruginous. In the male the black 
extends from the breast to the under tail-coverts, forming a broad, mesial, black, con- 
tinuous band. In the female this black mesial band is interrupted by a chestnut band 
crossing the breast. In examples of M. rubro-nigra from the Deyra Doon, Bengal, 
Tippera, Mymensing, and Tongoo, as well as of M. formosana from Formosa, and M. 
hrunneiceps from Celebes and Banjarmassing, the black mesial band is not continuous, 
nor is it so broadly developed on the abdomen. In M. rubro-nigra the whole head is 
intensely black. In M. formosana the occiput and nape are faded brown ; and Mr. 
Swinhoe has established that this is normal in the adult bird (Ibis, 1865, p. 356). The 
Philippine, Celebean, and South-Bornean forms do not appear to have the head so 
intensely black as in M. rubro-nigra, although darker than in M. formosana. 

In the Philippine examples the head and nape are not of a true black, but rather of a 
dark brown. This has also been pointed out by Dr. Cabanis (/. c). In M. brunneiceps 
of Celebes the head is still less black, and the black abdominal band is interrupted. 

As the synonymy of M. atricapilla and M. rubro-nigra, thoroughly disentangled 
by Mr. Blyth (Cat. Calc. Mus.) and by Mr. Moore (Cat. E. I. C. Mus.), has again 
been thrown into confusion by Mr. Gray (Hand-list), it may be useful to recapi- 
tulate it. 

2e2 



208 TISCOUKT WALDEN ON THE BIRDS 

Munia atricapilla. 

The Chinese Sparrow, Edwards, Nat. Hist. Birds, i. p. 43, pi. 43, 6 . 
Coccothraustes sinensis, Brisson, Orn. iii. p. 235, no. 7, ex Edwards. 
Loxia malacca, var. /3, Linn. S. N. i. p. 302, no. 16, ex Brisson. 
Loxia atricapilla, Vieillot, Ois. Chant, p. 84, pi. 53 (1805). 

Distinguished by the absence of a black mesial abdominal band ; otherwise like M. 
rnhro^mgra. The exact range remains to be ascertained. Blyth (op. cit. p. 337) 
mentions having seen it from Pinang. Moore (op. cit. ii. p. 508, no. 775) notes 
a drawing of the species from Sumatra, and an example from Pinang. Under the 
title of Munia sinensis (Brisson), Swinhoe includes the species in his list of the 
Birds of China (P. Z. S. 1871, p. 384, no. 368). Nothing more has been recorded of 
its distribution. 

Munia rubro-nigra. 

Munia ruhro-nigra, Hodgs. As. Researches, xix. p. 153, "Nipaul" (1836). 
Lonchura melanocephala, ]M'Clelland, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 163, " Assam." 
Spermestes melanocephalus, Hodgs. Gray's Zool. Misc. p. ^4 (1844). 
Munia atricapilla (Vieill.), G. R. Gray, Hand-list, no. 6759, nee Vieillot. 

Said by Mr. Layard to occur in Ceylon' (Ann. & Mag. Nat Hist. 1854, vol. xiii. p. 258), 
this species appears to be rare, if even known, in Southern India. It is common in the 
British territories to the north-cast and south-east of Bengal, such as Assam, Tippera, 
Arracan, Tenasserim, Burma, also in Bengal, and along the base of the Himalayas. 

133. * Munia MiNUTA. 

FrinffiHa minuta, Meyen, Nov. Act. Acad. C. L. C. Nat. Cur. xvi. suppl. prim. p. 86, pi. 12. 
fig. 2, " Manilla" (1834) ; v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 14, no. 61. 

Hab. Sugar-plantations of Luzon [Meyen). 

As described and depicted by Meyen, this Munia, with the exception of the chin and 
throat, is bright rufous. I have never met with examples agreeing with Meyen's de- 
scription, although he states that this Finch occurs in numberless troops in the Luzon 
sugar-plantations. It may be distinct from M. jagori, and is so treated by Dr. v. 
Martens {I. c). The M. minuta of Mr. Gray's Hand-list, no. 6761, refers to examples 
of M. jagori. 

OxTCERCA, G. E. Gray. 

134. * OXYCERC.\ JAGORI. 

Uroloncha jagori, Cab. J. f. O. 1866, p. 14, no. 62, " Luzon" {descr. nulla). 
Oji/cerca jagori, Cab. op. cit. 1872, p. 317, no. 7 [descr . princeps) . 

Hal). Luzon, in February, c?,? ; bill, feet, and claws bluish grey [Meyer). 
Of the same type as Munia topela, Svrinh., but of greater dimensions. The chin and 
' Its occurrence in Ceylon as an indigenous species has not been confirmed. 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE ARCHIPELAGO. 209 

throat dark chocolate-brown, without a tinge of ferruginous. Nor does this colour 
descend so low as its corresponding shade in M. topela. The undulations on the under 
surface, which are of the same character as in M. toiiela, are bolder and larger. Quite 
distinct from M. ■punctularia (Linn.) and M. nisoria (Temm.). 

Coccothraustes ]}hiUi}pinensis,BAsson,Oi:n.\u. ^.2^2, no. 6, pi. xii. fio-. 1, cf, pi. 
xviii. figs. 1, 2, nest (1760). 

Loxia phiUppma, Linn. S. N. i. p. 305, no. 36 (1766), ex Brisson ; v. Martens, J. f. O 
1866, p. 14. 

Gros-hec des Philippines, D'Aubenton, PI. Enl. 135. fig. 2. 

Le Toucnam-courvi, Bufibn, Hist. Nat. Ois. iii. p. 465. 

Loxia maculata, L. S. Miiller, Suppl. p. 150, no. 56 (1776), ex D'Aubent. 

Originally and minutely described by Brisson from examples in M. Aubrey's cabinet, 
said to have come from the Philippines. Since that date (1760) there is no evidence of 
any species of Ploceus inhabiting those islands. Camel does not include any members 
of the genus ; and he would certainly have noticed a bird so remarkable for the con- 
spicuous nest it constructs. Dr. Jerdon (Birds of India, ii. p. 348) states that he is 
convinced that the figure in D'Aubenton's plate {I.e.) refers to P. hypoxanthus (Daud.'). 

In this opinion I find it impossible to concur. D'Aubenton's figure fairly depicts the 
common Indian Weaverbird, Ploceus baya, Blyth (J. A. S. B. 1844, p. 945), the belly 
being represented pure white, while in the so-called P. hypoxanthus the belly and under 
tail-coverts are rich golden. According to Bufibn (I.e.). D'Aubenton's figure was 
taken from a male example of Brisson's Coceothraustes philippinensis, on which Linnaeus 
founded Loxia philippina. Brisson's description completely agrees with P. baya, Blyth, 
and cannot apply to P. hypjoxanthus of the Indian autliors. Moreover Brisson describes 
and figures the nest of his Weaverbird, and unmistakably represents the pensile nest 
of P. baya, Blyth, and not the non-pensile nests of the other known Asiatic Weavers 
P. manyar (Horsf.), P. bengalensis (Linn.), and P. javanensis (Less.). It is satisfactory 
to find that Hermann (Observ. Zool. p. 205, 1804) identified an example of a Weaver- 
bird, sent from Tranquebar along with its jjensile nest, as Loxia philippina, Linn. ; for 
he evidently describes a young male of P. haya, Blyth. 

" Toucnam-courvi" the supposed native name iu the Philippines, according to Brisson 
(Z. c), does not sound Tagalish, as already remarked by Dr. v. Martens {I. c.) ; while, 
on the other hand, it closely resembles the Malay name for the common Weaverbird, 

' Loxia hijpoxantha, Sparrman, Mus. Carls, faso. iii. no. 71, "Sumatra" (1788). 
Loxia hypoxantha, Daudiu, Traite d'Omith. ii. p. 429 (1800), ex Sparrm. 

Above uniform olive-green ; forehead and underaurface bright yellow. Evidently not a Ploceus {cf. Sun- 
devall, Kritisk, p. 12, no. 711). The TveU-marked species to which the specific title of Jii/poxanthus has been 
applied by Jerdon, Blyth, and Dr. Pucheran (Rev. Zool. 18-54, p. G7), and which is found, in suitable localities, 
throughout Burma, must take the title of I'loceics javanensis (Lesson), Traite, p. 44G, "Java '' (1831). 



210 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIRDS 

P. haya, Blyth, in Ceylon, and which Mr. Layard (Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. xiii. 2nd 
series, p. 257, no. 158) renders Tokanam cooroovi, i. e. Basket-maker bird. 

Therefore, until authentic examples of a Philippine species of Ploceus sufficiently 
agreeing with Brisson's original description are obtained, it will be most in accordance 
with existing evidence to refer the common Indian and Ceylon Weaverbird, P. baya, 
Blyth, to the Linnsean species Loxia phiUppina. 

The P/ocews joM//jp/»MS of Gray's Hand-list, no. 6612, and stated to be from the 
Philippines only, is not represented in the British Museum. 

The following species, stated by Sonnerat to inhabit the island of Panay as well as 
the Cape of Good Hope, is now known to be restricted to the African continent. 
La veuve de Visle de Panay, Sonnerat, Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 117, pi. 75. 
Emheriza signata, Scopoli, Del. Fl. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 95, no. 103 (1780) ex Sonn. 
Emberiza panayensis, Gm. S. N. i. p. 885, no. 69 (1788), ex Sonn.' 
Vetive a poitrine rouge, D'Aubenton, PI. Enl. 647. 

FringiUa ardens, Boddaert, Tabl. d. PI. Enl. p. 39 (1783), ex D'Aubent. 
Vidua rubritorques, Swainson, Birds West Africa, i. p. 174 (1837). 
Pentheria rubritorques (Sw.), Bp. Consp. i. p. 448. 
Niobe ardens (Bodd.), G. R. Gray, Hand-list, no. 6669. 



COLUMB^. 

TREROXIDiE. 

OsMOTRERON, Bonaparte. 



135. OSMOTRERON VERNANS. 



Columba viridis philippensis, Briss. Orn. i. p. 143, pi. 11. f. 2, "Philippines" (1760). 

Columba vernans, Linn. Mantissa Plant, p. 526 (1771), ex Briss.; Walden, Tr. Z. S. viii. 

pp. 81, 113. 
I'iqeon verd des Philippines, D'Aubenton, PL Enl. 138. 
Columba viridis, L. S. Miiller, Siippl. p. 132 (1776), ex D'Aubent. 
Le Pigeon verd de I'isle de Luc^on et d'Antigue, Sonn. Voy. N. Guiu. p. 110, pi. 64, rf, 65, ? 

(1776). 
Columba viridis, Scopoli {mot. propr.), Del. Fl. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 94, no. 95 (1786), ex Soiui. 
The purple Pigeon, Brown, Illustr. p. 42, p. 18, "Java" (1776). 
Columba purpurea, Gm. S. N. i. p. 784, no. 61 (1788), ex Brown. 

Hab. Luzon, April {Meyer). 

A single example, a male, but erroneously marked a female by the collector, is 
contained in Dr. Meyer's collection. It agrees in dimensions and colouring with 
Malaccan, North-Bornean, Celebean, and Cambodjan {mus. nostr.). 
' Gmelin erroneously quotes Sonnerat's 70th plate. 



ESrHABITINC THE PHILIPPINE ARCHIPELAGO. 211 

136. * OSMOTRERON AXILLARIS. 

" Treron axillaris, G. R. Gray," Bp. Cotnpt. Rend, xxxix. p. 875 (1854) pair, incert. ; Conspectus, 

ii. p. 13 (1857). 
Treron aromatica, Gm., ap. G. R. Gray, Cat. Brit. Mus. Columbce (1856), p. 10, "Philippines," 

nee Gm. 
Treron amboinensis (Miiller), ap. G. R. Gray, Hand-list, no. 9079, nee Miiller. 
Treron aromatica (Gm.), ap. Schlegel, Nederl. Tijdschr. Dierk. 1863, p. 64, " Philippines," nee Gm.; 

Mus. Pays-Bas, Columbte, p. 53 (March 1873) ; Bp. Icon. Pig. pi. 7. 

Hah. Luzon, Guimaras, Negros {Meyer). 

A large series of the Philippine maroon-backed Osmotreron was obtained by Dr. 
Meyer from the localities cited ; and they in no way differ among one another. They 
belong to the same subsection as Osmotreron aromatica (Gm.) of the Moluccas {cf. 
Wallace, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 33, & Ibis, 1863, p. 319), in which the undercoverts of the tail 
in both sexes are white, or yellowish white, without any markings. From the Moluccan 
species 0. axillaris it differs in being somewhat larger, by having a large and very 
powerful bill, by the maroon mantle covering a larger surface of the back and being 
of a lighter shade, and by the ventral plumage and the thigh-coverts being almost 
bright yellow mixed with very dark green. The middle toe measures one inch, and in 0. 
aromatica an eighth less ; the corneous part of the maxilla seven-sixteenths against five- 
sixteenths of an inch in the Moluccan bird. 

The title axillaris refers to the black edge of the shoulder in this species {fide Bp. 
Icon. Pig.). This part and the lesser shoulder-coverts are nearly black, being very dark 
slate-colour in fully adult males. 

Professor Schlegel (Mus. Pays-Bas, Columhw, p. 53) makes 0. axillaris, G. R. Gray, 
apud Bp. Consp. ii. p. 13, equal to T. griseicauda, G. R. Gray; but Bonaparte's 
diagnosis does not agree with either 0. axillaris or 0. aromatica. 

Wagler states (Syst. Av. Columha, no. 8) that he saw a specimen of his Columha 
{Osmotreron) fuldcollis among a number of Philippine birds sent to Amsterdam. 
Prince Bonaparte (Consp. ii. p. 14) also cites the Phihppines as being within the range 
of that species. I can find no other evidence of its Philippine habitat ; and Wagler 
does not include the Philippines when writing on the species at a subsequent date 
(Isis, 1829, p. 738). 

Great confusion still prevails in the synonymy of the " maroon-backed " members of 
the genus Osmotreron ; and I therefore add a list of the ten species known to me as 
falling under this definition : — 



212 VISCOUNT WALDBN ON THE BIRDS 

Under tail-coverts creamy white and immaculate in both sexes. 

(1) Cohmba amboinensis, L. S. Miiller, Suppl. p. 132, no. 35, ex PI. Enl. 163' (1776). 
Cohimba aromatica, Gm. S. N. i. p. 778, no. 47, " Amboina," ex Brisson, Orn. i. p. 143, no. 39, 

" Amboyna." 
Hab. Bourou and Amboyna (Wallace). 

(2) Treron axillaris, G. R. Gray, /. c. " Philippines." 
Hab. Luzon, Negros, Guimaras (Meye)-). 

Under tail-coverts creamy immaculate white in male, mottled with greenish in female. 

(3) Cobimba pompadora, Gra. S. N. i. p. 775, no. 9, " Zeylonise," ex Brisson, lUustr. 
pi. 19, 6, 20, ?, "Ceylon;" Bp. Icon. Pigeons, pi. xi. f. 1, ?. 

Treron flavo-ffularis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxvi. p. 225, "Ceylon" (1857). 
Hab. Ceylon {mus. nostr.). 

Under tail-coverts green, with cream-coloured tips in both sexes. 

(4) Treron chloroptera, Blyth, J. A. S. B. 1845, p. 852, " Nicobars." 
Hab. Nicobars [Blyth) ; Andamans (nms. nostr.)- 

Under taU-coverts cinnamon in male, yellowish white, mottled with green, in female. 

(5) Vinago affinis, Jerd. Madr. J. L. & Sc. xii. p. 13, 2 . 

Viiiar/o malabarica, Jerd. Illustr. Ornith. letterpress to pi. 21, 6 , "Malabar" (March, 1845) ; Bp. 
Icon. Pigeons, pi. xi. fig. 2, $ , pi. xii. d . 

Hab. Peninsular India (Jei'don) . 

(6) Treron puherulenta, Wallace, Ibis, 1863, p. 319, "Java." 
Treron curvirostra, VieilL, Bp. Icon. Pigeons, pi. vi. 

Hab. Java {Wallace). 

(7) Treron griseicauda, G. R. Gray, Mus. 'Rni.-Columbw, p. 10, ''pair, incert." (1856). 
Hab. Celebes, Sula Islands {Wallace). 

A large ochi-eous pectoral patch ; under tail-coverts in male dark cinnamon, in female creamy 

white dashed with pale cinnamon. 

(8) C'olumba olax, Temm. PI. Col. 241, 6, "Sumatra" (1823). 
Hab. Sumatra, Malacca {mus. nostr.) ; Java {Schlegel). 

(9) Osmotreron phayrd, Blyth, J. A. S. B. 1862, p. 344. 

Hab. Assam, Sylhet, Arakan, Pegu, Martaban, rare in Lower Bengal {Blyth) ; Tongoo {mus. nostr.) . 

' Buffon (H. N. Ois. ii. p. 528) expressly states that this figure was taken from Brisson's Pigeon vert 
d'Amboine. 



mHABITING THE PHILIPPINE AUCHIPELAGO. 213 

Under tail-coverts cinnamon in the male, green edged with white and tinged with cinnamon in the 
female ; head and neck ferruginous chestnut. 

(10) Columba fidvicollis, Wagler, Syst. Av. Columha, no. 8 (1827), ex Temm. ; 
Wallace, Ibis, 1865, p. 375. 

Columba aromatica, var., Temm. & Knip, Pig. p. 30, pi. 6, "Batavia j" Pig. et Gallin. i. pp. 53, 442. 
" Columba ferruginea, Eeinhardt, MS." Wagler, Isis, 1829, p. 738. 
Columba cinnamomea, Temm. Recueil d'Ois. livr. 93, " Pontianak " (1835) . 
Treron tenuirostre, Eyton, Ann. Nat. Hist. xvi. p. 230, "Malacca" (1845). 

Hab. Borneo {Temm.)-; Malacca {Eyton) ; Sumatra {Wallace). 

Leucotreron, Bonaparte. 
137. * Leucotreron gironieri. (PL XXXIV. fig. 1.) 
Leucotreron gironieri, J. Verr. et Des Murs, Ibis, 1862, p. 342, pi. 12, "Tallawan (Philippines)" 

{juv.). 
Ptilopus geversi, Schlegel, Ibis, 1863, p. 120. 
Ptilopus hugoniana, Schlegel, Nederl. Tijdschr. Dierk. 1863, p. 60, pi. 3. f. 2, "Lu9on" {juv.) ; 

Wallace, Ibis, 1865, p. 378. 
Ptilopus hugonianus, Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Columba, p. 36 (March, 1873). 

Hab. Luzon, Guimaras [Meyer). 

In the adult plumage this species has the entire head, neck, and upper breast pale 
ashy white, the occiput and nape being faintly washed with light green. Bordering 
the grey of the breast and intervening between it and the ashy green of the lower 
parts is a broad dark purple band, rather deeper in the middle than at the sides. The 
under tail-coverts are cinnamon-colour. The under surface of the rectrices is slate- 
colour, with a broad terminal almost white band, which above appears yellow , the 
chin and throat and the space before the eye black ; remainder of the upper plumage 
bright rich green, with a golden gloss in certain lights. From a Guimaras example, 
noted as a male by Dr. Meyer. 

Another male example from Luzon has the abdominal region of a still more ashy 
green, some of the ventral plumage being tawny. An individual from Guimaras, and 
noted a female, has the abdominal region deep green, and the dark purple pectoral 
band is represented by a large triangular patch of the same colour, a few purple 
feathers on each side only indicating the position of the band. The pale ashy white of 
the nape is more deeply tinged with green. Another Guimaras female {fide Meyer) 
has the head, nape, and breast green, the forehead alone being bluish grey; the 
abdomen is mixed tawny ashy green; on the breast is a limited purple triangular 
patch. This individual resembles very nearly the figure in ' The Ibis' {I. s. c), only that 
in the plate by Jennens the purple patch is represented much too low down, and the 
under tail-coverts are not dark enough. It also agrees well with the description given 
by Professor Schlegel [1. c). 

VOL. IX. — PART II. April, 1875. 2 p 



214 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIEDS 

A fourth Guimaras individual (female, fide Meyer) has the plumage still more 
intensely green than the last ; the bluish grey of the forehead is less distinct, and the 
uniform deep green of the breast is only broken by a faint indication of dark purple . 
at the tips of two or three feathers. The under tail-coverts are mostly pale cinnamon. 
In all five examples the mandible is carmine at its base, the remainder of the bill 
yellow, the feet carmine. 

It is probable that in the young birds the head and breast are green, and that the 
dark purple pectoral patches are rudimentary indications of the broad pectoral band of 
the adult. As in Leucotreron gularis, of which this Philippine species is a beautiful 
representative form, the first primary is abruptly attenuated near the end. 

Kamphicultjs, Bonaparte. 

138. * Ramphiculus occipitalis. 

PtUonopus occipitalis, G. R. Gray, List Birds Brit. Miis. Gallina, iii. p. 1, " Philippiues " (1844), 
descr. nulla ; Gray & Mitch. Genera, ii. p. 467, pi. 118 ; List Birds Brit. Mus. Columba, p. 7, 
no. 17 (1856) ; Wallace, Ibis, 1865, p. 378; v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 22, no. 124. 

Ramphiculus occipitalis (G. R. Gray), Bp. Compt. Rend. xxxLx. p. 878 (1854) ; Cousp. ii. p. 17 ; 
Iconogr. Pig. pi. 14. 

Osmotreron batilda, Bp. Compt. Rend, l.c.juv. "Philippines" (1854) ; Consp. ii. p. 27; Wallace, 
torn. cit. p. 382; v. Martens, I.e. no. 135. 

Columba occipitalis (G. R. Gray), Schlegel, Handleiding, i. p. 411 (1857). 

Hab. Luzon {Meyer). 

No difi'erence between the sexes as determined by Dr. Meyer. The young bu-d was 
described as distinct by Prince Bonaparte, and the adult and young severally made the 
type of separate genera. 

A Luzon example of Ptilopus jamhu (Gm.) is stated by Professor Schlegel to be 
contained in the Leyden Museum (Mus. Pays-Bas, Columbm p. 36). The correctness 
of the attributed habitat requires confirmation. 

Phabotrerox, Bonaparte. 

139. *Phabotreron amethystina. (PI. XXXIV. fig. 2.) 

PAa/ii/rerora ame<%«/ma, Bp. Compt. Rend. xl. p. 214, "Philippines" (1855); Consp. ii. p. 28 

(1857) . 
Chloroenas amethystina (Bp.), Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Columbte, p. 80. 

140. * Phabotreeon leucotis. 

Columba leucotis, Temm. PI. Col. 189, " environs de Manille " (1823) ; Walden & Layard, Ibis, 

1872, p. 104, " Isl. of Negros." 
Phapitreron leucotis (Temm.), Bp. Compt. Rend, xxxix. p. 879 (1854) ; Consp. ii. p. 28. 
Chlorcsnas leucotis (Temm.), Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Columbte, p. 78, "Luzon." 

Hab. Luzon and Guimaras (Meyer) ; Negros (L. C. Layard). 

The sexes do not diflfer. Examples from all three localities are undistinguishable. 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAGO. 215 

Carpophaga, Selby. 
141. Carpophaga ^nea. 

Palwmbus moluccensis, Briss. Om. i. p. 148, no. 41, "ex Moluccis insulis" (1760). 

Co/umba anea, Linn. S. N. i. p. 283, no. 22 (1776), ex Briss. 

Pigeon Ramier des Moluques, D'Aubent. PI. Enl. 164. 

Cohimba moluccensis, L. S. Muller, Suppl. p. 133, no. 35d (1776), ex D'Aubent. 

Columba sylvatica, Tickell,' J. A. S. B. 1833, p. 581, " Jungles of Borabhum & Dholbhum." 

Carpophaga pusilla, Blyth, J. A. S. B. 1849, p. 816, "Nilgiris " errore. 

Carpophaga chalybura, Bp. Compt. Rend, xxxix. p. 1074, " Philippines " (1854) ; Consp. ii. p. 32 ; 

Iconogr. pi. 42. 
Carpophaga sylvatica " (Tickell)," Blyth, J. A. S. B. 1861, p. 97, " Philippines." 

Hah. Luzon, January, April ; Negros, March {Meyer). 

Examples from Ceylon, India, Burma, the Andamans, and Java cannot be specifically 
separated from this Philippine species. Mr. Blyth has already remarked {I. c.) that a 
young Philippine example before him did not diifer from the Indian and Burmese 
species. The Sumatran, Bangkan, Sumbawan, and Flores forms are also considered to 
belong to C. cenea by Professor Schlegel (Mus. Pays-Bas, Columhce, p. 85), although he 
keeps C. sylvatica apart as being a smaller race. And Mr. Wallace (Ibis, 1865, p. 38.3) 
includes Lombok and the Malay peninsula within the range of C. cenea. 

Bonaparte [1. c.) relied on the Philippine bird having the head and neck whiter, and 
on the under surface of the tail being paler and of a steel-grey, and not brown-black. 
The under surface of the rectrices is certainly somewhat paler; but the difi"erence 
between the colouring of the head and neck, as described by Bonaparte, is not apparent 
in Dr. Meyer's examples, which are in perfect plumage. The chief difference they 
exhibit is in the colouring of the breast, which appears to be more tinged with Tdnous ; 
and thus the entire under surface is more or less vinous, and not the abdomen only as 
in C. cenea. On the head, nape, and back of the neck also the rather deep vinous 
shading of C ceiiea is absent. Bonaparte's plate {I. c.) so little resembles these Philip- 
pine examples that it cannot be relied on. 

Carpophaga pickeiingi, Cassin, Pr. Ac. Philad. vii. p. 228 (1854), and U.S. Expl. Exped. 
pi. 27, 2nd ed., obtained on Mangsi Island, one of the Sooloo archipelago, seems to be 
a distinct species, with light-cinereous under tail-coverts, and consequently related to 
C. perspicillata. 

Carpophaga piaulina (Temm.), ex Celebes, is always readily, to be distinguished by its 
intensely vinous breast, and by its bright rufous nape. Yet an intermediate form is 
said to also occur in Luzon {of. Schlegel, Nederl. Tijdschr. Dierk. 1866, p. 201 ; Mus. 
Pays-Bas, Columhce, p. 85) — the Philippine habitat, however, only resting on a single 
example, said to have been obtained in Luzon by M. H. Gevers. 

The following measurements are taken (the Luzon male excepted) from examples in 
full plumage. 

2f2 



216 



VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIRDS 



Carpophaga insularis, Blyth, apparently peculiar to the Nicobars, is a perfectly 
distinct species, allied to C. perspicillata. 

Longitudo 











rostr. 


alse. 


caudse. 




C. mnea 0-64 


9-00 


6-00. 


Java. 


Vi 








. 0-64 


9-12 


6-62. 


Sarawak. 


s 








. 0-64 


9-25 


6-50. 


Busan, N. Borneo. 


55 ' 








. 0-64 


9-25 


6-37. 


Tongoo, Burma. 










. 0-64 


9-12 


6-25. 


Maunbhoom. 


s 








. . 0-64 


9-25 


6-25. 


Kyodan, Salween river. 










. 0-60 


8-25 


5-62. 


Malabar. 


„ 6 








. . 0-60 


8-25 


5-62. 


Dambool, Ceylon. 










. 0-60 


8-25 


5-75. 


Cocarry, Ceylon. 










. 0-55 


8-00 


5-62. 


Ceylon. 


C. chalyhura c? 






. . 0-64 


9-50 


6-25. 


Luzon. 


s 






. 0-64 


9-25 


6-12. 


95 


? 






. 0-60 


9-12 


6-00. 


55 


5J 


c? 


•T 


T 1 


. . 0-64 

/m \ Til 


9- 6-4 


6-75. 

J • 


Negros. 

■L_J _C. il- _ Til •!* • 



Carpophaga perspicillata, (Temm.) PL Col. 246, was described from the Philippines 
and the Moluccas. Professor Schlegel (Nederd. Tijdschr. Dierk. 1866, p. 195) doubts 
the correctness of the Philippine habitat, and confines the range to the Halmaheira 
group of islands and the island of Bouru. The allied form, Carpophaga neglecta, Schl., 
I. c, occurs only in Ceram, Amboyna, and the island of Boano. 



Ptilocolpa, Bonaparte. 
142. * Ptilocolpa griseopectus. 
Carpophaga pedoralis, G. R. Gray, List Birds Brit. Mus. iii. Gallina, p. 7, adult, " Philippines" 

(1844), descr. nulla; nee Wagler, Isis, 1829, p. 740. 
Carpophaga griseopectus, G. R. Gray, in Mus. Brit. (1854) ; List Birds Brit. Mus. Columbce, p. 23, 

no. 34, " Philippines " (1856) ; v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 24, no. 129. 
Ptilocolpa griseopectus (G. R. Gray), Bp. Compt. Rend, xxxix. p. 1075, "ins. Philipp." (1854), 

descr. princeps; Consp. ii. p. 34 (1857) ; Iconogr. Pig. pi. 51 ; G. R. Gray, Hand-list, no. 9236; 

Wallace, Ibis, 1865, p. 385. 
Carpophaga pectoralis, G. R. Gray, Hartl. J. f. O. 1855, p. 98, "Philippines." 
Ptilocolpa carola, Bp. Compt. Rend. /. c. [juv.), "ins. Philipp." (1854). 
Carpophaga carola (Bp.), G. R. Gray, /. c. no. 25 ; Hand-list, no. 9237 ; Wallace, I. c. ; v. Martens, 

/. c. no. 130. 

Hah. Philippines (C«??im^); Luzon (Geue/'s). 

The range of this Pigeon within the Philippines, to which archipelago it appears 
restricted, has yet to be ascertained. 



INHABITESTG THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAGO. 217 



Myristicivoea, Reichenbach. 
143. Myristicivoea bicolor. 

Le Pigeon blanc mangeur de Muscade de la Nouvelle Guinee, Sonnerat, Voy. Nouv. Gvdn. p. 169, 

pi. 103. 
Columba bicolor, Scopoli', Del. Fl. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 94, no. 97 (1786), ex Sonn. ; Cassin, Un. 

St. E.xpl. Exped. 2nd ed. p. 265, pi. 28, 6 adult. 
Columba alba, Gm. S. N. i. p. 780, no. 53 (1788), ex Sonn. 
Columba littoralis, Temm. Knip. i. pt. 2, p. 15, pi. 7, " Java, New Guinea" (1811) ; Pig. etGallin. 

i. pp. 99, 448 (1813) . 
Carpophaga casta, Peale, Un. St. Expl. Exped. 1st ed. Zool. p. 204, " Sooloo Islands" (1848) ; 

Hartlaub, Archiv f. Naturgesch. xiii. Jakrgang, i. p. 116. 

Hub. Negros, March {Meyer). 

The example above referred to, a male {fide Meyer), in no way differs from an 
authentic New-Guinea individual. It possesses fourteen rectrices. Several examples 
collected near Malacca by Mr. Maingay ^ are also not to be distinguished, and all 
possess fourteen rectrices. A large series of this species, as well as of M. luctuosa, was 
sent from Celebes by Dr. Meyer; but unfortunately no exact localities were given. 
This Pigeon appears to extend from the Andamans and Java to New Guinea, timing its 
migrations according to the ripening of the various fruits it feeds on^. 



Hemiphaga, Bonaparte. 
144. * Hemiphaga poliocephala. 

Carpophaga poliocephala, G. R. Gray, List Birds Brit. Mus. Gallina, iii. p. 6, " Philippines " (1844), 
descr. nulla; Gray & Mitch. Genera, ii. p. 469, pi. 119; List Birds Brit. Mus. Columba, p. 22, 
no. 22 (1856) ; Hand-list, no. 9223; Hartl. J. f. O. 1855, p. 91 {descr. princeps) ; Schlegel, 
Mus. Pays-Bas, ColumbcB, p. 92. 

Hemiphaga poliocephala (G. R. Gray), Bp. Compt. Rend, xxxix. p. 1077 (1854) ; Consp. ii. p. 39 
(1857). 

Hab. Philippines {Cuming) ; Luzon {Hartlaub, Gevers). 

This Pigeon is a representative form of H. forsteni, ex Celebes. 

• Conf. Cassin (I. c.) on Scopoli's title. 

' Mr. Maingay, in his MS. notes on this species, states that it is never found on the mainland of the 
Malaccan peninsula. It arrives at the Water Islands, nine miljBS from Malacca, about the beginning or middle of 
July, is abundant towards the latter end of August, and departs towards the end of September. Captain 
PinwiU observed a flock pass over Pinang in July, but adds that they are not found on that island. 

' On the range of M. bicolor, cf. Schlegel, Neder. Tijdachr. iii. p. 205. 



218 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIEDS 

COLUMBID^. 

lANTHffiNAS, Reichenbach. 

145. * Ianthcenas griseogularis. 

lanthmnas griseogularis, Walden & Layard, Ibis, 1872, p. 104, pi. 6, " Guimaras " (April, 1872) . 
Carpophaga metallica, var., Schlegel, Nederl. Tijdschr. Dierk. 1866, p. 202, " Luzon." 
Janthcenas luzoniensis, ScUegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Columba, p. 75, " Luzon " (March, 1873). 

Ilab. Guimaras {Meyer) ; Luzon {Gevers). 

Discriminated, described, figured, and named for the first time in 1872 by the two 
English authors above cited, from an individual obtained in the island of Guimaras. 
Professor Schlegel in 1873 (/. c.) again named it, and quoted its original title as a 
synonym. As the species is not confined to the island of Luzon the last title is also 
misleading. 

Macroptgia, Swainson. 

146. * MaCROPYGIA TENUIROSTRIS. 

Macropygia tenuirostris, G. R. Graj', List Birds Brit. Mus. ColumbcB, p. 39, " Philippines," descr. 

nulla (1856) ; Bp. Consp. ii. p. 57, "Philippines" (1857). 
Columba phasianella, Temm. PI. Col. 100, "Manilla," nee Temm. Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 129. 

Hob. Luzon, Negros [Meyer). 

This species belongs to the same section as M. phasianella (Temm.), and M. 
emiliana, Bp. 

In Negros Dr. Meyer obtained a single example of a Macropygia which differs from 
the Luzon species in having the back and uropygium dark brown without a trace of 
rufous, in the shoulder-coverts being uniform brown, not edged with rufous, in the 
upper surface of the middle pair of rectrices being brown like the back, and in having 
a black band traversing the whole breadth of the second and third outer pair of rectrices 
(the first pair are wanting). This mdividual is stated on the label to be a male, while 
the Luzon example with which the above comparison is made is marked a female. 
The difierences observable may therefore be sexual. 

M. tenuirostris is stated by Professor Schlegel (Mus. Pays-Bas, Cohimbce, p. 109) to 
belong to the Javan and Lombock species, M. emiliana, Bp., — an opinion in which I 
regret I cannot concur. Besides being considerably smaller, M. emiliana has the 
upper plumage of a much lighter and clearer rufous, and the upper surface of the 
rectrices are pure light rufous, and not brown. 

TuRTUE, Selby 

147. * TURTUR DUSSUMIERI. 
Columba dussumieri, Temm. PI. Col. 188, "Lu(jon" (1823). 
I{ab. Luzon and Negros (Meyer). 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAGO. ■ 219 

Otherwise closely allied to T. hitorquata (Temm.), this Luzon Dove differs in having 
not merely the crown, but the whole of the head, nape, cheeks, and sides of the throat 
ash-grey, in the nuchal band being formed of pale grey feathers margined with iron 
grey, in wanting the pure white collar, in the bill being much weaker and shorter, 
and in the white terminal bands on the lateral rectrices being much narrower. 

Two Luzon examples are respectively marked male and female by Dr. Meyer, and do 
not differ. A third Luzon individual, marked a female by Dr. Meyer, has the head 
the same colour as the back, the feathers of the nuchal band smaller and almost 
entirely iron grey or black, bordered below by a bright ferruginous zone. It is pro- 
bably an immature bird. The example from Negros is identical with those from 
Luzon. 

Professor Schlegel (Mus. Pays-Bas, Columhce, p. 120) says that T. dussumieri has 
been wrongly indicated as inhabiting the Indian continent and Malacca, and further 
observes that Mr. G. E. Gray gives its habitat as Luzon, while it in reality probably 
inhabits the Mariannes. The species certainly does not occur either on the Asiatic 
continent or in the Sunda Islands, but does inhabit the Philippines, whence the type 
described by Temminck originated. T. gaimdrdi, Bp. Consp. ii. p. 66, with which 
Professor Schlegel associates T. dussumieri, was described from Marianne specimens 
obtained by Quoy and Gaimard, and placed by them in the Paris Museum in 1811. The 
Prince, in his diagnosis, distinguished this Marianne Dove from T. dussumieri, the habi- 
tat of which, however, he eiToneously gave as being Malasia, Java, Sumatra, and Borneo. 

148. TUETUK HUMILIS. 

Columba humilis, Temm. PL Col. pi. 239, j nee $,238, ? nee j, "Bengale, ile de Lu9on" (1824) ; 
Bp. Consp. ii. p. 66, 5 , " Philippines ; " Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 397, no. 473. 

Hab. Luzon {Meyer) ; S. China to Shanghai, Formosa, Hainan (Swinhoe) 
The red Turtledove of Luzon differs from that of India (T. humilis, ap. Jerd., no. 
797) in being of a much darker red, and in having the under wing-coverts dark ash 
instead of pale ash inclining to white, and the head, uropygium, and upper tail-coverts 
much darker ash. The form which inhabits China and Cambodia belongs to the Luzon, 
and not to the Indian race. 

The Indian bird will have to take the title of Turtur tranquebarica, Herm. Obs. 
Zool. p. 200, " ex Tranquebaria " (1804), while for that of Luzon it wiU perhaps be best 
to retain Temminck's title, although he does not make it quite clear whether he 
described and figured a Bengal or a Philippine individual. In 1855 Prince Bonaparte 
(Compt. Rend. xl. p. 18) maintained that individuals from Coromandel and the Philippines 
were absolutely identical. But later, 1856, after his visit to the British Museum, the 
same author observed {op. cit. xli. p. 659), '■'■Turtur muroensis, Hodgs., de ITnde " [T. 
humilis of Indian authors], " pouvait fort bien differer specifiquement de Streptopelia 
humilis des Philippines." 



220 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIEDS 

Dr. Meyer notes the colour of the feet and nails as being grey, and of the bill as 
slate-colour. 

La Tourterelle cendree de I'isle de Lugon, Sonn. Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 52, pi. 22. 
Coliimba cinm-ea, Sco]i. Del. Fl. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 94, no. 93 (1786), ex Sonn.; 
nee Scop. ap. Bp. Consp. ii. p. 61. 

Turtur hizoniensis, Gm. S. N. i. p. 786, no. 32 Tiirtur, var. S (1788), ex Sonn. 
Columha phoenicorhyncha, Wagler, Isis, 1829, p. 745, ex Sonn. 

Under the title above cited Sonnerat described a species of Turtledove which, he 
stated, inhabits the island of Luzon, and mentions uo other locality. I can find no 
evidence of any species agreeing vfith Sonnerat's description having been found in the 
Philippines since Sonnerat wrote. The diagnosis agrees fairly with Columha picturata, 
Tenim., from which bird Sonnerat probably took his description. 

Bonaparte {I. c.) confounded two, if not three, distinct species of the genus Turtur 
described by Sonnerat, under Scopoli's title of Golumba cinerea. The description given 
by Bonaparte (/. c.) is of Columba miniata, Temm. Pig. & Gall. i. pp. 369, 460, 
founded on Sonnerat's Grande Tourterelle de la Chine, Voy. aux Indes, ii. p. 178. In 
his reference to Sonnerat the Prince commits three mistakes. He quotes page 176, 
where Sonnerat describes his Tourterelle (/rise de la Chine, on which Scopoli founded 
his Columba chinensis ; and he adds plate 22 — the number of Sonnerat's plate (in the 
'Voyage a la Nouvelle Guinee') which represents Columha cinerea, Scopoli'. There 
is no plate numbered 22 in the second volume of the ' Voyage aux Indes.' Having 
thus confounded the two species, the Prince adds China as a habitat of Columba 
cinerea. Previously the Prince had stated (Compt. Rend. xl. p. 16) that he considered 
C. miniata, Temm., =C. cinerea, Scop. It is difficult to decide from what species 
Sonnerat described his Grande Tourterelle de la Chine. On reading Temminck's 
diagnosis (/. c.) of Columba miniata it is obidous that he copied from Sonnerat. Together 
with its size (Sonnerat says that it is as large as a Wood-pigeon), the colouring described 
is inconsistent with any known Chinese species of Dove. 

La Tourterelle brune de la Chine, Sonn. Voy. aux Indes, ii. p. 177, on which Latham 
founded his Columba orientalis (Ind. Orn. ii. p. 606), is Turtur gelastes, Temm. & 
Schlegel. 

Mr. Blyth (Ibis, 1870, p. 173) mentions having observed in the Leyden Museum 
a Dove labelled Columba turtur, from the Philippines, "like T. auritus, but darker, 
the black predominating on the upper parts ; lower tail-coverts white." Can this be 
Columba cinereal 

' Prince Bonaparte (I. c.) also misquotes Vieillot ; for he refers to N. Diet. xxvi. p. 312 ; whereas C. miniata, 
Temm., occurs at p. 368, and Columba cinerea is treated by VieDIot as a separate species at p. 381, although 
partly misquoting Sonnerat's French title. 



INHABIima THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAGO. 221 

GOURID^. 

Phlog(enas, Reichenbach. 

149. * Phlogcenas luzonica. 

La Tourterelle grist ensanglantee de I'isle de Liupn, Sonnerat, Voy. N. Guin. p. 52, pi. 21, " Lu<jon," 

(1776). 
Columba luzonica, Scop. Del. Fl. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 94, no. 92 (1786), ex Sonn. 
Columba cruenta, Gm. S. N. i. p. 785, no. 66 (1788), ex Sonn. ; Knip, Colomb. et Gall. p. 16, pi. 8 ; 

Gould, B. of As. pi— . 

Var. albina. 

La Tourterelle blanche ensanglantee de I'isle de Luqon, Sonn. op. cit. p. 51, pi. 20, " Lu^on." 

Columba nivea, Scop. op. cit. p. 94, no. 91 (1786), ex Sonn. 

Columba sanguinea, Gm. op. cit. p. 785, no. 65, ex Sonn.; Knip, op. cit. p. 17, pi. 9. 

Hab. Luzon [Meyer) ; Calamine Island (Buzeta). 

Chalcophaps, Gould. 

150. Chalcophaps indica. 

TTie Qreen-ivinged Dove, Edwards, Nat. Hist. i. pi. 14, "East Indies." 

Columba indica, Linn. S. N. i. p. 284 (1766), ex Edwards; Sclilegel, Nederd. Tijdschr. Dierk. 1866, 

p. 265. 
Tourterelle de Java, D'Aubent. PI. Enl. 177'. 
Le Turvert, no. 3, Buffon, Hist. Nat. ii. p. 556, " Java." 
Columba javanensis, L. S. Muller, Suppl. p. 133 (1776), ex D'Aubenton. 
Columba javanica, Gm. S. N. i. p. 781, no. 55 (1788), ex Buffon. 

? Palumbus amboinensis, Brisson, Om. i. p. 150, no. 42, " ex Amboinensi Ins." descr. wig. 
? Columba cyaneopileata, Bonnaterre, Tabl. Enc. Method, i. p. 238 (1823), ex Brisson. 
? Chalcophaps moluccensis, G. B. Gray, P. Z. S. 1860, p. 361, 2 , " Amboyna and Batchian." 
Le Pigeon vert a tete grise d'Antigue, Sonnerat, Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 112, pi. 66, " Panay." 
Columba pileata. Scop. Del. Fl. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 94, no. 96 (1786), ex Sonn. 
Columba albicapilla, Gm. S. N. i. p. 775, no. 8 (1788), ex Sonn. 
Columba griseocapillata, Bonnat. torn. cit. p. 238 (1823), ex Sonn. 
Columba superciliaris,W ugler, Syst. Av. p. 256 (1827), ex Edwards. 
Monornis perpulchra, Hodgs., Gray, Zool. Misc. 1844, p. 85, "Nipatd." 

Calcophaps bornensis, Miiller, Bp. Compt. Rend. xi. p. 208 (1855) ; op. cit. Ixiii. p. 947 (1856). 
Calcophaps formosana, Swinhoe, Ibis, 1865, p. 357, <i , p. 540, $, "Formosa." 

Hah. Luzon, Negros {Meyefr). 

Examples obtained in the above-mentioned Philippine Islands in no essential respect, 
either of dimensions or plumage, differ from Ceylonese, Indian, Burman, Andaman, 
Malaccan, Javan, Bomean, Celebean, and Formosan individuals. I have therefore 

' Buffon (Z. c), through a misprint, quotes PI. Enl. 117. 

VOL. IX. — PART II. A])nl, 1875. 2 a 



222 VISCOUNT WALDBN ON THE BIEDS 

united all the titles founded on examples from those localities under the Linnsean 
designation. 

In deference to the opinion of Mr. Wallace (Ibis, 1865, p. 893), I have excluded 
C. moluccensis, G. R. Gray, although Professor Schlegel {I.e.) does not admit its 
distinctness. A Ceram example of a female in my collection certainly does diifer from 
all others within the range of C. indica, as stated above, in having the rump earthy 
brown, with the cross bars dark brown, without a trace of grey. If, however, the 
Moluccan species prove to be distinct it will have to take the title of C. cyaneopileata, 
Bonn. I. s. c. 

C. timorensis, Bp. (javanicoides, Temm. Mus. Lugd.) op. cit. Ixiii. p. 948, is an 
excellent species, wing 6-25, but is doubtfully separable from C. chrysochlora, Wagl. 
I. c, ex Australia. 

C. augusta, Bp. op. cit. 1855, p. 209, described from an example of unknown origin, 
has not as yet been identified. Professor Schlegel {I. c.) states that it is based on C. 
indica in transition-plumage ; but the diagnosis is undoubtedly that of an adult male. 
The Prince suggests that C. augusta may be the same as the Nicobar form of C. indica 
described by Mr. Blyth (J. A. S. B. 1846, p. 371), and treated by him as a variety of 
C. indica (Cat. Calc. Mus. p. 238, no. 440)'. 

The titles Coluniba cyanocephala, Gm. torn. cit. p. 781, no. 56, nee no. 20, and 
G. casruleocephala. Lath. Ind. Orn. ii. p. 610, no. 61, both founded on Latham's Blue- 
crowned Turtle, Synop. iv. p. 655, no. 52, cannot be allotted, Latham's description 
being too vague, and no species of Chalcojihaps having been discovered in China north 
of the island of Hainan. 

Le Pigeon violet a tete rouge d'Antigue, Sonn. Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 112, pi. 67. 
Columba pulcherrima. Scop. Del. Fl. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 94, no. 98 (1786), ex Sonn. 
Columha rubricapnlla, Gm. S. N. i. p. 784, no. 62 (1788), ex Sonn. 
This bird is now known to be confined to the Seychelles. 

Calcenas, G. E. Gray. 
151. Cal(enas nicobaeica. 
The Nincombar Pigeon, Albin, Nat. Hist. Birds, iii. p. 44, pis. 47, 48, " Islands of Nincombar near 

Pegu" (1740). 
Columba nicobarica, Linn. S. N. i. p. 283, no. 27 (1766), ex Albin ; Cassin, Un. St. Expl. Exped. 
p. 276. 
Hab. Philippine Islands (Peale). 

Seen by Peale in the Philippine Islands, but afterwards in greater abundance at the 
island of Mangsi. The same author states that the habits of this Pigeon, as observed 
on that island, were decidedly arboreal. 

' Conf. Blytli, Ibis, 1868, p. 133. The Nicobar race appears to me undiatingfuishable. 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE ARCHIPELAGO. 223 

152. Geopelia striata. 
Columba striata, Linn. S. N. i. p. 282 (1766) ; v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 24, no. 136. 
Observed by Dr. v. Martens in the collection of the Military Library at Manilla. 



GALLING 

PHASIANID.E. 

Gallus, Linnaeus. 

153. Gallus bankiva. 

Gallus bankiva, Temm. Pig. et Gallin. ii. p. 87, "Java" (1813). 
Hah. Luzon, Guimaras {Meyer). 
These Philippine examples agree with Malaccan. 

TETRAONID^. 

Perdicin^. 

Arborophila, Hodgson. 

154. * Arborophila sp. 1 

"? Le perdrix de Gingi, Sonn. Voy. aux Indes, ii. p. 167. 

? Tetrao gingicus, Gm. S. N. i. p. 760, no. 41 (1788), ex Sonn.; Temminck, Pig. et Gallin. iii. 

pp. 410, 733, "India, Coromandelia;" Blyth, Ibis, 1870, p. 174, "Philippines?" 
Arboricola, sp., v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 25, no. 142, "Philippines." 

A Philippine species of Arborophila is described by Dr. v. Martens (I. c.) from 
an example he observed in the Military Library at Manilla. Temminck (I. c.) de- 
scribed, from an example in his cabinet, the male of what he identified as the 
Perdix gingica, Lath. This specific title, which Latham only copied from Gmelin, 
was founded by the latter author on Sonnerat's species (I. c). Sonnerat having 
named the bird Perdrix de Gingi, it was inferred by Temminck that the species 
inhabited the Coromandel coast. But it is pretty well ascertained that no such 
species is known in India, or, indeed, in any part of continental Asia, nor has 
it been discovered in Ceylon, or in any of the Malay Islands. Hence it may be pre- 
sumed (also the surmise of Mr. Blyth, I. c.) that Sonnerat's Partridge was obtained 
in the Philippines and not in Coromandel. The description given by Dr. v. Mar- 
tens {I. c.) is too short to enable us to identify the examples he saw with the species 

2g2 



224 VIvSCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIRDS 

fully described both by Sonnerat and Temminck. In one particular his description 
materially differs ; for Dr. v. Martens describes the head as being green-black, whereas 
Sonnerat says that in his bird the top of the head is dark brown, and Temminck calls 
it maroon-brown. The example similar to his own, which Temminck (Z. c.) mentions as 
being preserved in the British Museum, seems to be no longer extant. Dr. v. Martens 
thus describes the example alluded to by him : — " Head green-black ; breast wine-red, 
streaked with black ; sides pale red, spotted with black." For full description of the 
example in the Leyden Museum, cf. Blyth, I. c. 

ExcALFACTORiA, Bonaparte. 

155. ExCALFACTORIA CHINENSIS. 

Chinese Quail, Edwards, Illustr. v. p. 77, pi. 247, J, " China." 

Tetrao chinensis, Linn. S. N. i. p. 377, no. 19 (1766), ex Edwards; v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, 

p. 25, no. 143. 
La Caille des Philippines, Brisson, Om. i. p. 254, no. 17, pi. 25. f. 1, "Philippines." 
La petite Caille de I'isle de Lucpn, Sonn. Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 54, pi. 24, ? , " Lu(;on." 
Oriolus lineatus, Scop. Del. Fl. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 87, no. 34 (1786), ex Sonn. 
Tetrao manillensis , Gm. S. N. i. p. 764, no. 57 (1788), ex Sonn. 
Coturnix excalfactoria, Temm. Pig. & GaUin. iii. pp. 516, 742 (1815). 
Coturnixflavipes, Blyth, J. A. S. B. 1842, p. 808, ? , "Bengal." 

Hab. Phihppines (Jagor). 

Brisson described from a Philippine example sent to M. Aubrey. He states that the 
Philippine form is smaller than the one which inhabits China, and that Chinese examples 
have the breast spotted with black. It is not improbable that the Philippine species 
may prove to belong to the Celebean form, E. rtwmna, Gould, in which case both will 
have to assume the title of lineata, Scop. 



TURNICID^. 

TuRNix, Bonnaterre. 

156. * TtJRNIX OCELLATA. 

Caille de I'isle de Luqon, Sonn. Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 54, pi. 23. 

Oriolus ocellatus, Scopoli, Del. Fl. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 88, no. 35 (1786), ex Sonn.; Blyth, 

J. A. S.B. 1861, p. 97. 
Tetrao luzoniensis, Gm. S. N. i. p. 767, no. 61 (1788), ex Sonn. 
Hemipodius thoracicus, Temm. Pig. et Gall. iii. pp. 622, 755, " Luzonia " (1815) . 
Ortygis ocellata, Meyen, Nov. Act. Ac. C. L. C. Nat. Cur. xvi. suppl. prim. p. 101, pi. 17, " South 

Peru, from 10-12000 feet above the sea" ! errore (1834) ; v. Martens, J. f, O. 1866, p. 26, 

no. 144; G. R. Gray, Hand-list, no. 9912. 

Hob. Philippines {Blyth, I. c). 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE ARCHIPELAGO. 225 

Hemipodius fasciatus^ Temm. Pig. & Gallin. iii. pp. 634, 757, "Philippines" (1815), 
was described from a single example, stated on its label to be from the Philippines. 
Later Temminck (Receuil d'Ois. 10" livr. 1823) in his monographic sketch of the 
genus Hemipodius, omitted this title altogether, but added to the Javan habitat of his 
jff. pugnax, as first described (Pig. et Gall.), that of the Philippines as well as Sumatra. 
Beyond this there seems to be no evidence of a second species of Turnix inhabiting 
the Philippines ; and it may be taken that //. fasciatus is the same species as H. imgnax. 



ROLLULID^. 

RoLLULUS, Bonnaterre. 

157. * ROLLULTJS sp. 

Cryptonyx, sp. v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866^ p. 25, no. 141. 

" Above red-brown ; underneath black. No crest, nor nail on the hallux." Dr. v. 
Martens thus describes a bird of this genus he observed in the collection of the Military 
Library at Manilla. 

MEGAPODIID^. 

Megapodius, Quoy et Gaimard. 

158. Megapodius ctmingi. 

Megapodius rufipes, Temm., G. R. Gray {lapsu cal.), List of Birds, Brit. Mus. Gallinte, p. 21, 

" Manilla " (1844) , nee Temm. 
Megapodius cumingii, Dillwyn, P. Z. S. 1851, p. 118, pi. 39, " Labuan, Philippines ; " G. E. Gray, 

P. Z. S. 1861, p. 290, no. 11 ; v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 26. 
Described from Labuan individuals, and identified by Mr. Dillwyn as identical with 
the species obtained in the Philippines by Mr. Cuming. A recomparison is, however, 
desirable. 

A species of Bustard, described and figured by Sonnerat under the title of le Paon 
muvage de Visle de Lu^on (Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 85, pi. 49), and said by him to occur 
also at the Cape of Good Hope, is clearly not a Philippine species. It, however, is a 
well-known South- African Bustard, of which the following is the synonymy : — 
Charadrius cristatus, Scop. Del. Fl. Faun. Insub. ii. p. 93, no. 82 (1788), ex Sonu. ; Schlegel, 

Mus. Pays-Bas, Cursores, p. 8 ; G. R. Gray, Hand-list, no. 9919. 
Otis kori, Burchell, Tr. S. Africa, i. p. 393, (vignette) p. 402 (1822) ; RiippeU, Mus. Senckenb. ii. 

p. 213, pi. 13 ; Tern. Recueil d'Ois. 102*^ livr., add. genre Outarde. 
Otis luc^oniensis, Vieillot, Tabl. Enc. Method. Omith. i. p. 332 (1823), e.x Sonn. 
Otis arabs, Linn., var. a, Latham, Gen. Hist. viii. p. 355 (1823), e.\ Sonn. 
? Vanellus, sp., v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 26. 



226 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIEDS 

Gmelin appears to have overlooked Sonnerat's description and plate. Latham (Ind. 
Orn. ii. p. 659, no. 4) identified Sonnerat's species with Otis arabs, Linn., but subse- 
quently (Gen. Hist. I. c.) treated it as a separate variety of that species. Vieillot (N. 
Diet. xxiv. p. 294) adopted Latham's original view, but later (I. c.) regarded Sonnerat's 
Bustard as a distinct Philippine species, and gave it the title above cited. Temminck 
was the first to point out (Recueil d'Ois. 90° livi*.) that Sonnerat's Paon sauvage 
belonged to a species distinct from Otis arabs ; and on the subsequent discovery of 
Otis koi'i by Burchell, Temminck at once {I. c.) identified it with Sonnerat's species, 
Riippell {torn. cit. p. 218) having in the mean time united Sonnerat's Bustard to the 
Indian Otis nigriceps. Professor Schlegel and the majority of recent authors have 
adopted Temminck's view. Dr. v. Martens, however (/. c), classes Sonnerat's bird as a 
Plover, and remarks, "Diesen Kibitz finde ich nirgends citirt." 



GRALLiE. 

CHAEADEIID^. 

Chakadkiin^. 

Chaeadkius, Linnseus. 

159. Chaeadeius fulvus. 

Fulvous Plover, Lath. Gen. Synop. ill. p. 211, no. 17, " Otaheite." 

Charadrius fulvus, Gm. S. N. i. p. 687, no. 18 (1788) , ex Latham; Pinsch & Haiti. Orn. Centr.-Polyn. 
p. 188 ; Sharpe & Dresser, Birds of Europe, pt. ix. pi. — ; Walden & Layard, Ibis, 1873, p. 105. 
Charadrius pluvialis , Linn., ap. v. Kittlitz, Liitke, Voy. (Postel), ill. p. 327, "Manilla." 
Charadrius longipes, Temm., v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 27, no. 147, " Luzon." 

Hab. Luzon, February ; ? , bill black, legs bluish grey [Meyer) ; Negros [L. C. 
Layard). 

In winter plumage. 

Squataeola, Cuvier. 

160. Squataeola helvetica. 

Vanellus helveiicus, Briss. Orn. v. p. 106, no. 4, " Helvetia." 

Tringa subtridactyla, Hasselquist, Iter Palaestinmn, p. 397, no. 28 (1757); Raise nach Palastma (Gade- 

busch, German tr.), p. 307, no. 28 (1762). 
Charadrius helveiicus, Linn. S. N. i. p. 250, no. 12 (1766), ex Brisson ; Walden & Layard, Ibis, 

1872, p. 105. 

Hab. Cujo, December [Meyer) ; Negros, March [L. C. Layard). 
In winter plumage. 



mHABITING THE PHILIPPINE ARCHIPELAGO. 227 

-iEgialitis, Boie. 

161. ^GIALITIS GEOFFKOTI. 

Charadrius geoffroyi, Wagler, Syst. Av. p. 61, no. 19, " Pondicheny, Java" (1827) ; Harting, Ibis, 
1870, p. 378, pi. 11. 

Stated by Mr. Harting {I. c), on Cuming's authority, to inhabit the Philippines. 

162. ^GIALITIS DUBU. 

Le petit Pluvier a collier de Luqon, Sonn. Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 84, pi. 46, " Lucon." 

Charadrius dubius, Scopoli, Del. Fl. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 93, no. 81 (1786), ex Sonn. ; Walden, Tr. 

Zool. Soc. viii. p. 89. 
Charadrius alexandrinus , Hasselq., var. S, Gm. S. N. i. p. 684, no. 2, ex Sonn. 
Charadrius philippinus , Latham, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 745, no. 11 (1790), ex Sonn. 
Charadrius curonicns, Beseke, =minor, Meyer, v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 26, no. 146. 

Philippiae examples have still to be compared with the ^. minutus (Pall.), ap. Jerdon, 
of India. 

Von Heuglin, in his great work (Ornithologie Nordostafrikas, p. 1029, no. 753), 
identifies Soimerat's petit Pluvier de I'isle de Ltipon with C. curonicus, but with doubt 
adopts as synonyms C. dubius, Scop., and C. philippinus, Lath., titles founded on 
Sonnerat's description and plate. 

163. .SgIALITIS MONGOLICA. 

CAorarfWiw more^rote, Pallas, Reisen Russischen Reicbs, iii. p. 700, no. 29, "Mongolia," (1776); 
Harting, Ibis, 1870, p. 384; Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Cnrsores, p. 41. 

Hab. Philippines (Cuming). 



CEdicnenin^. 
EsAcus, Lesson. 



164. EsACUS MAGNIROSTRIS. 



CEdicnemus magnirostris, Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, Vieill. N. Diet, xxiii. p. 231 (1818), nee Latham; 
Cassin, Un. St. Expl. Exped. p. 329; Walden, Tr. Zool. Soc. viii. p. 91. 

Hab. Common ia the Philippine and Sooloo Islands (Pea/e). 



228 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIRDS 

HlMANTOPODIN^. 

HiMANTOPUS, BrissoQ. 

165. HiMANTOPUS AUTUMNALIS. 

Charadrius autumnalis', Hasselq., Iter Palestinum, p. 253, no. 29 (1757) ; Reise nach Palastina 

(Gadebuscli, Germ. Trans.), 308, no. 29, "Egypt, in October" (1762). 
Himantopus rufipes, Bechst., v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 28, no. 160. 

Hob. Luzon {Jagor). 

A Luzon example is thus identified by Ur. v. Martens {I.e.). 

166. HiMANTOPUS LEUCOCEPHALUS. 

Himantopus leucocephalus, Gould, P. Z. S. 1837, " Australia, Java, Sumatra ;" Walden, Tr. Zool. 
Soc. viii. p. 91 ; v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 28, no. 161. 

Hab. Mindanao {Cummg). 

GLAREOLID^. 

Glareolin^. 

Glaeeola, Brisson. 

167. Glaeeola orientalis. 

Glareola orientalis, Leach, Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 132, pL xiii. fig. 1, 2, " Java " (1820) ; Walden 
& Layard, Ibis, 1872, p. 105, "Negros." 

Hob. Negros {L. C. Layard). 

GALLINULID^. 

POEPHTRIONIN^. 

PORPHYRIO, Brisson. 

168. * PORPHYEIO PULVERULENTUS. 

Porphyria pulverulentus, Temm. PI. Col. 405, " Africa " errore (1826) ; v. Martens, J. f . O. 1866, 

p. 29, no. 176. 
Porphyrio poliocephalus , Lath., apud Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Ralli, p. 54, " Philippines," nee 

Lath. ; conf. Walden, Tr. Z. S. viii. p. 92. 

Hab. Philippines (type, Jide Schlegel, I.e.). 

' I adopt Hasselquist's title for this species because I believe it was republished in the English translation 
(Voy. Travels in the Levant, 176G), and in the French translation by Eidous (Voyage dans le Levant, 1769), 
as well as having been published by Linnseus as a synonym in his twelfth edition of the ' Systema.' 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAGO. 229 

Dr. V. Martens (/. c.) notes this species as being among the Philippine birds preserved 
in the Military Library at Manilla. 



Gallinulin^. 

Gallinula, Brisson. 
169. Gallinula chloropus. 
FuUca chloropus, Linn. S. N. i. p. 358, no. 4 (1766). 

Hab. Luzon, 7th of February, d $ ; biU red, yellow at the tip ; legs yellow-green ; 
nails grey {Meyer). 

These examples agree with European specimens. 



Gallicrex, Blyth. 
170. Gallicrex cinerea. 

Crested Gallinule, Lath. Gen. Synopsis, v. p. 267, no. 32, "China?" descr. orig. 

Fulica cinerea, Gm. S. N. i. p. 702, no. 20 (1788), ex Lath.; v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 29, 

no. 174. 
Gallinula cristata, Lath. Ind. Om. ii. p. 773, no. 23 (1790), ex Lath., nee Fulica cristata. Lath. 

torn. cit. p. 779, no. 3; G. R. Gray, List Br. Mus. Grallm, p. 123, " Isl. of Manilla." 
Gallinula plumbea, VieUl. Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xii. p. 404, S , " Java" (1817). 
Gallinula luguhris, Horsf. Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 195, d, "Java" (1820). 
Gallinula gularis, Horsf. I.e. 5 , " Java." 
Gallinula navia, Gm., apud Lesson, Tr. p. 534, ?, "Manilla" (1831), nee Gm. ; Pucheran, Rev. 

et Mag. Zool. 1851, p. 569. 
Gallinula porphyrioides , Less. I. c, g , " Pair, incog. ;" Pueheran, /. c. 
Rallus rufescens, VieUl., Jerdon, Madras J. L. & Sc. xii. p. 205, no. 331, 2, "near Cochin" 

(1840). 
Gallicrex cristatus (Lath.), Blyth, Cat. Calc. Mus. p. 383, no. 1660 (1849). 

Hah. Manilla (Bussumier, Cuming). 

Observed by Dr. v. Martens in the Military Library of Manilla. 



Erythra, Reichenbach. 
171. Erythra phcenicura. 
Rallus phcenicurus, Forster, Zool. Ind. p. 19, pi. 9, "Ceylon" (1781); v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, 
p. 29, no. 171 ; Walden, Tr. Z. S. viii. p. 94. 

Hab. Zamboanga (v. Martens). 



VOL. IX. — part II. April, 1875. 2 h 



230 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIRDS 

RALLIU^. 

Oetygometra, Linnaeus. 
172. Oetygometra cinekea. 
Porphyria cinereus, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xxviii. p. 29, "Java" (1819); ScUegel, Miis. 
Pays-Bas, Ralli, p. 32; Waldeu, Tr. Z. S. viii. p. 94. 

Hab. Philippines {Cuming). 

PoRZAXA, Vieillot. 

17.3. PORZANA PYGM^A. 

Crex pygmtBa, Naumann, Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Ralli, p. 30. 

Hab. Philippines {Verreanx). 

The Philippine habitat of this Water-crake rests solely on a single individual thus 
identified by Professor Schlegel in the Leyden Museum, and acquired from M. Verreaux. 

174. PORZANA FUSCA. 

Rallus pMlippensis fuscus, Brissou, Om. v. p. 173, no. 2, " Philippiues." 

Rallus fuscus, Linn. S. N. i. p. 262, no. 4 (1766), ex Brisson ; ScMegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Ralli, 

p. 20. 
Rale brun des Philippines, D'Aubenton, PI. Enl. 773. 
Gallinula rubiffimsa, Temm. PI. Col. 357, " Java" (1825). 

Hab. Philippines (Cuming). 

An adult Philippine example, obtained by Cuming, is preserved in the Leyden 
Museum ; and with it Professor Schlegel (l. c.) identifies individuals from Borneo, 
Java, and Sumatra. From Javan examples I am unable to distinguish Ceylon speci- 
mens. Gallinula erythrothorax, Schlegel, Faun. Japon. Aves, p. 121, pi. 78, "Japan," 
only differs in being considerably larger. It is still a question whether the race 
which occurs in Nipaul, Zaiwrnia Jlammiceps, Hodgs., Gray (Zool. Misc. 1844, p. 80, 
sine descr.), belongs to the Japanese or the Southern-Asiatic race. Radde (Reisen im 
Siideii von Ost-Sib. ii. p. 309) obtained, in June and July, on the middle Anioor, examples 
of greater size than even those from .Japan. Mr. Swinhoe (P. Z. S. 1871, p. 414, no. 
605) states that the " pectoral red does not extend so low down as in P. fusca," this 
character being a sign of immaturity in the South-Asiatic form. 

In the Hand-list, P. fusca and P. rubiginosa are kept separate. To the last, PI. Col. 
357 is correctly referred ; to the first, PI. Col. 387 (which represents Esacus magni- 
rostris) is added as a reference \ 

' This error seems to have arisen from the misprint in Blyth's Cat. of the Cale. Mus. j). 285, no. 16(J6, having 
been copied. 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE ARCHIPELAGO. 231 

< 

Rallina, Reichenbach. 

175. Rallina fasciata. 

Rallus fasciatus, Eaffles, Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 328, " Sumatra" (1831). 

Gallinula eurizona, Temm. PI. Col. 417, " Java" (1826). 

Rallus ruficeps, Cuv. Mns. Par. ; Lesson, Tr. p. 537, no. 24, "Java, Manilla" (1831). 

Ortygometra ocularis, G. R. Gray, List Br. Mus. Grallce, p. 119, " Philippine Isl." (1844). 

Ortygometra eurizona (Temm.), G. R. Gray, op. cit. p. 117, "Manilla" (1844). 

Hah. Philippines, Manilla {Cuming^ Dussumier). 

Amaueoenis, Reichenbach. 

176. * Amaueoenis olivacea. (PI. XXXIII. fig. 2.) 

Gallinula olivacea, Meyen, Nov. Act. Ac. C. L.C. Nat. Cur. xvi. suppl. prim. p. 109, pi. 20, 

"Manilla" (1834). 
Amaurornis olivacea (Me3'en), Reichenbacli, Natiirl. Syst. 

Hah. Manilla, near the sea-coast {Meyen); Luzon {mus. nostr.). 
Said also to occur in Ternate and in Halmaheira (Schlegel, M. Yays-Bas, Balli, p. 43); 
but examples from these localities have yet to be compared with Philippine specimens. 

HypoTiENiDiA, Reichenbach. 

177. * Hypot^nidia toequata. 

Rallus philippensis torqttatus, Briss. Orn. v. p. 170, no. 6, " Philippines " (1760). 

Rallus torquatus, Linn. S. N. ed. 12, i. p. 262 (1766), ex Brisson. 

Rallus lineatHS, Cuv. Mus. Veens, fide Pucher. Rev. etMag. Zool. 1851, p. 276, " Manilla ; " Lesson, 

Tr. p. 536, no. 11 (1831). 
Rallus torquatus, Briss., Meyen, Nov. Act. Ac. C. L. C. Nat. Cur. suppl. prim. p. 108, pi. 19 ; 

Lesson, I. c. no. 12. 

Hah. Luzon, January {Meyer). 

Two examples, both marked female, were obtained by Dr. Meyer. One is in full 
plumage, with all its colours fresh and bright, the maroon collar well developed ; this 
I believe to be a male. The other has its markings less sharply defined, the black of 
the throat mixed with grey, and the pectoral band of the same colour as the back; in 
its dimensions it considerably exceeds the first. 

178. Hypot^nidia philippensis. 

Rallus philippensis, Brisson, Orn. v. p. 163, no. 4, "Philippines." 

Rallus philippensis, Urn. S.N. i. p. 263, no. 7 (1766), ex Brisson; Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, 
Rain, p. 23 ; Walden, Tr. Z. S. viii. p. 95 ; Buller, Birds N. Zealand, part iii. pi. 6. fig. — . 

2h2 



232 VISCOUNT "WALDEN ON THE BIRDS 

Rale raye des Philippines, D'Aubentoiij PI. Enl. 774. 
Ilab. Philippines {Cuming). 

179. Hypot^nidia striata. 

Rallus philippensis striatus, Brisson, Orn. v. p. 167, no. 5, " PMlippines." 

Rallus striatm, Linn. S. N. i. p. 262, no. 5 (1766), ex Brisson; Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Ralli, 
p. 24; Walden, Tr. Zool. Soc. viii. p. 95. 

Hab. Luzon (Gevers). 

Lesson (Tr. p. 538, no. 30) introduces, without description, a species of Rail said 
to be from the Philippines, under the titles of " Bdle ecaude, Cuv., Gal. de Paris; 
Gallinula circoleps, Temm." Bonaparte (Compt. Rend, xliii. p. 599, no. 382) classified 
the same bird under Corethrura, and transformed Cuvier's French museum title into 
Ballus ecaudatus, Cuv. This, in its turn, becomes caudatus, Cuv., in Mr. Gray's 
Hand-list, no. 10474. Dr. Pucheran does not not notice this type ; and I am unable to 
identify it. 

PARRIDiE. 

Hydkophasianus, Wagler. 

180. Hydkophasianus chieurgus. 

Le Chirurgien de I'isle de Luc^on, Sonnerat, Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 81, pi. 45. 

Tringa chii~urgus, Scopoli, Del. FI. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 92, no. 80 (1786), ex Souu. 

Parra Imoniensis, Gm. S. N. i. p. 709, no. 13 (1788) ex Sonn. 

Chinese Jacana, Latham, Gen. Synop. v. p. 246, no. 8, " China." 

Parra sinensis, Gm. /. c. no. 15, ex Lath. ; Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Ralli, p. 71 ; v. Martens, 

J. f. O. 1866, p. 29, no. 177. 
Hydrophasianiis sinensis (Gm.), Wagler, Isis, 1832, p. 279. 

Hab. Luzon {mus. Lugd. ; v. Martens). 



SCOLOPACID.^. 

LlMOSIN^. 

NuMENius, Linnaeus. 

181. NUMENIUS PII^OPUS. 
Scolopax ph<Bopus , Linn. S. N. i. p. 243, no. 4 (1766). 

Hab. Cujo Island, December {Meyer). 

Example referred to by Mr. Dresser (Birds of Eur. pt. xvii.), where, however, the name 
of the locality is misprinted. 



INHABITINa THE PHILIPPINE ARCHIPELAGO. 233 

Le Courly tachete de Visle de Lugon, Sonn. Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 85, pi. 48, " Lu^on." 
Tantalus variegatus, Scopoli, Del. FL Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 92, no. 78 (1786), ex Sonn. 
Scolopax lusoniensis, Gm. S. N. i. p. 656, no. 21 (1788), ex Sonn.; G. R. Gray, Hand-list, 

no. 10252. 
Numenius atricapillus , Vieill. Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. viii. p. 303 (1817), ex Sonn. 
Numenius luzoniensis (Gm.), v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 28, pi. 159. 

Professor Schlegel (Mus. Pays-Bas, Scolopaces, p. 93) identifies this species with 
Numenius ])]iaeopus. Sonnerat's plate and description do not perfectly agree with that 
species, more especially as he describes and figures the crown of the head as being 
black. Mr. vSwinhoe, who considers N. uropygialis, Gould, distinct from N. phceojms, 
has identified Mr. Gould's species with that described by Sonnerat fP. Z. S. 1871, p. 410, 
no. 572). Mr. Dresser (Birds of Eur. pt. 17) has united N. phaeopus with N. 
uropygialis, and regards Sonnerat's plate as having been drawn from a Philippine 
example of the common Whimbrel. 

Courly hrun de Visle de Lugon, Sonn. Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 85, pi. 47. 

Tantalus rufus, Scopoli, Del. Fl. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 92, no. 77 (1786), ex Sonn. 

Tantalus manillensis, Gm. S. N. i. p. 649, no. 12 (1788), ex Sonn. 

Ibisfuscata, VieUl. Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xvi. p. 16 (1817), ex Sonn. ; Wagler, Syst. Av. p. 372. 

I am unable to determine this species ; nor has it been recognized since Sonnerat 
published its description. No author appears to have suggested its identity with any 
known species. But, curiously enough, Mr. G. R. Gray, in the index (Hand-list, iii. 
pp. 235, 268), refers Vieillot's title fuscata, and Gmelin's title manillensis, both being 
founded on Sonnerat's plate {I. c), to no. 10234 of his Hand-list. This is the number 
pertaining to Tantalus alUcollis, Gm., the young of Tantalus melanopis, Gm. ; but the 
two titles above given are not added as synonyms, nor do they appear, although 
indexed, in any part of the work. From this it may be inferred that Mr. Gray at one 
time identified Sonnerat's Courly brun with the South- American species. The elements 
of Sonnerat's short description are manifestly taken from some form of the genus Ibis. 
and not of Numenius. 

TOTANIN^. 

Rhyacophilus, Kaup. 
182. Rhyacophilus glareola. 

Tringa glareola, Gm. S. N. i. p. 677, no. 21 (1788); Kittlitz, Liitke, Voy. (Postels) iii. p. .327; 

v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 28, no. 164. 
Actitis^ glareola (Gm.), Walden, Tr. Zool. Soc. viii. p. 96, no. 160. 

' Actitis, Kaup, Prodroraus, p. 262 (ISll), is Kaup's title for an incongruous group consisting oi iHcohjja.r 
limosa, S. totanus, Trinrja puf/nax, and T. hypoleuvos. 



234 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIRDS 

]lab. Luzon, 9th of February ; bill brownish black ; legs yellowish gi-een ; nails gi-ey 
(Meyer) ; Manilla {Kittlitz, Jagor). 
A female {fide Meyer) in winter dress. 

Teingoides, Bonaparte. 

183. TeINGOIDES HYPOLEUCOS. 

Trimja hypoleiicos, Linn. S. N. i. p. 250, no. 14 (1766) ; Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Scolopaces, 
p. 80 ; V. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 28, no. 166 ; Finsch & Hartl. Vog. Ost-Afrikas, p. 752. 

Nab. Philippines {Cuming) ; Luzon {Jagor). 

For complete synonymy and range cf. O. Finsch & Hartl. I. c. 

ToTANUS, Bechstein. 

184. ToTANUS CALIDEIS. 

Scolopax calidris, Linn. S. N. i. p. 245, no. 11 (1766) ; Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Scolopaces, 
p. 65. 

Hah. Philippines {Cuming). 

A Philippine example from Cuming's collection is preserved in the Leyden Museum. 

185. ToTANUS GLOTTIS. 

Scolopax glottis, Linn. S. N. i. p. 245, no. 10 (1766) ; Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Scolopaces, p. 61 ; 
V. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 28, no. 165. 

Hah. Philippines {Cuming) ; Luzon {Jagor). 



Teingin^. 

TErNGA, Linnteus. 
186. Tringa ruficollis. 
Tringa ruficollis, Pallas, Reisen Russisch. Reichs, iii. p. 700, no. 31, " Dauria" {\77Q),descr. orig. 
Tringa salina, Pallas, Zoogr. Bosso-Asiatica, ii. p. 199, no. 309, pi. 61 (1811-31), ex Pallas; 
Swinhoe, P.Z. S. 1871, p. 409, no. 566; Shaqie & Dresser, Bii-ds of Europe, pt. vii. " Tringa 
minuta," p. 5. 
Totanm damacensis , Ilorsf. Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 192, " Java" (1820) ; Walden, Tr. Zool. Soc. 
viii. p. 97. 

Hah. Luzon, 7th of February ; bill black ; feet yellowish grey ; claws black {Meyer). 

A single example of a very long-toed Tringa, in winter plumage, was obtained in 
Luzon, which I do not doubt belongs to this species. The outer rectrices are brownish 
grey, and not pure white, and the shaft of the first primary only is white. In 
dimensions it agrees with a Lake-Baikal example in red summer plumage. The 
general ground-colour of the upper plumage is greyish brown, most of the feathers 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE ARCHIPELAGO. 235 

being largely centred with dark brown; from the base of the bill to the eye an 
unspotted bald albescent stripe, which passes over the eye and loses itself above the 
ear-coverts. Under plumage white, the sides of the breast clothed by cinereous feathers 
with small brown centres. My Lake-Baikal example also has the sides of the breast 
similarly marked, only that the rufous is mixed with the cinereous. The middle toe. 
including the nail, nearly measures a full inch. 

Pallas altered his first title, rujicollis (which Gmelin and Latham adopted), to salina. 



SCOLOPACIN^. 

Gallinago, Leach. 



187. Gallinago scolopacina. 



Scolopax gallinago, Linn. S. N. i. p. 2-14, no. 7 (1766). 
Gallinago scolopacina, Bonap. Compt. Rend, xliii. p. 379 (1856). 

Ilab. Luzon ; feet yellowish ; nails grey {Meyer). 

Two examples of this species of Snipe ( 6 fide Meyer) were procured by Dr. A. B. 
Meyer on the 7th of February at Laguna de Bai. 

188. Gallinago megala. 

Gallinago megala, Swinhoe, Ibis, 1861, p. 343, no. 118, " Amoy." 

Scolopax {Spilura) stenura, Temm., apud Radde, Reisen im Siiden von Ost-Sibir. ii. p. 334, no. 208, 

pi. xiii. f. 1,2,3 (1863). 
Scolopax heterura, Cab. J. f. O. 1866, p. 28, no. 163, " Luzon " [minime Hodgson), descr. nulla. 
Gallinago heterocerca, Cab. op. cit. 1870, p. 235, descr. princeps ; id. op. cit. 1872, p. 317. 
Scolopax heterocerca (Cab.), Taczanowski, J. f. O. 1870, p. 311, no. 17. 
"Gallinago megala, Swinboe," O. Finsch, Verb, zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 1872, p. 267 (sub G. stenura). 

Ilab. Luzon {Jagor). 

Rhynch^a, Cuvier. 

189. EHYNCK.EA CAPENSIS. 

Gallinago capitis bonce spei, Brisson, Orn. vi. suppl. p. 141. 

Scolopax cfipensis, Linn. S. N. i. p. 246, no. 14 (1766), ex Brisson; O. Fiiiscli k Hartl. Viig. 

Ost-Afi-ikas, p. 774. 
Rhynchaa variegata, Vieill., Scblegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Scolopaces, j). 16. 
Rhynchaa, sp.? v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 28, no. 162. 

Hah. Philippines (Cuminff). 

Several examples obtained by Cuming in the Philippines are contained in the Leyden 
Museum. 



236 A'ISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIEDS 

Grvs, sp., V. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 27, no. 148. 

If we may rely on Camel, and also on Buzeta, the Philippines are inhabited by 
members of both the Ciconiidje and the Gruidee. No other author has confirmed the 
statement (cf. v. Martens, I. c). 



AEDEIDiE. 

Aedein^. 

Aedea, Linnaeus. 

190. Aedea puepueea. 

Ardea purpurea, Linn. S. N. i. p. 236, no. 10 (1766). 

A)-dea purpurea, var. mani/lensis, Meycn, Nov. Act. Ac. C. L.C. Nat. Cur. xvi. suppl. prim. p. 102, 
"Manilla" (1834). 

Hab. Manilla {Meyen). 

Separated from the European species by Meyen, chiefly on account of its greater 
size. 

Ardea longicollis, Meyen, Nov. Act. Ac. C. L.C. Nat. Cur. xvi. suppl. prim. p. 104, 
" Philippines " (1834), has never been identified. If not a distinct species, it probably 
belongs to one of the races of Ardea alba, not to //. garzetta, as assigned by Mr. G. 
R. Gray in the Hand-list, no. 1013. 

Ardetta, G. E. Gray. 

191. Ardetta plavicollis. 

Yellow-necked Heron, Latham, Synop. Suppl. p. 239, no. 82, " India, Oude." 

Ardea flavicollis, hath. lud. Om. ii. p. 701, no. 87 (1790), ex Latli. ; Gray & Hardw. 111. Ind. Zool.i. 

pi. 66. fig. 2; Jerd. 111. Ind. Orn. pi. 16; Wagler, Syst. Av. p. 180, no. 16; Horsf. Tr. Linn. 

See. xiii. p. 189, "Java;" Bp. Consp. ii. p. 131, "Ind. continent;" Gould, Birds Austral., 

8vo, ii. p. 315, " Australia." 
Ardea nigra, Vieill. N. Diet. xiv. p. 417, " Bengal " (1817) . 
Ardea bilineata, Cuv. Mus. Paris.; Pucher. Rev. et Mag. Zool. 1851, p. 374, "Java;" Bp. torn. cit. 

p. 132, " Malasia, Java, Sumatra ;" v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 28, " Philippines." 
Ardea picta, Eaffles, Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 326, " Sumatra" (1821). 
Ardea australis, Cuv. Mus. Paris. ; Puclier. torn. cit. p. 375 (juv.), " Australia." 
Ardetta ffouldi, Bp. torn. cit. p. 132, "Australia" (1857). 
Ardea flavicollis australis, Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Ardea, p. 46, "Australia." 

Dr. von Martens [1. c.) identified a species of Heron, contained in the Military library 
at Manilla, with Ardea bilineata, Cuv. This title Pucheran has shown (I. c.) to have 
been bestowed on Javan examples of a species identical with the Indian Yellow-necked 
Heron. 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAaO. 237 

192. Ardetta cinnamomea. 

Cinnamon Heron, Lath. Gen. Synop. iii. pt. 1, p. 77 , no. 43, " Cliitia." 

Ardea cinnamomea, Gm. S.N. i. p. 643, no. 73 (1788), ex Lath.; Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Ardem, 
p. 40; V. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 28, no. 154. 

Hah. Philippines {Schlegel, v. Martens). 

193. Aedetta sinensis. 

Chinese Heron, Latham, Gen. Synop. iii. pt. 1, p. 99, no. 73, "China." 

Ardea sinensis, Gm. S. N. i. p. 643 (1788), ex Lath. ; Walden, Tr. Zool. Soc. viii. p. 99 ; Schlegel, 
Mus. Pays-Bas, Ardem, p. 40, "Philippines." 

Hob. Philippines {Schlegel). 

BuBULCUS, Pucheran. 

194. BUBULCUS coeomanda. 

Le Crabier de Coromandel, BufFon, Hist. Nat. vii. p. 393; D'Auhenton, PI. Enl. 910. 
Cancroma coromanda, Bodd. Tab!. PL Enl. p. 54 (1783), ex D'Aubent. ; v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, 
p. 27, " Luzon ;" Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Ardea, p. 30. 

Hab. Luzon {Jagor). 

Heeodias, Boie. 

195. Heeodias garzetta. 

Ardea garzetta, Linn. S. N. i. p. 237, no. 13 (1766) ; v. Martens, J. £. O. 1866, p. 27, no. 151, 

" Luzon ;" Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, ArdecB, p. 15, " Philippines." 
Ardea nigripes, Temm. Man. d'Om. 2nd ed. pt. iv. p. 376, " FArchipel des Indes" (1840). 
Ardea candidissima, Gm., Kittlitz, Liitke, Voy. (Postals) iii. p. 337, " Manilla," nee Gm. 

Hab. Luzon {Jagor). 

196. Heeodus inteemedia. 

Ardea intermedia, Wagler, Isis, 1829, p. 659, "Java;" Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Ardea, p. 20. 

A Philippine example in the Leyden Museum is thus identified by Professor Schlegel. 



BUTOEIDES, Blyth. 
197. BUTOEIDES javanica. 
Ardea javanica, Horsf. Tr. Lkm. Soc. xiii. p. 190, " Java" (1820) ; Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Ar- 
dea, p. 43; V. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 27; Walden, Tr. Zool. Soc. viii. p. 100; Finsch & 
Hartl. Faun. Central-Polynes. p. 207 ; Walden & Layard, Ibis, 1872, p. 105, " Negros." 

Hah. Philippines {Schlegel) ; Luzon {Jagor) ; Negros {L. C. Layard). 
VOL. 15. — pabt II. Apil, 1875. 2 i 



238 VISCOUNT WALDBN ON THE BIEDS 



BOTAURIN^. 

Nycticorax, Stephens. 

198. * Nycticorax MANiLLENSis. 

Nycticorax manillensis , Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 98, " neighbourhood of Manilla;" Fraser, Zool. 
Typica, pi. 66 ; Bp. Consp. ii. p. 140, " Philippines ;" v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 28, " Isl. of 
Samar;" Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas,^rc?e«,p. 60, "Lufon;" G. R. Gray, Hand-List, no. 10173, 
" Philippines." 
"Ardea caledonica, Forster," Meyen, Nov. Ac. C. L.C. Nat. Cur. xvi. suppl. prim. p. 103, "Ma- 
nilla," nee Forster; v. Martens, torn. cit. no. 158. 
Hah. Manilla {Lindsay). 

Professor Schlegel {I. c.) unites Nycticorax crassirostris, Vigors (Voy. Blossom, Zool. 
p. 27, " Bonin isl." \'&o'd),vf\th.N. manillensis. According to Vigors, it only differs 
from N. caledonicus in the shape of the bill and its colour, and in the wing being 
an inch shorter. "With N. manillensis he makes no comparison. This last does appear 
to differ from N. caledonicus ; but as the type of N. crassirostris is no longer contained 
in the British Museum, although enumerated in the Hand-list as being extant, I am 
unable to confirm Professor Schlegel's opinion. 

199. Nycticorax griseus. 

Ardea grisea, Linn. S. N. 1. p. 239, av. juv. (1766). 

nycticorax, Linn. torn. cit. p. 235 ; Meyen, Nov. Act. Ac. C. L.C. Nat. Cm-, xvi. suppl. prim. 

p. 104, "Manilla;" v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 28, "Taalsee." 

Hab. Manilla {Meyen). 



Goesachius, Bonaparte. 

200. GORSACHIUS MELANOLOPHUS. 
Ardea melanolopha, Raffles, Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 326, adult, " Sumatra " (1821) ; Layard, Ann. & 

Mag. Nat. Hist. 1854, 2nd ser. vol. xiv. p. 114, "Ceylon;" Blyth, Ibis, 1865, p. 38; op. cit. 

1867, pp. 173, 309 ; Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 413 ; Holdsworth, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 478, 

" Ceylon." 
Nycticorax limnophilax, Temm. PI. Col. 581,/MW., "Java" (1835); Bp. Consp. ii. p. 156; Schlegel, 

Mus. Pays-Bas, Ardete, p. 55, " Philippines, Bangka, Java." 
Gorsachius goisagi, Temm., Bp. Consp. ii. p. 138, no. 122 (at/wft, Mus. Paris) ; Swinhoe, Ibis, 1865, 

p. 358 ; op. cit. 1866, pp. 123, 403. 
Tigrisonia limnicola, Reichenb. Syat. Av. p. 16 (1852). 

typus, Pucheran, Bp. I. c. 

Ardea {Botaiirus) philippensis, Gm., apud v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 28, no. 155 {nee Gm.). 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE ARCHIPELAGO. 239 

1 Nycticorax goisagi, Temm. PI. Col. 582, adult, "Japan" (1835); Faun. Japon. p. 116, pi. 70: 

Bp. Consp. ii. p. 138, no. 122, juv. ex Japan; Sclilegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Ard,ea, p. 54. 
? Gorsachius melanolophus (Raffles), G. R. Gray, Hand-list, no. 10177, "Japan." 

It is still a matter of some doubt whether the species of the genus Gorsachius which 
occurs in Ceylon, Tenasserim, the Sunda islands, the Malayan peninsula, and the 
Philippines (Ardea melanolo]}ha, Eaffles) is the same as that which inhabits Japan 
{Nycticorax goisagi, Temm.). Professor Schlegel {I. c.) keeps them distinct, whereas Mr. 
Swinhoe, in his last list of the Birds of China (Z. c), unites them. Professor Schlegel's 
matei'ials for comparison consisted of four Japanese individuals, two from Java, one from 
Bangka, and one from the Philippines, while Mr. Swinhoe appears to have obtained his 
in Formosa only. The most marked diiferential character possessed by G. melanolophus 
is its black crown and long black crest, each plume in the immature bird (Nycticorax 
limnopMlax, Temm.) having a bold subterminal white irregular mark. In no authentic 
Japanese indinduals do the crown and crest seem to be black; in the adult 
they are of a rich purple chestnut. Prince Bonaparte {I. c.) described two indivi- 
duals: one, contained in the Paris Museum, having a black crest, he noted as the 
adult ; the other, with the head and nape bright chestnut, as the young. They are both 
stated to be " ex Japan, nee inss. Philippensibus." They are certainly examples of adult 
birds ; for the immature plumage of the Archepelagic, the Formosan, and the Japanese 
races have been fully described. The type of Ardea melanolopha is described by Sir 
Stamford Raffles (I.e.) as possessing a black crests Mr. Blyth (Ibis,1865, p.38) mentions 
that he has seen A. melanolo])ha from Malacca, Arakan, Ceylon, and the Philippines, 
that the adult is similar to G. goisagi, but has a long black-crested pileus at all ages, 
while G. goisagi from Japan has no black on the crest at any age. This opinion Mr. 
Blyth subsequently modified [o]). cit. 1867, p. 173), in consequence of some obsers'ations 
of Mr. Swinhoe {op. cit. 1866, p. 403) on the seasonal changes of the crest-feathers, 
based on two adult specimens sent from Formosa. Mr. Swinhoe speaks positively of 
the black crest being present in the summer dress, and adds : — " In winter the crest 
seems to fall, leaving the head smooth and plain chestnut, instead of being capped and 
crested with cinereous-black plumes." A valuable and detailed account given by Mr. 
Swinhoe [torn. cit. p. 123) of the Formosan species when young (nearly full-grown) 
agrees with the Archipelagic bird at a similar age. This state of plumage is not found, 
or at least has not been described as occurring, in the Japan species [cf. Faun. Jap. 
pi. 70, immat., and Mus. Pays-Bas, I. c). The facts known, bearmg on the phases of 
plumage peculiar to the Japanese and the South-Asiatic races, induce me to hesitate 
before adopting Mr. Swinhoe's views. As a fact, the Malayan species {G. melanolophus) 

' Mr. Blyth (I. c.) considers that A. melanohpha, Raffles, is the young ; but Sir Stamford's description agrees 
best with the adult plumage. 

2i2 



240 VISCOUNT WAIiDEN ON THE BIEDS 

wears the full chestnut plumage and the long black crest in winter ; for I possess speci- 
mens, obtained by the late Mr. Maingay at Malacca in December, in that dress. 
Again, the Japanese, although said not to possess a black crest, does wear a long purple- 
chestnut crest ; for so it is described by Temminck (I. c.) ; and a Nagasaki example 
(7nus. nostr.) has a full chestnut-coloured crest. The only Japanese example in the 
British Museum wears the same plumage. 

The bill in all the Malaccan examples I have examined is longer and straighter than 
in that of the Nagasaki individual above referred to. 

The British Museum contains a Philippine example in chestnut plumage, with a 
black crown and flowing black crest. It is not enumerated in the Hand-list. In the 
same work, on the other hand, N. limnophilax, Temm., is entered as a separate species 
(No. 10164), from the Philippines, but not as being represented in the Museum. 

Dr. V. Martens {I. c.) described a species of Botaurus which he had observed in the 
Military Library at Mandla, and identified it with Ardea phiUjjpensis, Gm. His short 
account agrees best with G. goisagi ; for he says nothing about a black crest ; and this 
negative evidence favours the hypothesis that G. melanolophus = G. goisagi. 

Ardea philippensis, Gm., is generally considered to be the same as A. undulata, 
Gm. S. N. i. p. 637, no. 54. Brisson first described the individual (Orn. v. p. 474, 
no. 38) on which Gmelin bestowed the title of A. philijrpensis. The type, according to 
Brisson, was sent from the Philippines to M. Aubrey. The description of the plumage, 
given in great detail, does not tally as well with G. melanolophus, or G. goisagi, as with 
the American species, while the dimensions are much too small. Buff'on, also, who 
(Hist. Nat. Ois. vii. p. 395) entitled it " le petit Crabier," mentions that it is even 
smaller than " le Blongios " (Ardetta ininuta). Prince Bonaparte's identification of A. 
philippensis, Gm., with A. undulata, Gm. (Consp. ii. p. 138), in which he is con- 
firmed by Professor Schlegel (Mus. Pays-Bas, Ardece, p. 56), appears therefore, on the 
whole, to be well founded. In Mr. Gray's Hand-list, no. 10154, it is treated as a 
distinct Phihppine species, under the title oi Zehrilus pumilus (Bodd.). 

Two species of Spoonbills were described by Sonnerat as inhabiting the island of 
Luzon, namely : — 

La Spatule hlanche de Tisle de Lugon, Sonn. Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 89, pi. 51. 
Platalea alba. Scop. Del. Fl. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 92, no. 75 (1786), ex Sonn. 
Platalea leucorodia, var. j3, Gm. S. N. i, p. 614, ex Sonn., 
and 

La Spatule huppee de lisle de Lugon, Sonn. torn. cit. p. 90, pi. 52. 
Platalea cristata, Scop. torn. cit. p. 92, no. 76, ex Sonn. 
Platalea leucorodia, var. -y, Gm. I. c, ex Sonn. 



USTHABITINa THE PHILIPPINE ARCHIPELAGO. 241 

Platalea tenuirostris, Temm. Man. d'Orn., 2nd edit. p. ciii (1820)', ex Sonn. pis. 51, 
52 ; Handboek der Eur. Vog. (Dutch tr.) p. cxxxiv (1824), ex Sonn. 

Platalea luzoniensis, Bp. Consp.^ ii. p. 148, no. 6 (1857), ex Sonn. pis. 51, 52 ; v. 
Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 27, no. 149. 

The first is evidently the young of the second species ; and if the Philippine habitat 
assigned to them by Sonnerat is incorrect, the types were in all probability obtained by 
him either at Madagascar, at the Mauritius {PL telfairi. Vigors, P. Z. S. 1830-31, p. 41), 
or in Southern Africa {PI. chlororhyncha, Drapiez, Diet. CI. d'Hist. Nat. xv. p. 531, 1829 ; 
PI. nudifrons, Cuv. Mus. Paris. ; Pucher. Rev. et Mag. Zool. 1851, p. 376, — titles founded 
on individuals generally admitted to belong to one and the same species). Sonnerat's 
description of his two species is very meagre ; but the bill of the first is described as 
reddish brown, and the feet as being yellow inclining to red. The bill of the second 
(the adult, crested bird) is stated to be of a ruddy grey {gris roux), the edges being red, 
and the legs of a light but dull red {rouge claire et terne). These characters being 
only found in PI. chlororhyncha, and as no species of Spoonbill has, since Sonnerat 
wrote, been recorded as inhabiting the Philippines or, indeed, any of the islands of the 
Malay archipelago, we may with much certainty adopt Professor Schlegel's decided 
opinion that Sonnerat described from individuals belonging to the African species {cf. 
Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Ciconidce, PI. chlororhyncha, p. 22). 

Buflbn (Hist. Nat. vii. p. 456) considered Sonnerat's two birds to represent one 
species not difiering from PI. leiicorodia. But if it be conceded that Sonnerat described 
from either Mauritius, Madagascar, or African individuals, Scopoli's specific title alba 
must be adopted for the red-legged Spoonbill. This title Prince Bonaparte {torn. cit. 
p. 147) referred to PI. leucorodia, quoting Annus I. Hist. Nat. page 115. No such title 
occurs at page 115 ; but under number 115 Scopoli enumerates PI. leucorodia, Linn., 
and, as its chief character, uses the word alba. In the synonymy of PI. leucorodia by 
Finsch and Hartlaub (Vog. Ost-Afrikas, p. 715) this reference of Bonaparte's has been 
accepted without examination and the number misquoted. The same error reappears 
in Heuglin (Orn. Nordost-Afrikas, p. 1122). 



' Kot 1816, as quoted by Bonaparte, torn. cit. p. 148, no. 5, a misprint copied by Dr. 0. Finsch, Tog. Ost- 
Afrikas, p. 718, and by von Heuglin, Orn. Nordost-Afrikas, p. 1126, who adds " premiere edition."' 
' A title established by the Prince, although attributed by him to Scopoli. 



242 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIRDS 

ANSERES. 

ANATID^. 

Anatin^. 
QuERQUEDULA, Stephens. 

201. *QUEEQUEDULA MULTICOLOR. 

La petite Sarcelle de I'isle de Luqon, Sonn. Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 91, pi. 55. 

Sterna multicolor, Scopoli, Del. Fl. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 92, no. 74 (1786), ex Sonn. 

Anas manillensis, Gm. S. N. i. p. 533, no. 91 (1788), ex Sonn.; Eyton, Monogr. Anatidje, p. 135. 

Mr. Eyton {I. c), without hesitation, identifies Manilla (1) examples in Lord Derby's 
collection and his own with Sonnerat's Luzon Teal, adding that it is allied to Q. formosa. 
Professor Schlegel (Mus. Pays-Bas, Anseres, p. 77) identifies, with doubt, Sonnerat's 
species with the Australian Nettapus imlchellus, Gould. 

Anas, Linnaeus. 

202. *Anas luzonica. 

Anas luzonica, Fraser, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 113, " Luzon;" Zool. Typica, pi. 67; v. Martens, J. f. O. 
1866, p. 30, no. 189. 

Hob. Luzon [Cuming, Jagor). 

Anas boschas is stated by Dr. Pickering (Cassin, Un. St. Expl. Exped. p. 340} to be 
raised in immense numbers at the Philippine Islands, but to be undoubtedly of Malay 
introduction. I do not, therefore, enumerate it as an indigenous species ; but there is 
no good reason to doubt the probability of its being also a wild winter Duck in the 
Archipelago. 

Dendeocygna, Swainson. 

203. Dendeocygna vagans. 

Dendrocygna vagans,'E,jion,M.^.; Fraser, Zool. Typica, pi. 68, " Manilla " (1849); Walden, Tr. 
Zool. Soc. viii. p. 102; v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 30, no. 190; v. Pelzeln, Reise 'Novara,' 
Vog. p. 137. 

Hob. Manilla {Cuming) ; island of Samar {Jagor). 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAGO. 243 

Anserine. 

Nettapus, Brandt. 
204, Nettapus coromandelianus. 

La Sarcelle de Coromandel, Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois. ix. p. 274, "Cote de Coromandel ;" D'Aubent. 

PL EnL 549, 550. 
Anas coromandeliana, Gm. S. N. i. p. 522, no. 90 (1788), ex Buffon; v. Pelzeln, Reise 'Novara,' 

Vogel, p. 136. 

Hah. Luzon (Laguna de Bai), June 20th (Zelebor). 



PROCELLARIIDiE. 

Pkocellariin^. 

PuPFiNUS, Brisson. 

205. PUFFINUS leucomelas. 

Procellaria leucomelas, Temm. PL CoL 587, "Japan" (1836); Temm. & ScMegel, Faun. Japonica, 
Aves, p. 131, pi. 85; G. R. Gray, List. Br. Mns. Anseres, p. 160, "Cataguan" (184,4). 

Hah. Cataguan (Cuming). 

LARID^. 

Larin^. 

Larus, Linnseus. 

206. Larus, sp. 

"Larus ridibundus, Linn.," v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 30, no. 184. 

Dr. V. Martens (I. c.) mentions having observed the Laughing Gull, during the month 
of May, common on the Passig river; and one or more examples, obtained at Manilla 
by Jagor, are stated to be preserved in the Berlin Museum. The species occurs rarely 
as a winter visitant in South China (Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 421) ; and the above 
identification requires confirmation. 

A species oi Lestris (L. hardyi, Bp. Compt. Rend. xlii. p. 770, 1856) has the Philip- 
pines among other localities assigned to it in the Hand-list, no. 10939. Its right to 
rank as a distinct species is denied by Professor Schlegel {cf. Bp. o]}. cit. xliii. 
p. 644) ; and its sole claim to be included within the Philippine range rests on the fact 
of an example, contained in the Berlin Museum, having been captured in mid ocean 
between the Sandwich and Philippiae Islands. In the Leyden Museum, at the time 



244 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIEDS 

Bonaparte wi-ote, it was labelled Lestris parasiticus^ ex Malasia, Boie; and in the 
Berlin Museum (example above referred to) Lestris crepidata, Cabanis. 



Sternin^. 

Htdrochelidon, Boie. 

207. Htdrochelidon leucopaeeia. 

Sterna leucopareia, Natterer, Temm. Man. d'Om. 2nd ed. ii. p. 746 (1820) ; Walden, Tr. Zool. Soc. 
vii. p. 103. 
llab. Luzon. February. Bill grey-black ; feet coral-red ; nails black (Meyer). 
The example thus labelled has the bill and feet dark carmine in the dried skin. 

208. Htdrochelidon, sp. 

Sterna (Hydrochelidon) fluviatilis, Gould?, v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 30, no. 186. 

Dr. V. Martens [l. c.) mentions having seen a Tern very abundant on the Passig river 
and in the Bay of Manilla, which he identifies, with doubt, as above. Examples are 
noted by him as being preserved in the Berlin Museum. 

Sterna brachyura, v. Kittlitz, Voy. Liitke (Postels), iii. p. 327, sine descr., " Manilla," 
has not since been recognized. 

Ontchoprion, Wagler. 

209. Ontchoprion an^sthetus. 

L'Hirondelle de mer de I'isle de Panay, Sonn. Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 125, pi. 84. 
Sterna anmthetus, Scopoli, Del. Fl. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 92, no. 72 (1786), ex Sonn. 
Panayan Tern, Lath. Synop. iii. pt. 2, p. 363, no. 15, ex Sonn. 
Sterna panay ensis, Gm. S. N. i. p. 607, no. 16 (1788), ex Lath. 

Sterna panaya, Lath. Ind. Om. ii. p. 808, no. 16 (1790), ex Gm.; Finsch & Hartl, Orn. Central- 
polyn. p. 228 ; Vogl. Ost-Afrik. p. 833. 

Hab. Panay {Sonnerat). 

. Angus, Leach. ; 

210. Anotjs stolidus ? 

Sterna stolida, Linn. S. N. i. p. 227, no. 1 (1766). 

Le petit Fouquet des Philippines, Sonn. Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 125, pi. 85. 
Sterna pileata, Scopoli, Del. Fl. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 92, no. 73 (1786), ex Sonn. 
Sterna philippina. Lath. Ind. Om. ii. p. 805, no. 7 (1790), ex Sonn. 

Sonnerat's description differs somewhat from A. stolidus ; and until Philippine ex- 
amples can be compared, the question of identity must remain in doubt. 



INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE ARCHIPELAGO. 245 

PODICIPID^. 

PoDiCEPS, Latham. 
211. * PODICEPS PHILIPPENSIS. 

Le Castagneux des Philippines, Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois. viii. p. 246 ; D'Aubenton, PL Enl. 945 ; 

Temm. Man. d'Om. ii. p. 729. 
Colymbm minor, var. /3, Gm. S. N. i. p. 591, no. 20, es Buffon. 
Colymbus joAz'/i/j/jensw, Bonnaterre, EncycL i. p. 58, pL 46. f. 3 (1823), ex Buffon; v. Martens, 

J. f. O. 1866, p. 31, no. 192. 

Hob. Luzon {Jagor). 

Messrs. Finsch and Hartlaub (Ost-xlfrik. iv. 812) unite the Asiatic species of Little 
Grebe with European P. minor. BufFon {I. c.) states that the Philippine species is 
distinct. Temminck (J. c.) is of the same opinion ; and Dr. v. Martens, who has had 
opportunities of comparing Jagor's Philippine example in the Berlin Museum, enumerates 
the Philippine Dabchick under Bonnaterre's title. 



PELECANID^. 

Pelecanin^. 

Pelecanus, Linnaeus. 
212. Pelecanus eoseus. 
Le Pelican rose de I'isle de Luqpn, Sonnerat, Voy. Nouv. Guin. p. 91, pi. 54, adult. 
Pelecanus roseus, Gm. S. N. i. p. 570, no. 9 (1788), ex Sonn. ; Donndorff, Zool. Beytr. vol. il. pt. 1, 

p. 848, no. 9 (1794), ex Gm. 
Le Pelican hrun de I'isle de Luqon, Sonn. loc. cit. pi. 53, juv.' 
Pelecanus manillensis, Gm. op. cit. p. 571, no. 11 (1788), ex Sonn. 
1 Pelecanus javanieus, Horsf. Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 197, "Java" (1820). 

P. manillensis, Gm., and P. roseus, Gm., have been regarded by most authors, and 
latterly by Mr. Elliot in his useful Monograph of the genus (P. Z. S. 1869, p. 583), as 
belonging to P. philip;pensis, Gm. A reference to Sonnerat's plate 54, and his descrip- 
tion of the Pelican there figured, however, leaves it almost certain that he intended to 
represent a diflerent species. This was also the view maintained by Dr. Jerdon (Birds 
Ind. iii. pp. 858, 859), who identified the Lesser White Pelican of India with P. roseus, 
Gm. Until Luzon examples can be examined, the question must remain in doubt. 
Sonnerat's 53rd plate appears to represent the immature plumage. 

' Scopoli omitted to bestow a Latin title on either of the two Pelicans figured by Sonnerat. 
VOL. IX. — PART n. A2}ril, 187b. 2 k 



246 VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIRDS 

213. Pelecanus philippinbnsis. 

Onocrotalus philippinensis, Brisson, Om. vi. p. 527, no. 3, " LU9011." 

Pekcanvs philippinensis, Gm. S. N. i. p. 571, no. 13 (1788), ex Brisson; Bp. Compt. Rend, xliii. 

p. 574; Sclater, P.Z. S. 1868, p. 368; op. cit. 1871, p. 633. 
Pelecanus rufescens, Gm. (partim) ; Lichtenst. Abhandl. Akad. Wissensch. Berl. 1838, p. 439 

(partim) ; EUiot, P. Z. S. 1869, p. 583 (partim) ; G. E. Gray, Hand-list, no. 11155 (partim). 

Originally described from an example obtained in Luzon and sent to M. Aubrey at 
Paris. 

Although Lichtenstein, Schlegel, Elliot, and G. R. Gray unite this Pelican with P. 
rufescens, the view adopted by Bonaparte, Sclater, Barboza du Bocage, and Finsch & 
Hartlaub, that the African bird belongs to a distinct species, is most in accordance with 
the known facts, 

SULARIN^. 

Dtspobtjs, lUiger. 

214. Dysporus sula. 

Pelecanus sula, Linn. S. N. i. p. 318, no. 7 (1766) ; Walden, Tr. Zool. Soc. viii. p. 106, no. 191. 
Sula fiber (Linn.), G. E. Gray, List Br. Mus. Anseres, p. 183, "Mindanao" (1844). 

Hob. Mindanao {Cuming). 

lib. Dysporus piscator. 
Pelecanus piscator, Linn. Amoen. Acad. iv. p. 339, no. 8 (1759) ; S. N. i. p. 317, no. 6 (1766) ; 

Cassin, Un. St. Expl. Exped. 2nd edit. Omith. p. 365 ; Finsch & Hartl. Faun. Centralpolyn. 

p. 255. 
Hah. Philippines {Pickering). 

Graculin^. 

PnALACROCORAX, Brisson. 

216. Phalacrocorax, sp. 

Carbo sinensis, Shaw, v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 39, no. 180. 

A species of Cormorant, " einfarbig schwarz," observed by Dr. v. Martens in the 
Military Library at Manilla, is identified by him with Pelecanus sinensis, Shaw and 
Nodder (Nat. Misc. vol. xiii., pi. b2^,juv., "China"). 

217. Phalacrocorax, sp. 

Carbo lucidus, Lichtenstein, v. Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 30, no. 181. 



INHABITINa THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAaO. 247 

An example from Manilla, preserved in the Berlin Museum, is identified by Dr. v. 
Martens (I. c.) with the well-known African Ph. lucidus, a species unknown in Asia and 
its islands. 



PLOTID^. 

Plotus, LinuiBus. 



218. Plotus melanogaster. 



Anhinga melanog aster, Forster, Zool. Ind. p. 23, pi. xii., " Java, Ceylon " (1781) ; Walden, Tr. Zool. 

Soc. viii. p. 106 ; v. Martens, J. f . O. 1866, p. 30, no. 183 ; Walden & Layard, Ibis, 18/2, 

p. 96, "Negros." 
Plotus nova-hollandix, Gould, v. Pelzeln, Reise der ' Novara,' Vogel, p. 156. 

Hab. Luzon, April [Meyer) ; Negros {L. C. Layard). 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 

PLATE XXIII. 
Map of the Philippine Archipelago, 

PLATE XXIV. 

Limnaetus philippensis, p. 141. From a specimen in the Norwich Museum. 

PLATE XXV. 

Fig. I. Ninox phili])pensis, p. 144. From a specimen in Lord Walden's collection. 
Fig. 2. Pseudoptynx ])hilippensis, p. 144. From a specimen in the British Museum. 
Fig. 3. Lempijius megalotis, p. 145. From a specimen in the British Museum. 

PLATE XXVI. 

Fig. 1. Merops bicolor, p. 150. | . • t i isr u > n n *• 

° „ ,, ^r-, f From specimens m Lord Walden s Collection. 

Fig. 2. Merops sumatraniis, p. 151.) 

PLATE XXVII. 

C'ranorrJiinus leucocephalus, p. 165. 

Fig. 1, young male ; fig. 2, female, not quite adult. Specimens in the British Museum. 



248 ON THE BIRDS INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAGO. 

PLATE XXVIII. 

Fenelopides panini, p. 166, Fig. 1 d, 2 S. From specimens in Lord Walden's 
collection. 



PLATE XXIX. 

Fig. 1. Lanius lucionensis, p. 171. From a specimen in Lord Walden's collection. 
Fig. 2. Pseudolalage melanoleuca, p.l78. From a specimen in the British Museum. 

PLATE XXX. 

Fig. 1. Graucalus striatus, p. 175. ) _, . • t jixr u > n i- 

° _ } From specimens m Lord Waldens collection. 

Fig. 2. Vohodvora ccerulescens, p. 178.) 

PLATE XXXI. 

Fig. 1. Dicrurns balicassius, v). 180. ] .^ . • t j-mru > ^^ 4.- 

° . . „„ f From specimens in Lord Waldens collection. 

Fig. 2. Hyloterpe phili]ppinensis, p. 179.) 

PLATE XXXII. 

Fig. 1. Philentoma ciianiceps, p. 182. j ^ . • t j inr u > n *.- 

" ^ .,-..-.-■ \ From specimens in Lord W alden s collection. 

Fig. 2. Ixus urostictus^, p. 191. ) 

PLATE XXXIII. 

Fig 1. Copsychus mindanensis, p. 194. 



_,. „ . . ,. r,o-i I From specimens in Lord Walden's collection. 

Jtig. z. Amanrorms ohvacea, p. Z61. ) 

PLATE XXXIV. 

Fig. 1. Leucotreron aironieri, -p. 213. I _, . • t jturu > n i.- 

° ^, , ^ , . „, . f From specimens in Lord Waldens collection. 

Fig. 2. Phaootreron ametkysttna, p. 214.) 



' Written Pycnonolus urosticius on the Plate. 



INHABITmG THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAGO. 



249 



APPENDIX. 
Containing Index of Philippine species and a Table sliowing their Geographical distributionK 



Species, 




Philippines. 


o 


d 
1 


•-3 


1 
i 


a 
a. 
&• 


a 


a 


a 
■| 

a 

s 

1 


I 
1 


o 
o 

■a 
1 

s 
1 






a 


i 


E 
1 

* 
» 
* 


* 
* 

* 


1 


d 

* 
* 

* 
# 

» 

* 
* 

* 
* 


o 

'5* 
o 

* 
» 


1 
* 






* 
* 
* 
* 
* 


* 

* 
* 

* 
* 

* 

* 

* 
* 


« 
* 
* 

* 

* 

* 

* 

* 

* 
* 
* 

* 


* 

* 

* 

* 

# 
* 

* 

* 

* 

* 

* 

» 

# 
* 

* 


* 
» 
* 

* 

» 

* 
» 

* 

* 

* 
* 

* 
* 


# 
# 

* 

* 
* 
« 

* 

* 

* 
* 

* 

» 

* 
* 

« 

« 


* 
* 

# 

* 

* 


* 

* 

* 

* 

« 
* 

* 

* 

* 

* 

* 

* 
* 
* 

* 


* 
* 


* 


* 

* 
* 

* 
* 


Formosa, Ceylon. 
CMna, Japan, Formosa. 
China. 

Ceylon. 

Siam. 

Tenasseiim, Japan, China. 
China, Siberia, Ceylon. 
China, Formosa, Dauria. 
China, Formosa, Ceylon. 

Formosa. 

[Ion. 
China, Flores, Lomboclr, Cey- 
[Flores, Ceylon. 
China, Siberia, Lombock, 
Central Asi.i, Siberia, China, 
[Japan, Flores, Gilolo, Ceylon. 

Ceylon. 

China, Ceylon. 

Siam. 


2. Piioniturus discurus, p. 132 

3. Tanygnathus luconensis, p. 133 .... 




5. Loriculus pliilippensis, p. 135 

6. refulus p. 135 




Gfl. occipitalis, p. 135 










7. „ iiartlaubi, p. 13G 












8 chrysonotus, p 137 












* 

* 
* 












* 

» 

* 
« 
* 

* 
» 

* 


10. Hieras erythrogenys, p. 139 




* 




Hi 
» 

* 
* 


11. Lophospiza trivirgata, p. 140 


* 


13. Tachyspiza soloensis, p. 141 

14. Limnaetus pliilippensis, p. 141 .... 

15. Cuncuma leucopfaster, p. 142 

16. Spilomis holospilus, p. 142 


* 
* 


* 

* 
* 
» 

* 

* 

* 
* 
* 
* 
* 

» 

* 

* 
* 

* 

* 
* 

* 

» 
« 


* 


17. Haliastiir intermedius, p. 142 








19 Baza ma£;nirostriSj p. 143. . ..... 


* 

* 
* 
* 


20. Butastur indicus, p. 143 

21. Circus melanoleucoa, p. 143 

22 spilonotus, p. 143 


23. ,, jeruf^inosus, p. 144 


25. Pseudoptynx pliilippensis, p. 144 . . 


a 






28 Thriponax iavensis, p. 146 








30. ChrysocolapteshiBniatribon,p. 147. . 

31. „ xanthoceplialiis,p.l47 
32 „ hicidus^ p. 147 








34 Harpactes ardens, p. 149 




35. Merops philippinus, p. 149 




36. „ bicolor, p. 150 




37. Eurystomus orientalis, p. 152 

38 Alcedo bencalensis, p. 152 




39. Alcyone cyanopectus, p. 153 


* 


41. Ceyx melanura, p. 153 

42. „ tridactyla, p. 153 


» 


43. „ pliilippinensis, p. 153 

44 Entoinobia e'lilaris, p. 154 


45. „ pileata, p. 154 

46. Callialcyon coromanda, p. 155 .... 

47. Sauropatis chloris, p. 155 

48. Actenoides bombroni, p. 155 


* 
* 


50. Xantbolsema haemacephala, p. 166 . . 




52 Macropteryx comatus, p. 168 




# 
» 
* 
* 














55. Caprimulgus manillensis, p. 159 





1 The first column gives the species whose exact habitat within the Archipelago is not known. European and African ranges are 
excluded. 

VOL. IX. — PART II. April, 1875. 2l 



250 



VISCOUNT WALDEN ON THE BIRDS 



Species. 




Philippines. 


1 


Q 




1 


1 

'3 

p. 

s- 

■a 
a 




a 


i 

1 
1 

9 


1 
g 

1 


i 
1 

3 
00 

1= 

& 






3 




i 

a 


& 


1 


1 

d 


d 


a 


56. Caprimulgus griseatus, p. 160 

57. Cacomantis nieriUinuSj p. 160 


* 


» 
* 


* 

* 
* 


* 

* 

» 
» 

* 


* 
# 

* 
* 

* 

* 

* 
* 


* 

* 
* 

* 

* 
» 

* 
* 


* 

* 

* 

# 
* 






* 

* 
* 

* 
* 

« 

« 


* 
* 

* 
* 

* 
* 

* 

* 

« 


* 
* 

* 
* 

* 
* 
* 

* 

» 

# 
» 


* 
* 
* 

» 
» 

* 

» 
* 


* 
* 

* 
* 

* 

* 

* 
* 

* 


* 
* 


# 
« 

* 

* 
» 

* 

* 
* 

* 
* 


* 


* 


* 

* 
* 


China, Formosa. 

China, Formoaa, -Indamana. 

Andamana. 

China, Siberia. 

fCfvlon. 
Andamans, Flores, Chiua, 
Speciea undetermined. 

China,Japan,Formosa,Ceylon. 
Species not determined. 

China,Japan,Formoaa,Siberia. 
China, Formoaa, Japan. 

China, Formosa. 

GilolOjChina, Formosa, Japan. 

Lombock, Formoaa, Flore.a. 

Siberia, China. 

China, Siberia. 

China, Japan, Lombock. 

China, Moluccas, Ceylon. 
China, Formoaa, Siberia, Cey- 
Unideutified. [Ion. 


58. Chalcococcyx amethystinua, p. 160. . 
69: "Hierococcyx sti'eniius, p. 161 




60. „ peetoralis, p. 161 . . . . 


* 


62. Dasvlophiis superciliosus, p. 162. . . . 




* 
» 
* 

* 






64. Centrococcyx viridis, p. 163 




65. Pyrrhocentor melanops, p. 164 .... 
GQ. Buceros hydrocorax, p. 164 




67. Cranion-liinus leucocephalus, p. 165 




69. „ maniUae, p. 168 




« 


70. Lauius nasutus, p. 169 




71. „ echach, p. 170 


* 


* 
« 
« 

* 


72. J. lucioneusiSj p. 171 










75. Volvocivora ? cjerulescens, p. 178 . . 

76. Lalage dominica, p. 178 




77. Pseudolalage melanoleuca, p. 178 . . 

78. Hylotei*pe philippensis, p. 170 




* 
* 




79. Pericrocotus cinereus, p. 179 

80. Dicrurua balicassius, p. 180 


* 


81. „ mirabilis, p. 181 




82. Philentoma cyauiceps, p. 182 




* 
» 

» 
* 


» 
* 


* 
* 

* 
* 

* 






84. Cyornis banyumaSj p. 182 








86. Butalis manillensis, p. 183 




87. Zeocephus rufus, p. 183 

88. Hii'undo o:utturalis, p. 184 


* 


89. Cecropia daurica ?, p. 185 




* 
* 

* 
« 

* 
» 
* 
* 

* 
* 
* 

» 

* 

* 






91. Oriolua phiUppensis, p. 186 


* 
* 
* 


93. „ chrysolaus, p. 187 

94. Erythropitta erytliro^jastra, p. 187 . . 

95. Meliinopitta sordida, p. 187 

96. Megalurua paluatria, p. 189 


97. Crateropus caudatus, p. 189 


* 


99. Ixua goiavier, p. 190 








101. u urostictus, p. 191 




102. H)'psipetea pbilippinenais, p. 191 . . 

103. Monticola aolitarius, p. 192 




104. Pratincola caprata, p. 193 








106. Copsycbua mindanenais, p. 194 .... 

107. Calliope camtschatkensia, p. 194 . . 


* 


109. PbyUopneuate magnirostria, p. 195 . . 


* 


111. Ciaticola semirufa, p. 195 




112. Ortbotomua derbianua, p. 195 

113. „ caataneicepa, p. 195 . . . . 

114. Budytes viridia, p. 196 


» 






* 




• 




* 








116. Motacilla luzoneuaia, p. 198 

117. Corydalla lugubris, p. 198 


« 











INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE AECHIPELAGO. 



251 



Species. 




PMlippinea. 




S 

c 

1 




1 

do 


a 
-3 
S 

■a 
g, 

1 


o 

1 


o 


a 

■| 
M 
d 

1 


§ 

n 
S 
S 

o 


d 

o 

£; 



DO 

a. 
£ 






1 


i2 


i 


1 
la 





6 
a 


o" 
Q 


a 

s, 


118. Machlolophus elegans, p. 199 

119. Zosterops meyeni, p. 199 


* 


* 
* 
* 
* 




* 

* 

« 
* 


* 

* 
» 

* 

* 
» 

* 

* 
» 
» 

* 

* 
* 

* 


* 
* 

* 

* 


» 
* 


» 
* 


•• 


* 
* 

* 
» 

SI 

* 
» 

« 

* 
* 

* 

* 
* 


* 
* 
» 

» 
* 

* 
* 

» 

* 
* 
* 
* 

* 

* 
* 

* 

* 
* 

* 
* 

* 


* 

» 

* 

* 

* 

* 
* 

» 

* 
* 
* 

* 
* 

* 
* 

» 
* 
* 

» 
* 


» 
» 

* 

* 
» 

» 

« 
* 

* 
* 

» 

* 


* 

* 
* 

* 
* 
* 
* 

* 

* 
* 

* 

* 

* 


» 
* 

* 

* 
* 

* 


* 

* 

* 

* 

* 
* 
* 

* 

* 
* 

* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 

» 


* 
» 
* 

* 

* 
*- 

• 


* 
* 


* 

* 

* 
* 

* 
* 

* 
# 

* 


China, Formosa. 
Japan. 

Cbina, Formosa. 
S. China, Lomboclj. 

Cambodia. 

Ceylon, Lombock. 
Nicobar.?. 

S. Cliina, Formosa,Cambodio. 

Hainan, Formosa. 

Nicobars. 

Lombock, Bangka, Sumbawa.j 

S. China, Formosa, Ceylon. 

i 

China,Formosa, Japan,Siberia. 1 
Almost cosmopolitan. j 
China, Japan, 1< ormosa, Flores- 1 
Species undetermined. 
N. Asia, China. 

China. 

China, Formosa, Bangka. 

China, Formosa. 

S. China, Formosa, Ceylon. 

S. China, Formosa, Ceylon. 

China, Japan, Ceylon. 
Ceylon. 

China, Formosa, Ceylon. 






121. Jlyzantlie pygmoea, p. 200 

122. Nectarophila sperata, p. 200 








124. Rhabdorais mystacaUs, p. 201 

125. Corvus philippinus, p. 201 




« 
» 
« 

* 

* 
» 
* 
* 
» 
* 
» 
* 
* 
« 
» 


» 

■ 






127. Stumia violacf^a, p. 203 


» 


128. Caiornis panayensisj p. 205 


129. Sarcops calvus, p. 205 

130. Pyroita montauus, p. 206 


# 
* 


131. Padda oryzivora, p. 207 

132. Munia ja^'ori, p. 207 


133. „ minuta, p. 208 








135. Osmotreroii vernans, p. 210 




136. „ axiQaris, p. 211 




137. Leucotreron n^ii-onieri, p. 213 

138. Ramphiculus occipitalis, p. 214 .... 




139. Phapitreron amethj'stiua, p. 214 .... 




140. „ leucotis, p. 214 




141. Carpophaga aenea, p. 215. 








144 Hemiphao'fi poliocephala, p. 217 .... 




* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
« 

« 
» 




* 






146. Macropygia tenuirostris, p. 218 .... 

147. Tiu'tur dussutnieri, p. 218 




148. „ humilis, p. 219 












151. Caloenas nicobarica, p. 222 


* 
* 


15.3 Gallus bankiva p. ''23 


154. Arborophila, sp., p. 22.3 

155. Excalfactoria chinensis, p. 224 .... 

156. TurnLx oceUata, p. 224 


» 

* 
* 


157. RoUulua sp., p 225 


158. Megapodius cuminfji, p. 225 

159. Chai-adrius fulvus, p. 226 






161. ^Egialitis geofifroyi, p. 227 

162. „ dubia,p.227 

163. „ mongolica, p. 227 

164. Esacus magnirostris, p. 227 


* 
* 
* 
* 


* 






166. „ leucocephalus, p. 228 . . 




168. Poi-pbyrio pulverulentus, p. 228 

1159 Galliniila chloropua, p. 220 


* 


* 
* 

# 
» 
* 

* 






170. Gallicrex ciBerea, p. 229 

171. Erythra pbsenicui-a, p. 229 

172. Ortygometra cinerea, p. 230 


« 
» 
* 


1 74 fusra d 230 




170. Amaurornis olivacea, p. 231 

177. HypotiBuidia torquata, p. 231 

178. „ philippensis, p. 231 . . 

179. „ striate, p. 2-32 


» 



252 



BIRDS INHABITING THE PHILIPPINE ARCHIPELAGO. 



Species. 




Philippines. 


1 


1 


i 

Ha 


a 

s 
m 


a 

■a 

s. 
& 

■a 
la 


a 


1 


i 

a 
<1 


i 

(IE 

K 

S 
■B 

I 

I 


i 
t 

a 

i 


1 

1 
1 




e 

o 

1 


1 


2 


B 


1 


i 

a 


d 


d 
1 


180. Hydroptasianus chirurp:us, p. 232 . . 




* 












» 


* 


* 
* 
* 
» 
* 

* 

» 
* 
« 
« 

* 

• 
* 

* 
* 


* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 

* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
» 
* 

* 

• 
* 

* 


* 
* 

* 
* 
» 
* 

* 
* 

* 

* 
* 
* 
* 
* 

* 

* 
• 

* 
« 

* 
* 
* 

* 


* 
* 
* 

* 
* 
* 
* 

» 

* 

* 
* 


* 
* 
» 

* 

* 

* 

* 
* 


* 
* 
* 


* 
* 
* 
* 
* 

* 

* 
* 
* 
* 
iff 
* 
* 
* 
* 

* 

* 
* 

* 


* 
* 
* 

* 

* 
* 

* 

* 

* 
* 

* 
* 


* 

* 
» 

* 

« 
* 


* 
* 
* 

* 

*' 

* 

* 

* 
» 

* 

* 
* 

r-i 

CO 


China, Formosa, Ceylon. 

China,Formosa,Japan,Ceylon. 

Japan, Ces'lon, China. 

China,Formosa,Japan,CeyloD. 

China, Ceylon. 

Asia. [Ion. 

China, Formosa, Siberia, Cey- 

China, Formosa, Japan. 

China, Formosa, Siberia. 

China,Formosa,Japan,Ceylon. 

China, Japan. 

China, Asia. 

China, Formosa, Ceylon. 

China, Formosa, Ceylon. 

S. China, Formosa, Japan, 

Ceylon. [Ceylon. 

China, Japan, Ceylon. 

S. China, Formosa, Japan, 

[Ceylon. 
Asia. 
Ceylon, Tenasserim. 

Ceylon. 

Japan. 

Species undetermined. 

Formosa, Asia. 

Species undetermined. 

China, Ceylon. 

Species undetermined. 

Species undetermined. 

Snecies undetermined. 

China. 

China, Formosa. 

S. China. 

Species undetermined. 

Species undetermined. 

Ceylon. 


182, Rhyacopliilus glareola, p. 233 




» 
* 
* 
» 

* 

» 

* 

* 
* 
* 

* 
* 
* 

* 

* 
* 
« 


* 




» 




» 






184. Totamis calidris, p. 234 


« 


185. „ glottis, p. 234 


186. Tringa ruficoUis, p. 234 




187. GaUlnago scolopacina, p. 235 




188. „ " mega'la, p. 2^5 

189. Rhynchsea capensis, p. 235 

190. Ai'dea purpurea, p. 236 

191. Ardetta flavicollis, p. 236 

192. „ cinnamomea, p. 237 

193. „ sinensis, p. 237 


» 

* 
* 
* 


195. Herodias garzetta, p. 237 

196. „ intermedia, p. 237 

197. Butorides iavanica, p. 237 


» 


198. Nycticorax manillensis, p. 238 




199. „ griseus, p. 238 




200. Gorsachius melanolophus, p. 238 . . 

201. Querquedula midticolor, p. 242 . . . . 


* 


202. Anas luzoniea, p. 242 




203. Dendrocygna Tagans, p. 242 




204. Nettapus coromandelianus, p. 243 . . 

205. Puffinus leucomelas, p. 243 

206. Larus, sp., p. 243 




207. Hydrochelidon leucopareia, p. 244 . . 

208. „ sp.,p. 244 




209. Onychoprion ansesthetus, p. 244 .... 




210. Anous stolidus ?, p. 244 


» 
* 


* 
* 


211. Podiceps philippensis, p. 245 

212. Pelecanus roseus, p. 245 

213. „ pMlippinensis, p. 246 . . . . 


214. Dysporus sula, p. 246 




215. „ piscator, p. 246 


* 
* 


» 
» 






* 




216. Plialacrocorax, sp., p. 246 


217. „ „ „ p. 246 


218. Plotus melanogaster, p. 247 

Total 


U5 


g 


OS 




^ 


00 


03 


o 


IN 


t^ 

■* 


§ 


to 


§ 


o to 


B 


-iTU 






r-t 




' ' 



^ 



-i&. J^^'^- fyJ?J:^^ 



YXW 




Edw^Weller 



j',x^L^££<u.^oo. froS.9.n.xm: 




M&N.Hajif'iart. imp 



limnae'tus philippensis 



JrcmA. 2xn>lJoo. t>o€9.^l.J(XV. 




J.Simt lilJi. 



M&.J^.Hajihart jmp. 



NINOX PHIUPPENSIS 2 PSEUDOPTYNX PHILE^PENSIS. 3.LEMPIJrUS MEGALOTIS. 



Jkiyn^.^^. Joe. WS.9MJXV/. 




J.dmii JitJii. 



M.VjrH*aK<Lrt 






J MEROPS BICOLOR. 2 - MEROPS SUMAIRANUS 



Jn^yn^Jxwiyoo. IMRMJOCVII. 




Mit H HaTihait imp 



CRANOPmHI^fUS LEUCOCEPHALUS, ia,2$. 



^Limii. '\ 




:/mt aio, 



MlN.Hajihart imp. 



PENELOPIDES PANIOT!, 15 39. 



Jhi^.^^.yoc. fJBi.sj^.mx. 




J Sunt lith 



}vl<$^KHaj:iL£Lrt nop. 



1 . LAI-TIUS LUCI0NEN3IS 2 . PSEUDOLALAGE IVlELANOLEUCA. 



jrax^T^ %^ yoo- ui.sM.nx. 




GRAUCALUS STRIAIUS. 2 VOLVOCIVOiiA C^RULESCENS 



Mit N Hanhait unp 



Jra^i^.^v^. Jac. m^.M-IMl 




JSjuit litK. 



M&,N H^nhaj-t tmp 



i.DICRURUS ^ALICASSIUS S HYI^OTEEPE PHILIPPENSIS 



ymyn^%a./oo mS^SMIMI. 





J Smit hth 



MJlNHa.nhdrt im}. 



l.PHILENTOMA .CrANICEPS. 2 PYCNONOTUS UROSTICTUS. 



j'Ttm^.^^./oi> 'mis.M.xixin. 



^^■^■/A\--^ 




J-Smit Jit,k. 



MiMHanhart 



imp 



1, COPSYCHUS MINDANENSIS. a ^ AMAUEORMS OLTVACEA. 



:rTayn,^^ool.<^oo VU. 9 M..IXXIV. 




1 . LEUCOTRERON GIRONIERL -8 . PHAPITREROW AMETHYSTIN/l. 



253 ] 



III. On DiNOENis (Part XX.) : cooitaining a Restoration of the Skeleton of Cnemiornis 
calcitrans, Ow., with remarks on its affinities in the Lamellirostral group. By 
Professor Owen, F.B.S., F.Z.S., &c. 

Read December 2na, 1873. 

[Plates XXXV. to XXXIX.] 

§ 1. Introduction. 

In a preceding Memoir ' this genus of the extinct flightless birds of New Zealand was 
founded upon portions of the skeleton, including some vertebrae of the neck ^, the pelvis^ 
portions of the sternum ^ indicative of the rudimental state of the keel and consequent 
incapacity of the bird for flight, a femur ^, a tibia", a metatarsus', and a humerus* 
described as belonging " to some such flightless bird," and provisionally referred to the 
species represented by the first-named bones ^. 

The resemblance of the tibia in certain characters to that of a natatorial bird 
{Colymbus) was pointed out; but there were other features of the bone which checked 
the choice of the family. The minor degree of inward extension of the inner distal 
condyle {torn. cit. pi. 66. fig. I, a), as compared with that characteristic of Anatidw — 
still more the out-springing of the innear trochlear joint at the distal end of the meta- 
tarsus (torn. cit. pi. 67. fig. 1, ii, and fig. 3, iv) below the level of the interval between 
the other two trochleae, instead of the inner trochlea rising from a higher level than the 
origin of the other two trochlese, together with the absence of any backward production 
of the innear trochlea beyond the plane reached by the other two trochleae, were 
characters which, in the then (1865) inability to extend my comparisons of these bones 
with their homologues in the Anatidae, so as to include the rare Australian form 
Cereo2)sis, counselled reticence as to positive statement of the Anserine afiinities of 
Cnemiornis, the cranial grounds for determining the family affinities of the genus being 
wanting. 

These grounds have now been supplied by an esteemed and accomplished corre- 
spondent, James Hector, M.D., F.R.S., Government Geologist of the province of Wel- 
lington, New Zealand, from whom, in September last, I received outline figures and 
brief notes of Cnemiornis in addition to those given in my first Memoir (torn, cit.), or 

' " On Dinornis" (Part S.) &c., Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. v. p. 395. 

' lb. pi. 63. figs. 1-4, pi. 64. figs. 1 & 2. =■ PI. 64. figs. 5, 6, 7. * PI. 63. figs. 5, 6, 7, 8. 

' lb. pi. 6.5. figs. 1 & 2. ' lb. pi. 66. figs. 1-5. ' lb. pi. 67. figs. 1-4. 

' lb. pi. 66. figs. 7-10. ' lb. p. 396. 

VOL. IX. — PART in. May, 187b. 2 m 



254 PEOFESSOE OWEI^ ON CNEMIOENIS. 

in a more perfect state than were some of those bones — as, e. g., the sternum and pelvis 
therein described and represented. The most instructive additional bones of this second 
series were an almost entire skull and a humerus, the latter showing that the bone 
referred to Cnemiornis in the description of pi. Ixiv. {torn, cit.) must have belonged 
to some other, apparently similar-sized, flightless bird, which I deem to have been 
probably an A])tornis, inasmuch as a few bones referable to that genus were included in 
the collection sent to me in 1864 from Timaru. For this instructive accession to the 
evidences of Cnemiornis {toni. cit. p. 395) ornithology is indebted to the Hon. Captain 
Fraser, F.R.G.S., who has consigned an account of the cave in which the bones were 
discovered to the 'Transactions of the New-Zealand Institute,' vol. v. (1872)'. 

The ' Notes ' by Dr. Hector on these remains, now in the Museum of the Wellington 
Philosophical Society, have been published in the 'Proceedings of the Zoological 
Society of London,' Part I. 1874. 

Having since had the opportunity of examining portions of two crania, certain ribs, 
humeri, and a metacarpus of other individuals of Cnemiornis, I can testify to the accuracy 
of the figures of those bones given by Dr. Hector ; and to bis ' Notes ' my later acqui- 
sitions enable me to add descriptions and figures of an ulna and an almost entire coracoid 
of Cnemiornis. The more perfect of my two skulls includes also the roof and fore 
(lacrymal) ]5art of the orbits, wanting in Dr. Hector's figure : and I believe, therefore, 
that a description of these specimens confirming Dr. Hector's demonstration of the 
former existence of a very large, not to say gigantic. Anserine bird in New Zealand 
will not be unacceptable, inasmuch as in their description comparisons will be made 
with the skulls of other Lamellirostrals, more especially of the flightless Duck [Tachy- 
eres^ brachypterus, Latham) of Magellan's Strait, and of the Cereopsis cinereus of 
A"ustralia. The latter bird is notable among Anserines for the length of its legs and 
shortness of its bill ; and it appears to me more terrestrial in its habits than most of its 
living congeners. 

§ 2. Skull. 
The occipital surface of the skull of Cnemiornis is remarkable, in the present com- 
parative series, for its breadth, especially at its base, here due to the outward expansion 
of the paroccipitals (PI. XXXV. fig. 2, 4, i), in which feature the skull of Tachyeres is 

' ' A description of the Eamsclougli Moa-Cave,' p. 102. (This cave is in the interior of the province of 
Otago.) 

^ The generic name Mieroptenis, applied by Lesson in 183] to the Anas hrachyptera of Latham, was bespoken 
by Laoepede, in 1302, for a genus of Fishes. Microptera was applied by Gravenhorst, in the same year, to a 
family of pentamerons Coleoptera, and by Eobin, in 1830, to a genus of Diptera. ■Mkroptenj.v was given by 
Hiibner, in 1816, to a genus of Lepidoptera, and by Agassiz, in 1829, to a genus of Fishes. The name above 
proposed for a subgenerio type of Anatidje, as well-marked as any of those to which terms indicative of such 
distinction have been applied, is derived from raxvfipvs, swift rower, and relates to the characteristic move- 
ments of Latham's species in water, which has obtained for it, from navigators, the name of " Steamer Duck." 



PROFESSOR OWEN ON CNEMIORNIS. 255 

more like it than is that of Cereo])sis (ib. fig. 7). It resembles more the latter 
Anserine in its complex ossification. Cnemiomis differs from both those genera and 
most other Anserines in the greater breadth of the cerebellar prominence (ib. 3) 
along the middle of the superoccipital tract, and in its greater slope forward as it rises 
from the foramen magnum (compare fig. 1, 3, with fig. 6, 3, PL XXXV.). A narrow 
mesial tract slightly projects from the convex prominence in Cnemiomis ; it answers to 
the sharper ridge (s) in Cereopsis (ib. fig. 7, s). The foramen magnum has a rela- 
tively longer vertical diameter in Cnemiomis than in Cereopsis or Tachyeres. In the 
vertical extent of the basioccipital ', beneath the condyle (ib. fig. 7), Cereopsis comes 
nearer to Cnemiomis than does Tachyeres. A greater proportion of the parieto-frontal 
expansion of the cranium appears in the direct back view of the skull in Cereopsis than 
in Cnemiomis — the bi-ain being smaller relatively, and the muscular impressions more 
extensive, in the larger extinct Anserine. 

The extent of the insertion of the portion of the "longus colli posticus" (Zool. 
Trans, iii. p. 283, pi. 32. o**), impressing the sides of the cerebellar protuberance, and 
leaving a convex ridge on each side the mid tract, dividing the occipital from the 
parietal surface, gives greater breadth to the upper part of the occiput, so defined, in 
Cnemiomis than in Cereopsis ; the insertions of the " complexus " {tom. cit. ib. y) leave 
the deeper impressions (PI. XXXV. fig. 'i,y y) bounded by the lateral ridges; and these 
are more distinct from the " biventer " impressions than in Cereopsis. 

The basioccipital protuberances (ib. figs. 2, 4, v) are more developed than in any 
known Anserine, though they are well marked in Cereopsis (ib. fig. 7, r) and indicate 
great size and power of the " recti capitis laterales " muscles (Zool. Trans, iii. p. 286, 
pi. 32. d). In the deep chink-like fossa between the protuberances and the paroccipitals 
open the canals giving passage to the hypoglossal and vagal (fig. 2, v) nerves and the 
paroccipital foramen (ib. p) (perforating the base of the paroccipital and opening into 
the tympanic cavity). The paroccipitals (figs. 1-4, 4), giving insertion to the " trachelo- 
paroccipitales " (Trans. Zool. Soc. iii. pi. 34, fig. 1, s), are subcompressed, and do not 
descend below the basioccipital protuberances. 

The basisphenoidal fossa (PI. XXXV. figs. 4 & 9, 5), the floor of which is formed by 
a short triangular lamelliform process, receives on each side a (vascular X) canal from 
the tympanic cavity. On each side of the fore part of this fossa the entocarotid canals 
(ib. ib. e c) are exposed in Cnemiomis, which converge to terminate at the back part 
of the deep " sella." Of these canals there is only a minute indication in Cereopsis. 
In advance of them the basisphenoid contracts and develops the pair of pterapophyses 
(ib. ib. 5'), here, as in other Anserines, well marked, but sessile ; they are a long ellipse 
in shape. 

The base of the alisphenoid swells out, external to the entocarotid opening, to 

' The " fontancUes " " due to original arrest of ossification between the exoooipital aud mastoid " (Anat. of 
Yertehrates, tom. ii. p. 49), are obliterated in both Cnemiomis and Cereopsis. 

2m2 



256 PEOFESSOE OWEN ON CNEanOENIS. 

augment the tympanic cavity, with which such " bulla " communicates by an aperture 
(PI. XXXV. fig. 1, t a) below the inner articular facet for the tympanic. The tympanic 
cavity opens upon the basis cranii by a wider aperture (ib. fig. 4, th), directed outward 
and forward as well as downward, of a transversely elliptical form, which seems to be 
bisected at a higher level by the process of bone (from the alisphenoid), forming the 
inner articular cavity for the .inner division or condyle of the head of the tympanic. 
A vacuity divides this from the outer articular cavity, which looks inward and a little 
downward. 

The prebasal aperture of the tympanic cavity (PI. XXXV. fig. 4, t h) is bounded 
behind by the bar of bone extending, as in Cereopsis and Ajjtornis ', from the side 
of the basisphenoid (ib. figs. 1 & 4, 6») to the mastoid process (ib. fig. 1, 8'). This bar 
bounds the fore part of the lateral opening of the tympanic cavity (ib. figs. 1 & 4, # /). 
The inner wall of this cavity is perforated by two openings leading to the pneumatic 
cancellous structure of the cranial walls. The paroccipital forms the hinder wall of the 
tympanic cavity, and is continuous by the thin plate forming the lower part of the 
inner wall of the cavity with the basisphenoidal pier of the vertical " sphenomastoid " 
bar or arch (fig. 1, S'-S'). 

The sphenoidal tympanic bulla is homologous with that in the Marsupial genus 
Peragalea^. Anterior to it opens the foramen ovale (figs. 1 «& 4, e), divided, on 
one or both sides, by a slender bar between the issue of the motory and larger 
sensory parts of the third division of the trigeminal nerve. Five lines in advance 
and mesiad of this is the " foramen rotundum ;" and two lines in advance of this is 
the larger elliptic foramen for the optic nerve (ib. fig. 1, lo) and first division of the 
trigeminal. 

On the inner surface of the cranium the petrosal is impressed above the cribriform 
depression, representing the " foramen auditorium internum " by a very deep vertically 
elliptical fossa, answering to the "appendicular fossa" in that part of the epen- 
cephalic chamber of certain Marsupialia '. The side walls of the epencephalic com- 
partment are from 9 lines to 5 lines in thickness, and are occupied by air-cells ; the 
walls of the prosencephalic com])artment are thinner, but still with a pneumatic 
diploe. 

' In the description of the sphenomastoid part of the skull of Aptomis defossor it is stated : — 

" The articulation is close and deep, whereby, with a peculiar suspensory structure, the tympanic is retained 
OQ the right side of the present skull, where the surrounding parts of the cavity are entire." The structure is 
described as follows : — " This process " (the mesomastoid) " has contracted a filamentary bony union with the 
expanded base of the alisphenoid, the filament passing behind the neck of the tympanic, helping to suspend and 
maintain it in situ." — Trans. Zool. Soc. v. (1870) p. 356, pi. 40. fig. 1,8'. 

' Perameles lagotis. Art. Marsupialia, Cycl. of Anatomy, vol. iii. p. 274, fig. 96. 

' " The petrous bone in the Kangaroo, Koala, and Phalanger, ia impressed above the ' meatus auditorius in- 
ternus ' by a deep, smooth, round pit, which lodges the lateral appendage of the cerebellum." — Art. Marsupialia, 
ut supra, p. 274. This is the " appendicular fossa ; " the " floccus " of Ecil is a different part of the cerebellum. 



PEOFESSOE OWEN ON CNEMIOENIS. 2o7 

The greatest breadth of the cranial cavity is at the lateral depressions for the optic 
lobes, where it is 1^ inch across; the greatest vertical diameter is li inch ; the length 
of the cavity is 1 inch 9 lines ; it is short, therefore, in proportion to its breadth and 
height. In the proportion of the mandibular to the cranial part of the skull, Cnemi- 
ornis, as is shown in PL XXXV, fig. 1, most nearly resembles Cereopsis (ib. fig. 6) 
among Lamellirostrals. 

There are no sutural indications of the limits of the parietals. The occipital 
surface, which, from its upper slope, appears in the view of the skull given in 
PI. XXXV. fig. 0, through its more vertical position in Cereopsis does not there appear 
(ib. fig. 8) ; but a parietal trace (ib. ib. 7) is indicated in Cereopsis by the more marked 
and definite rise of the "frontal" covering (ib. ib. 11, 11) of the cerebral hemispheres. 
This diflference is shown also in thfe profile views (fig. 1, 3-7, Cnemiornis ; and fig. 6, 3-7, 
Cereopsis), in PI. XXXV. 

The " crotaphyte surface " (ib. fig. 6, t) is small and feebly indicated in Cereopsis ; 
the postcrotaphite surface (ib.jic) is better marked. In Cnemiornis both crotaphite 
(ib. fig. 1, t) and postcrotaphite (ib. p c) surfaces are better defined by intermuscular 
ridges. 

The "processes" of the mastoid are limited to that (s') which passes behind the 
joint for the tympanic to coalesce with the basisphenoidal extension (5') in Cnemiornis, 
as in Cereopsis and Ajitorni^ ; but in Aptornis there is a second, longer and stronger 
process of the mastoid, which descends external and anterior to the tympanic articu- 
lation \ 

The postfrontal is a long and strong trihedi-al process, terminating obtusely in 
Cnemiornis (PI. XXXV. fig. 1, 12), but extending forward to coalesce with the back- 
wardly produced lacrymal in Cereopsis, in which anserine the bony rim of the orbit 
is thus completed (ib. fig. 6, 73-12). 

The lacrymal is long, and directed backward as well as downward, in Cnemiornis (ib. 
fig. 1, 73), but terminates half an inch from the end of the postfrontal, leaving the 
lower part of the rim of the orbit incomplete to that extent. The hind part of the base 
of the postfrontal is deeply impressed by an oblong fossa (ib. fig. 4, 1 ) in Cnemiornis ; and 
this fossa is well defined, though less deep, in Cereopsis. 

The upper part of the orbital rim, or frame, is more complete, better defined, in 
Cnemiornis, and is separated by a smooth upper tract of about 2 lines from the depres- 
sions for the superorbital mucous glands (ib. fig. 3, m m), which depressions are 
absolutely as well as relatively larger in Cereopsis, and cause by their pressure, combined 
with that of the eyeball from below, absorption of parts of the upper orbital border. 
The interspace between the glandular fossae is gently concave across, but undulated by 
a feeble mesial rising of the frontal. 

' It is referred to in Dr. Hector's Paper as the " premastoid arch ; " but the process effects no junction with 
any outstanding part of the basis cranii. 



258 PEOFESSOR OWEN ON CNEMIOENIS. 

The prefrontals (PI. XXXV. fig. 12, 14), perforated in Birds', as in all other vertebrates, 
by the olfactory nerves, expand from their coalescence with the presphenoid (ib. fig. 4, 9) 
to articulate above with the fore part of the frontals and to give support to the lacrymals. 
They form the fore part of the rhinencephalic cavity, and contribute to the hind part 
of the walls of the olfactory cavity, of which they there commence the " septum," by 
their mutual coalescence. 

Each olfactory nerve passes from the rhinencephalic to the olfactory chamber by a 
single canal (fig. 12, ol), the right and left nerve forming a pair separated by the 
base of the " septum," and indicating the primitive quality of the neurapophyses of 
the third cranial vertebra (ib. u). 

The frontals are truncate anteriorly (ib. fig. 3, ii, ir) and present two transversely 
elongate convexities or condyles (fig. 11, A, h) for articulating with the nasals ; external 
to which junction the nasals (fig. 3, is) expand slightly to form a convexity (fig. 12, l) 
articulating with a concavity at the fore part of the base of each lacrymal. A pair of 
short fine fissures (fig. 3, 22) indicate the proportion which the premaxillary contributes 
to the naso-frontal joint. 

A similar indication in Cereopsis (ib. fig. 8) bespeaks a relatively broader nasal process 
of the premaxillary. The bifurcation of the nasal at a, h (figs. 1, 3, 6, 8) to form the 
hind border of the external nostril has the angle rounded at the apex in Cnemiornis 
(fig. 1, n) ; it is notched and irregular in Cereopsis (fig. 6, n) ; the nostril is large 
and ovate in both, but with the anterior end larger and more definitely marked 
and rounded in Cnemiornis. 

The intemarial tract of the upper mandible is almost flat in Cnemiornis (fig. 3, c), 
but is convex, i-aised into an arch, in Cereopsis (fig. 8, c). The definition of the broad, 
short, rostral part (figs. 1, 3, 6, 8 d) of the premaxillary is well defined in both ; but 
the defining channels at the sides of the base of such rostral part are deeper, and are 
bounded by a ridge behind, in Cnemiornis. The " rostrum " is pitted by the usual 
vascular impressions and foramina relating to renewal of the horny beak-sheath in both 
Anserines. 

On the bony palate a median " prepalatal " a acuity exposes the anterior extremity of the 
vomer (fig. 4, 13) at a higher level. At a lower one, behind the vacuity, is the orifice of 
a longitudinal " palato-vOmerine " canal (figs. 4, 11, e), running backward between the 
bony palate and the vomer. The prepalatal vacuity is represented in Cereopsis by a 
depression (fig. 9, is), into the back and deep part of which the palato-vomerine canal 
(ib. e) opens. The extent of median coalescence of the palatal plates of the maxillaries 
( 1 if this be not due to the vomer), behind the palato-vomerine foramen, is relatively 
the same in Cnemiornis and Cereopsis. 

The palatal vacuity is present in Tachyeres Irachypterus and most Lamellirostrals, is 
largest (so far as I have seen) in Carina moschata, is reduced to a fissure in some 



PEOFESSOE OWEN ON CNEMIOENIS. 259 

skulls of the Common Goose, and is exceptionally obliterated in Plectoptenis gamhianus, 
as it is in Cereopsis. 

The hind part of the bony palate is emarginate in Cnemiornis (PI. XXXV. fig. 4), but 
less deeply than in Cereopsis (ib. fig. 9) ; its outer angles extend backward and upward, 
internal to the palatines, and are continued into the swollen pneumatic or " antral " 
ends of the maxillaries, the outer wall of which is cribriform, or reticulate, in Cnemiornis 
(ib. fig. 10, 21*). The anterior, horizontally lamellate, ends of the palatines (fig. 4, 20) 
coalesce with the maxillaries (ib. ib. 21) between the " antero-palatal " plates and the 
angle to which the expanded end of the jugal style (ib. fig. 7, 26) is attached. 

From these attachments the palatines (20), retrograding, lose transverse and gain 
vertical extent, and this suddenly at their hind ends, from the upper and inner side 
of which a "nasal lamella" extends inward and forward to meet its fellow, and cir- 
cumscribe there the palato-naris (ib. figs. 4 & 9,/). A ridge along the inner side of 
the free part of the palatine (ib. ib. 20') seems to mark the inner boundary of the 
palatal surface ; below this the " nasal " plate extends, with a concave surface next the 
meatus, to the terminal expansion ; the outer surface is smooth and convex. 

The bony palate anterior to the vacuity (fig. 4, 13) is divided into three longitudinal 
channels, of which the median one is deepest ; but all gradually shallow to the common 
palatal level close to the broad terminal alveolar or rostral border. 

From the conformity with Cereopsis of the articular cups for the bicondylar head 
of the tympanic, we may infer a similarity of that bone in Cnemiornis; and a like 
conformity of the pterapophyses (ib. figs. 4 & 9, 5') supports the same inference in 
regard to the pterygoids, and strengthens that in regard to the tympanic. Both 
these skull-bones are wanting in my specimens of Cnemiornis, as in that of Dr. Hector. 

The mandible of Cnemiornis shows the lamellirostral character of the ectocoronoid 
articular process (ib. figs. 1, 5, g). The ordinary coronoid (ib. q) is higher than 
in Cereopsis (ib. fig. 6, q), and has an angular form. The alveolar border of the 
dentary between the coronoid and the punctate symphysial end is smooth, rather 
swollen, and, as it were, bent over to the outer side of the mandible, where it over- 
hangs the more depressed lower part of that surface. This is relatively deeper than 
in Cereopsis, the whole mandible being deeper and broader in proportion to its length, 
and with the fore end more squarely terminated. 

The articular channels (fig. 5, w, x) for the tympanic are divided or defined by a 
longitudinal ridge, as in Cereopsis. The outer groove (w) is partly supported by 
an ectarticular process ; the inner one {x) by a longer entarticular process, which bends 
upwards and terminates in a swollen apex. The angular process (so) is relati^'ely shorter 
and deeper in Cnemiornis than in Cereopsis and Anserines generally. The oblique 
sutm-e between the subangular (29) and dentary (32) is traceable in Cnemiornis as in 
most other Lamellirostrals. In the transverse joint between the nasal base of the upper 



260 PKOFESSOE OWEN ON CNEMIOENIS. 

mandible and the fronto-lacrymal apex of the cranium, and in the spheno-mastoid bridge 
crossing the tympanic cavity, Cereopsis agrees with Cnemiornis. 

§ 3. Vertebrce. 

Of the cervical vertebrae of Cnemiornis I have now as many as exemplify the usual 
modifications of their size, shape, and processes in this part of the spinal column of 
birds, also the general characteristics of such part in Lamellirostrals by a number of 
vertebrae above the average in the feathered class ; but the precise sum of cervicals 
waits a better opportunity of obtaining the skeleton of the same individual than has 
hitherto offered, and one knowingly availed of. 

The main modification of the cervicals of Cnemiornis, as compared with those of other 
Natatores, is the greater extent of ossification of the neural arch. The parial hyp- 
apophyses also converge in the eleventh cervical to contact at their free ends ; and those 
in the twelfth cervical have coalesced to form a complete inferior bony arch or ring. 
This structure I have not observed in any other Anserine or Lamellirostral species ^. 

Both characteristics of Cnemiornis are shown in the figures of the cervical vertebrae 
in my first Monograph on the genus. The views chosen for this purpose gave, accord- 
ingly, the upper ^ the under \ with the fore ' and hind \ surfaces of the vertebrae. In 
the present paper I therefore give a side view (PI. XXXVI. fig. 6), and, for comparison 
with fig. 4, pi. 63, Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. v., a corresponding view of the homologous 
cer^ical in Cereopsis (ib. fig. 7) and Tachyeres (fig. 8). 

The cervical vertebrae in Anserines, which have a single hj'papophysis at the hind 
part of the centrum, beneath the hind articular surface, are the two or three which 
follow the axis. After a certain number without lower processes a pair of praehypapo- 
physes (PI. XXXVI. figs. 7 & 8, ph) begin to project from beneath the costal arch, 
approach each other in succeeding vertebrae without coalescing, and gain the under 
surface of the centrum as they lengthen. They then usually abruptly cease, and are 
replaced by a single hypapophysis at the middle of the fore half of the centrum ; and 
this is continued, usually with decreasing length or suppression, to the dorsal series, 
where, after the first, the hypapophysis reappears with increased length. 

The cervical vertebra of Cnemiornis the subject of figs. 1-4, pi. 63 {torn, cit.), 
answers by the position of its hypapophysis to the third or fourth cervical in Cereopsis 
and Tachyeres. My present series shows it to be the fourth, and also includes the third 
cervical, of which I give a side view in PI. XXXVI. fig. 1, with a similar view of the 
homologous vertebra in Cereo2)sis (ib. fig. 2) and Tachyeres (ib. fig. 4). 

' Twelve cervical vertebra were collected by the Hoe. Capt. Prazer in the Earnscleugh Cave, and are attri- 
buted to the same individual bird by Dr. Hector. 

' It occurs in other groups of Aves ; the illustration in my ' Anatomy of Vertebrates,' vol. ii. p. 40, fig. 25, 
is from a PeHcan. 

^ Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. v. pi. 63. fig. 3. ' lb. ib. fig. 4. = Ib. ib. fig. 1. • lb. ib. fig. 2. 



PEOFESSOR OWEN ON CNEMIOENIS. 261 

Besides size, the chief difference is in the greater relative breadth of the entire 
vertebra, and more especially of the neural arch (as shown in fig. 3, pi. 63. torn. cit.). 
This breadth is due in the anterior fourth of the cervical region to a diapophysial ridge 
extending from the side of the prse- to that of the postzygapophj'sis, near which the 
ridge (ib. fig. 1, a) stands out furthest, and has its margin thickened and roughened for 
tendinous attachment. In the middle third of the cervical region the diapophysis 
loses in antero-posterior extent of origin, but gains in length, or outstanding, and in 
greater thickness of its free border for muscular attachment. The eighth cervical, for 
example, is here 2\ inches in breadth. The outer surface of the base of the anchylosed 
cervical rib is strongly sculptured by irregular longitudinal ridges and furrows. 

No Anserine comes near to Cnemiornis in this respect. Its cervical vertebrae recall 
the proportions of those in Megaceros, and have a like relation to the muscular powers 
brought to bear upon the head. In the extinct Anserine this probably related to the 
gripe and tug exercised by the broad, short, but strong beak upon the vegetable growths 
torn up for food. 

The third cervical (ib. fig. 1), like the fourth, is broader than it is long. The hyp- 
apophysis is represented by a sharp ridge, 8 lines in length, at the hinder half of the 
centrum, terminating in a short tuberosity (ib. hy) projecting beyond the hinder 
articular facet. The parapophysial plate extends from the lower angle of the anterior 
articular surface of the centrum to the hinder half of that element, ascending upon its 
side, and forming the floor (ib. ^j) of a vertebrarterial canal, 10 lines in length, and 
8 lines in diameter at the hinder outlet (v). The end of the rib-element (ib. pi) 
forming the outer wall of the canal is broken off. In the fourth cervical the neural 
spine is entire; it is also short and rounded, as in the third (fig. 1, ns); and more of 
the pleurapophysis is preserved. The hypapophysis has its base shortened to an extent 
of 5 lines ; but its apex extends downwards, 3 lines below the hinder articular facet 
(h, fig. 2, pi. 63, torn. cit.). 

The side view of the twelfth cervical vertebra (ib. fig. 6) shows the division of the 
hinder part of the vertebrarterial canal into two foramina (ib. v, v') by the bony bar 
passing from the pleurapophysial plate backward and downward to the lower part 
of the side of the centrum. In Cereopsis (ib. fig. 9) and Tachjeres (ib. fig. 10) the 
vertebrarterial canal of the answerable vertebra has also two hinder outlets {v & v') ; but 
the dividino' bar passes from the hind border of the rib-plate upward to coalesce with 
the neural arch, and the upper outlet (y') is much less than the lower one {v). The 
diapophysis (ib. fig. 6, d) projects freely, in Cnemiornis, above the longitudinal ridges : 
these alone mark the rib-prominence below the preezygapophysis in Cereopsis (ib.fig. 9) 
and Tachyeres (ib. fig. 10). 

The vertebree bearing freely-movable ribs are nine in number in Cnemiornis, of which 
the last three are anchylosed with the sacral mass. The rib of the first dorsal is free at 
the distal end ; the centrum has a hypapophysial tuberosity at its fore part, the size of 
VOL. IX. — PART ni. May, 1875. - ^' 



262 PROFESSOR OWEN ON CNEMIORNIS. 

which is not definable by reason of fracture. The breadth of the anterior articular 
surface of the centrum is 1 inch 7 lines ; its height at the middle is but 5 lines ; this 
bilobed character is more strongly shown in the next. 

The second dorsal presents a structure which seems not to have hitherto been noted 
in birds. Besides the median process (hypapophysis) (PL XXXVI. fig. 11, hy) from 
the fore part of the under surface of the centrum, there is a pair of processes (ib. 
ib. hi, hi) from the sides of that part of the centrum, which part extends vertically 
below the anterior articular surface (ib. fig. 11, c, c) for an extent of from 2 to 5 lines, 
and is festooned below by the emarginations between the origins of the median {hy) 
and lateral [hi) inferior processes. This character is rudimentally indicated in the 
first dorsal vertebra of Cereopsis (ib. fig. 1 3, hy, hi) ; the processes {hi) are broader and 
more transversely extended in Tachyeres (ib. fig. 14). The articular surface for the 
tubercle of the rib is supported in Cnemiornis by a distinct process (ib. figs. 11 & 12, dt) 
from the under part of the base of the diapophysis {d). The process is feebly indi- 
cated in Cereopsis and Tachyeres (ib. fig. 14, dt). The length of the second dorsal 
vertebra in Cnemiornis from the postzygapophysis {z') to the broken end of the mid 
hypapophysis {hy) is 2 inches 4 lines. The length between the same points of the 
corresponding vertebra in Cereopsis is 1 inch. The rib has a short, straiglit sternal 
portion tied by ligament to the anterior small tubercle of the costal border of the 
sternum. 

In the third dorsal (PI. XXXVI. figs. 15, 16) the hypapophysis {hy) extends its 
base the whole length of the centrum, and curves forward as it narrows to a trituber- 
culate end, the mid tubercle projecting beyond the lateral pair (ib. fig. 16, hi, hi), and 
also beyond the vertical parallel of the joint between' the third and second dorsal 
centrums. The upper spine (ib. fig. 15, ns) also curves forward, its anterior apex 
reaching the same vertical parallel as that below {hy). One or two longitudinal ridges 
strengthen the neural spine near its summit. The hypapophysis of the fourth dorsal 
(ib. fig. 17, hy) has a less extensive base, but equal length ; it is also curved forward, as 
is the neural spine ; but this is longer, and gains more antero-posterior breadth toward 
its truncate summit. 

The fifth and sixth free dorsals cease to develop hypapophyses ; their neural spines 
continue to gain in antero-posterior breadth. The principal pneumatic aperture in the 
dorsal vertebrae of Cnemiornis is at the base of the diapophysis (ib. figs. 15, 17, d), 
between the articular surfaces (ib. pi and dt) for the bifurcate head of the rib ; in the 
cervical vertebrae it is at the base of the neural arch. 

The ribs, both vertebral and sternal, increase in length ; and epipleural appendages 
are attached to the former from the second to the seventh pair. 

The chief things notable in the dorsal vertebrae of Cnemiornis, as compared with 
Cereopsis and existing Anserines, are the great breadth of the centrum in proportion 
to the length, the minor fore-and-aft extent of the neural spines in proportion to their 



PKOFESSOE OWEN ON CNEMIOENIS. 263 

height, the forward curvature of both upper and lower spines, and, above all, the ab- 
sence of the osseous splints which connect together the summits of the neural spines 
and the diapophyses of a greater or less proportion of the dorsal series in all living and 
volant Lamellirostrals. The vigorous actions of flight need corresponding fixedness in 
the complex congeries of bones forming the centre whence the muscular forces converge 
to work the wings. 

In Lamellirostrals, as in most other birds ', the vertical convexity and transverse con- 
cavity of the anterior articular end of the centrum (PI. XXXVI. fig. 11, c, c) closely 
clasps the posterior surface with reverse curvatures of the next centrum before it ; and 
this double interlocking runs throughout the series of movable dorsals. The zyga- 
pophysial surfaces (ib. z, z') are large, and strongly connect together the neural arches 
of the dorsals. The pleurapophyses have two cup-and-ball joints with their vertebra, 
widely separate upon the bifurcate ends of the ribs. The bony heemapophyses, or 
sternal ribs, have, for the most part, bilobed articular ends for a double joint with the 
costal border of the sternum (PI. XXXVII. fig. 3). 

Cnemiornh retains all these modifications, but has not the superadded strength gained 
by the bony beams passing from parts of one dorsal vertebra to the next ; to which, iu 
birds of strongest and swiftest flight, is superadded continuous anchylosis of certain 
neural spines of the segments of the thorax. Cereopsis shows the splint-like ossifications 
of the tendons of muscles inserted into the diapophyses and neural spines of the free 
dorsals ; and this retardation of the ordinary Lamellirostral structure coexists with a 
development of wing, endowing the Australian Goose with the power of flight. 

§ 4. Sternum. 

The sternum of Cnemiornis (PL XXXVII. figs. 1, 2, 3) is of an oblong-quadrate form, 
7 inches long by 4 inches broad at the middle of the bone, expanding to 4 inches 
9 lines in the present specimen across the anterior border. 

This border shows three wide and shallow emarginations, the median one between the 
advanced angles (a, a) of the inner wall of the coracoid groove {b), the lateral ones 
between these and the costal processes (<?, d), near which the emargination deepens. 

From the median end of the outer wall of each coracoid groove the anterior ridged 
origins (c, c) of the keel converge backward to form the low, rather broad and flat 
beginning (s) of this instructive process. Its extreme depth or projection from the plane 
of the sternum does not exceed 3 lines ; the breadth of its free border is 4 lines ; and 
this is flat and roughened by transverse striae for aponeurotic attachments. It loses 
breadth and depth as it retrogrades, and subsides (at 5') about 3 inches from the origins. 
Beyond the keel the body of the sternum retains somewhat of the convexity, transversely 
and lengthwise, which characterizes in a greater degi-ee the carinate part of the sternum; 
but the terminal third of the bone becomes almost flat. It is truncate posteriorly, with 
' The exception, in Aptenodytes, is figured in ' Phil. Trans.' 1851. 

2n2 



264 PKOFESSOE OWEN ON CNEMIOENIS. 

rounded angles, retaining a breadth of 3 inches 3 lines at this end, which is devoid of 
the pair of notches characterizing, as a rule, the Anserine sternum '. 

Cnemiornis follows the rule of keelless, or rudimentally keeled, breast-bones of 
flightless fowl in the integrity of the bony shield. The length of each coracoid groove 
is 1 inch 6 lines, the greatest depth 1| line. From near the lateral end of the outer 
wall the pectoral ridges extend backward, slightly converging, but cease to be traceable 
after a course of 2 inches. The costal process {d) is quadrate, relatively thicker and 
more produced than in Cereopsis or Tachyeres. The outer surface, defined by a low 
curved ridge, is so smooth as to have suggested the remark at p. 399, Trans. Zool. Soc. 
vol. V. The inner surface of the base of both right and left of these processes shows a 
large reticulate pneumatic vacuity. 

The costal border indicates the same degree of longitudinal curve, convex outward, of 
the coextensive part of the breast-bone as in Cereopsis ; but is relatively more extensive, 
and is traversed obliquely from within outward and backward by seven articular promi- 
nences for the sternal ribs. The five anterior of these are ridges expanded at the ends 
into articular tubercles ; the sixth and seventh are represented by the inner tubercle 
only. A smaller tubercle (ib. fig. 3, h l), in advance of the broad ridges, may afford 
attachment to the haemapophysis of the second free rib. The breadth of this surface is 
shown in fig. 3. Cereopsis has but five articular prominences on each costal border. 
Tachyeres has seven, as in Cnemiornis. The outer surface of the sternum near the 
costal border is feebly concave transversely, before swelling into the convexity producing 
the hollow cavity of the anterior half of that bone next the thoracic abdominal cavity. 

It would seem that a comparison with the view of tracing affinity within the limits 
of the Lamellirostaal group could not profitably be made between the almost keel- 
less breast-bone of Cnemiornis and the deeply keeled ones in all existing members of 
such gi'oup ; for even the sternum of the flightless Steamer-Duck has " the great 
development of the keel " which the experienced ornithologist Eyton adds to his 
osteological characters of the family Anatidse I However, there is a greater convex 
curve of the free border of the sternum in Cereopsis^ than in Anser cygnoides^ or in 
Tachyeres ; and, in a small degree, this approximates Tachyeres and Cereopsis to Ciconia. 

§ 5. lAml-Bones. 
The coracoid (PI. XXXVII. figs. 4-7) accompanying the collection of Cnemiornis bones 
now described, is of the left side, and wants only the terminal expansion fitting to the 

' Eyton, ' Monograph on the Anatidae,' 4to, 1838, pi. 1. figs. 7-11. ClcmguU (fig. 4) and FaUgida (fig. 5) 
agree with the Goosander {Merr/us serrator) in the conversion of these notches into foramina. Cereopsis and 
Tachyeres adhere to the anseiiue type. 

' Eyton, in his classical Monograph (4to, 1838, p. 5), follows Vigors in making " Anatida; " (which suggests 
rather the tribe or subfamily of Ducks) the equivalent of Cuvier's well-conceived term " LameUirostres." 

' Id. Supplement to ' Ostoologia Avium ' (4to, 1869), pi. ii. Cereopsis. ' Ib. pi. 3. 



PEOi'ESSOE OWEN ON CNEMIOKNIS, 265 

steiTial groove. The length of the bone which includes the beginning of this expansion 
is 3 inches 6 lines ; the entire bone would be about 4 inches 6 lines in length. The 
extreme breadth at the middle of the shaft is 4^ lines. It is thus weaker and more 
slender than in Cereopsis, and longer in proportion to its sternal breadth than in 
Tachyeres. It also differs from the coracoid in these and other Lamellirostrals in 
the very slight production of the tuberosity c in advance of that (5) supporting the 
the articular surface (a) for the humerus. The tuberosity c is divided from J by a 
shallow groove [d) of less than half the width of the homologous one in Cereopsis ; and 
the tuberosity b is not present in Cereopsis, or is represented (as in fig. 8, h) only by 
the produced margin of the relatively larger and deeper facet for the humerus. The 
process (e) joining the median facet of the scapular articular expansion is more produced, 
more terminally expanded, both lengthwise and transversely; the latter expansion 
inclines, as a curved lamella, toward the inner or anterior division of the tuberosity c, 
in advance of the humeral joint. 

From the low scapular process in Cereopsis (PI. XXXVII. iig. 8, e) a ridge of bone 
(ib.y) extends down to the middle of the coracoid, where it blends with the mesial 
border, leaving a narrow oblong interspace, 4 lines in length, near that border. This 
character is not present in the coracoid of Tachyeres. Such a vacuity (ib. fig. 5,_/') 
exists in the coracoid of Cnemiornis ; but its filamentary boundary is not continued 
from the scapular process' (e, e') ; it forms part, or is a continuation, of the sharp 
mesial border of the shaft of the bone ; and the vacuity is a perforation of such border. 

An intermuscular ridge (ib. fig. 5, g) is continued in Cnemiornis more directly from 
the tuberosity (<?), but sooner subsides upon the shaft than in Cereopsis ; it is resumed 
at the lower third of the shaft, but nearer the lateral border, and bounds the fore part 
of a flat, roughish, elongate tract, which has a continuation of the lateral border (ib. 
fig. 7,y) for its hinder boundary. Above this tract, the shaft of the coracoid is thicker 
in Cnemiornis than in Cereopsis and other Anserines. The hind surface of the sternal 
half of the coracoid is feebly concave ; the sternal articular expanded end has been 
broken away in my specimen. 

Although this coracoid is more slender, in proportion to its length, than in. Cereopsis, 
it is thicker, and less flattened from before backward toward the sternal expansion. 
This proportion is still more characteristic of the coracoid of Cnemiornis, in comparison 
with that of Tachyeres, in which the whole shaft is more flattened than in Cereop)sis. 

The strength of the bone in Cnemiornis relates to its office in depressing the sternum 
in the respiratory movements of the bird. 

In describing the humerus ' forming part of the collection of bones including a skull 
of Binornis robustus and part of one of Aptornis, together with the tibia and other bones 
on which was founded the genus Cnemiornis, I stated that, " from the feeble develop- 
ment of its proximal processes," such humerus " had evidently belonged to some such 

' Zool. Trans, vol. T. pp. 396-399. 



266 PEOFESSOE OWEN ON CNEMIOENIS. 

flightless bird," and that " it bore nearly the same proportion to the sternum as does the 
humerus of Notornis." 

As the humerus associated with a nearly entire skeleton of Cnemiornis, discovered by 
the Hon. Capt. Frazer in the interior of the province of Otago, New Zealand, presents 
clearly distinctive characters from the one figured in Zool. Trans, vol. v. pi. 66. figs. 
7-10, I am now disposed to believe that it may prove to be the humerus of an 
Aptornis, probably Aj^tornis defossor. 

Dr. Hector remarks that, in the humerus of Cnemiornis, " the tuberosity (xi b) repre- 
senting the pectoral ridge is not so wide " as in that above described and figured by me. 
I am in some doubt as to the dimension referred to, whether, viz., the " width " of the 
pectoral process is meant for its basal extent, or the degree in M'hich it projects from 
such origin. The marked and unequivocal distinction is that, in the humerus of Onemi- 
omis, of which I have had under inspection a right and left (PI. XXXVIII. figs. 1-6) 
since the reception of Dr. Hector's Memoir, the pectoral ridge {d) is continued directly 
from the ecto-tuberosity (outer or radial tuberosity), whereas in AjJtoi'nis (Zool. Trans, 
vol. v. pi. 66. fig. 7, b') it is divided from that tuberosity (ib. ib.) by a shallow concavity 
nearly 1 inch in length. 

The ento-tuberosity (inner or ulnar one) in Cnemiornis (PL XXXVIII. figs. 1 & 2, c), 
instead of rising above the convex articular head (a) of the humerus as in Aptornis (1), 
does not attain its level ; its expansion below such tuberosity for a pneumatic fossa 
(fig. 3,p), with its cribriform plate, is a more conspicuous distinction, as Dr. Hector has 
shown. 

Notwithstanding, however, the several approximations which these characteristics of 
the humerus of Cneiniornis make to that bone in birds of flight, the almost keelless 
condition of the sternum, together with the dwarfed proportions of the humerus in 
comparison with those of the bones of the leg, the pelvis, vertebrae, and skull, confirm 
the conclusion, in which Dr. Hector accords with myself, that Cnemiornis was unable 
to fly. 

The existence of the Flightless Duck {Tachyeres brachypterus ; Anas brachyptera, 
Latham) has long been known ; but the humerus in that species is as long as the tibia, 
and the power of flight is enjoyed by the young bird, and only lost when the bulk and 
weight of the adult frame is acquired \ It can hardly be supposed that flight was 
enjoyed at any age in a lamellirostral palmiped with a humerus of only half the length 
and less than half the thickness of the tibia. 

It is half an inch less in absolute length than the humerus of Cereopsis ; but the cir- 
cumference of the shaft is one fourth greater in Cnemiornis (it is 1 inch 6 lines in 
Cereopsis, 2 inches in Cnemiornis); and the muscular impressions are throughout stronger. 

The groove between the head (PI. XXXVIII. figs. 1-3, a) and the entotuberosity (b) 
is less deep in Cnemiornis : the pectoral ridge (d) is rather less produced, and is not so 

' As observed by Dr. Cunningham (Zool. Trans, vii. p. 493, pi. 60. fig. 43, humenis ; pi. 62. fig. 62, tibia). 



PROFESSOR OWEN ON CNEMIORNIS. 267 

much bent forward. The ectocondyle (PI. XXXVIII. fig. 6, e) is broader in proportion 
to its length, the entotuberosity (ib. fig. 5, c) is more produced backward, and the 
pneumatic ridge (fig. l,o) is more produced inward, in the humerus oiTachyeres than in 
that of Cereopsis and Cnemiornis. In these characters of the bone, the extinct flightless 
Anserine of New. Zealand more resembles the Australian than the Magellan genus. 

The ulna in my present illustrations of Cnemiornis belongs, like the coracoid, to the 
left side. It is entire (ib. figs. 7 & 8), is relatively shorter, but much thicker, than the 
ulna of Tachyeres, and is absolutely shorter, and relatively much shorter and thicker, 
than is the ulna of Cereopsis. It exceeds these bones in both species, as well as in any 
other existing Lamellirostral, in the definition and prominence of the parts of the 
exterior and convex surface of the shaft for the attachment of " secondary " quiU-feathers 
and the " tectrices primaj." These marks are of two kinds, cavities and prominences. 
The cavities (fig. 7, h), fourteen in number, extend in a single series along the entire 
shaft : they are elliptical in shape, about 3 lines by 2 lines in dimension, more feebly 
impressed along the middle and distal end of the shaft, some touching each other, others 
with intervals of half a line or a line. The prominences (ib. i, i) are developed from a 
ridge, external to the cavities, beginning one fourth of the bone's length from its 
humeral end, and terminating opposite the penultimate cavity. The prominences, nine 
in number, are from 2 to 3 lines apart. The ridge (fig. 8, c) extending the articular 
cavity for the ulnar condyle of the humerus, and overhanging the surface of attachment 
of the " brachialis intemus " is more produced and extensive than in Cereopsis. The 
olecranon (e) is relatively rather more produced; the rest of the proximal surface 
(fig. 9) closely accords with the anserine type. The surface (/') for the attachment of 
the lateral ligament, and the larger one below {g) for the insertion of the " brachialis 
anticus," are well defined ; but the latter is less deep than in Cereopsis. Both articular 
terminal ends are less expanded in proportion to the shaft, and especially so the distal 
end, than in Cereopsis. The radial prominence is less produced. 

My specimen of the composite bone called "metacarpus" (ib. fig. 10) is rather 
larger than the one figured by Dr. Hector, agreeing in this respect with the associated 
humerus. Like that wing-bone also, it is characterized by its breadth and thickness, 
which, in proportion to the length of the metacarpus, are much greater than in 
Cereopsis or Tachyeres. 

The number and nature, or homologies, of the constituents of this bone were deter- 
mined by its analysis in a young Ostrich, in my work ' On the Nature of Limbs ' (1849), 
and in the description of the specimen No. 1367 in the ' Catalogue of the Osteological 
Specimens in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons ' (4to, p. 265). The meta- 
carpus in the Bird consists, like the metatarsus, of three metacarpal bones coalesced with 
each other and with part of the carpus. As the latter element is mainly and more directly in 
articular relation of support to the " medius" metacarpal (PI. XXXVIII. fig. 10, ill), and 
at the same time presents a convex articular surface to the two non-confluent carpals of the 



268 PEOFESSOK OWEN ON CNEMIOENIS. 

proximal row, it answers to the " os magnum " (ib. fig. 10, m). The base of the meta- 
carpal coalesced therewith is indicated, on the palmar side, by the prominence (in). The 
stunted "index" metacarpal (ii) has coalesced by its. entire length with the contiguous 
base of the " medius " metacarpal (in), and its supporting carpal (m). The head of the 
" annularis " metacarpal is likewise indicated by the prominence (iv) on the sternal side, 
where it has coalesced with the contiguous part of the base of the "medius" (ni). 
From this attachment the shaft of iv bends slightly ulnad, and then runs parallel with 
an interspace about 1| line in breadth to near the distal end, which again coalesces 
with that of the " medius." This coalescence is chiefly along the thenal side of the 
bones ; on the opposite, anconal, or dorsal side the primitive separation is shown by a 
groove. 

The head of the index metacarpal (fig. 10, n) is more tumid, but less extended radiad, 
in Cnemiornis than in Cereopsis ; and the distal articulation (n') for the proximal phalanx 
of the index digit is less definite : such rudiment of that finger (commonly called the 
" thumb " by ornithologists) was probably tied by ligament to its metacarpal. 

The tendinal groove impressing lengthwise the anconal surface of the shaft of the 
mid metacarpal is less marked in Cnemiornis than in Cere<ypsis. The distal articulation 
(fig. 11) is similar in both: it is quadrate, flattened on the radial half, and swelling into 
a condyle on the ulnar half. The distal articular surface of the " annularis " metacarpal 
(iv') shows more of the typical form, viz. two narrow condylar convexities, with a 
trochlear depression between them. 

I have not recognized phalanges in either series of Cnemiornis remains which have 
reached me, and have restored them in the figure of the entire skeleton (PL XXXIX. fig. 1) 
according to the analogy of Cereopsis — the radial digit or index (n) being represented 
by a proximal phalanx, the median digit (in) by three phalanges, and the annular digit 
(iv), again, by the proximal phalanx only. 

To the characters of the pelvis described and figured in my former monograph I am 
able to add, through Dr. Hector's description, the configuration of the entire part, as shown 
in the restoration of the skeleton (PI. XXXIX. fig. 1). The ischium, of which the slender 
continuation from the acetabulum was shown in fig. 7, 63, of pi. 64 {torn, cit.), loses thick- 
ness and gains vertical breadth as it recedes, and, coalescing with the hind end of the 
ilium, circumscribes a great ischiadic foramen, of an oval figure, nearly 3 inches long by 
1 inch deep. The pubis unites with the end of the ischium, a "foramen ovale" inter- 
vening nearly 5 inches in length and 10 lines at the broadest part, with the canal for 
the passage of the " obturator internus " tendon^ indicated, as usual, by a low process 
rising from the upper border of the pubis, and a corresponding one descending from the 
opposite part of the beginning of the ischium. Both processes are present in Cereopsis, 
as in Cnemiornis ; but only the upper or ischiadic one marks out the " obturator" notch 

' " Myologj' of Apteryx," Trans. Zool. Soc. iii. 292. 



PEOPESSOK OWE.V ON CNEMIOEMS. 269 

in Tachyeres \ A second small vacuity weakens the ilium above the hind part of the 
ischiadic foramen in Tachyeres, as in the White-eyed Pochard {Anas leucophthalnmsy ; 
but this character is not present in Cnemiornis or in Cereopsis. The proportion in 
length of the preacetabular to the postacetabular parts of the pelvis is greater in the 
two last-named genera than in Tachyeres. 

I have nothing to add to the characters of the femur, tibia, and fibula illustrated in 
my former memoir. The excessive development of the combined pro- and epicnemial 
processes, which suggested the affinity or resemblance to Colymbus, we now know to have 
been possessed by a species of another family of web-footed birds. The great extinct 
Anserine of New Zealand may have kicked its vra,y through the dense element with a 
vigour and speed that would have arrested the attention of navigators more strongly, 
perhaps, than such action in the smaller non-volant Lamellirostral which has thereby 
got the name of " Steamer Duck." 

The three digits whose metatarsal bones coalesce to form the " metatarsus " in birds 
are homotypes of the three metacarpals similarly fused together in the wing, viz. the 
second, third, and fourth. The first, sometimes wanting, but more commonly present, 
keeps its rudimental metatarsal element free in all species with the back toe. The 
rough slightly depressed surface above the entotrochlea shows the usual anserine posi- 
tion of attachment of the back toe in Cnemiornis. 

The metatarsus of Cnemiornis (Plate XXXVIII. fig. 12) yields well-marked evidence 
of its closer affinity to Cereopsis than to Tachyeres or other Lamellirostral genera. In 
these the entotrochlea, or that distal condyle which supports the second or innermost ^ 
of the three anterior toes, is given ofi" from the composite bone at a higher or more 
proximal level than the other two trochlear condyles (ib. fig. 14, ii) : it also projects 
much more backward than the other condyles. In Cereopsis the entotrochlea (ib. 
fig. 13, ii) comes off at a lower level, nearly that of the ectotrochlea, and projects but a 
short way behind the line attained by the hind part of the mesotrochlea, this terminating 
a little behind that reached by the ectotrochlea. Thus, in Cereopsis, the three trochlese 
are more in accordance with the ordinary pattern in non-natatorial birds ; and this is 
precisely the character by which Cnemiornis departs from the web-footed order in the 

' According to Mr. Smit's figure of the pelvis of the Steamer Duck in Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vii. pi. 62. fig. 59 : 
the originals, collected at the cost of the nation in a Government expedition, have not found their way to the 
I^ational lluseura of Natural History. On special application to the naturalist of the expedition of H.M.S. to 
the Magellan's Strait, some bones of an immature Tachyeres have been sent by him to the British Museum sinee 
the penning of the present paper. 

^ Nyroca, Plem. ; see Eyton, ' Monograph on the Anatidse,' 4to, 1838, p. 63, and plate. 

' M. Alphonse Milne-Edwards, describing the metatarse of Cereopsis in his ' Eecherches pour servir a 
I'histoire naturelle des Oiseaux Possiles,' 4to, 1867, writes of the " troohle'es digitales :" — "I'exteme, au lieu d'etre 
forteraent rejetee en arriere, comme dans les autres Anatides ; se trouve presque sur le meme plan que la 
mcdiane " (p. 80). I find the " ectotrochlea " (supporting the. outer five-jointed toe) to have its hind border a 
little anterior to the plane of that of the mesotrochlea, while the entotrochlea projects as much behind that 
plane, but in a markedly less degree than does the internal trochlea in Tachyeres and other Anatidae. 

VOL. IX. — PART III. May, 1875. 2 o 



270 PEOFESSOE OA¥EN ON CNEMIOENIS. 

structure of its naetatarse. Tlie entotrochlea comes off at the same transverse line with 
the ectotrochlea (Trans. Zool. See. v. pi. 67. figs. 1 & 3), and shows but a feeble trace of 
the anserine backward production of the internal trochlea, as shown in the side view of the 
bone given in the present paper (PL XXXVIII. fig. 12). The metatarse in Tachyeres 
conforms to the rule in Anatidse, the innermost digital trochlea not only diverging from 
the confluent shafts at a higher level (as shown in Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vii. pi. 62. fig. 63), 
but being produced more backward (" fortement rejetee en arriere ") than the other two 
trochlese (as shown in the side view given in fig. 14, PI. XXXVIII.). 

§ 6. Conclusion. 

The sum of the comparisons instituted in the foregoing descriptions of parts of the 
skeleton of Cnemiornis with corresponding parts in Cereopsis and in Tachyeres weighs 
strongly in favour of the nearer affinity of the non-volant Anserine of New Zealand with 
the feebly flying Goose of Australia than with the non-volant Duck of Magellan's Strait. 
This is more especially exemplified in the pelvis, the metatarsus, and the skull. The 
characters of shortness, breadth, and obtuseness of tlie beak which generically distinguish 
Cereopsis iwvce hollandice were exaggerated in Cnemiornis, and lead me to infer a 
similarity of diet and terrestrial habits ' in the gigantic goose of New Zealand. 

In the 'American Journal of Science and Arts,' vol. xlix. no. 146, March 1870, Pro- 
fessor O. C. Marsh reports the acquisition, from " the greensand of New Jersey," of " a 
portion of the shaft and distal extremity of a left tibia which indicates a species, appa- 
rently, of a swimming bird nearly as large as the common wild Swan [Cygmis ameri- 
canus, Sharpless) " (p. 206). " The condyles of the distal end are broader anteriorly 
than deep, the inner condyle being more prominent in front, and the outer one pro- 
jecting somewhat further behind. The intercondyloid space is wider than either condyle." 
"The supratendinal bridge is well ossified;" "it is submedian in position, straight, 
transverse, of moderate width, and spans a deep and well-defined canal, which was 
traversed by the extensor tendon of the toes." " The under trochlear surface is but 
slightly concave transversely, and has a faint median elevation, as in the tibia of the 
Swan." But this elevation is present in 'birds of other genera, families, and orders: it 
is shown in many of my illustrations of the bone ; and I may refer to the latest (Trans. 
Zool. Soc. vol. viii. pi. 59. fig. 2), where it is indicated in the tibia of Dinomis c/ravis by 
the letter u. With regard to another alleged anserine character, I may remark that in 
every bird with the " supratendinal bridge well ossified," I have found it spanning a 
canal that might be called " deep and well-defined," and " which was traversed by a 
tendon ;" but this I have found to be, in Anscrines as in other birds, the tendon of the 

' Mr. Yarrell has recorded his observation that the Cereopsis, like the semipalmated Goose, " passes much 
of its time on land," ' Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of 
London,' 8vo, p. 25 (January 183]). 



PEOFESSOE OWEN ON CNEMIOENIS. 271 

"tibialis anticus" (Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. iii. 1842, p. 297, pi. 35. s)', not " the extensor 
tendon of the toes." Professor Marsh admits that the lower part of his fossil tibia " has 
little of the marked inward curvature characteristic of swimming birds, but is so straight 
that its median plane, if continued, would divide the trochlear surface nearly equally " 
(ib. p. 207). He further states that " the outer margin of the canal is low and obtuse, 
as in most of the Gallinaceous birds " (ib. p. 206), that " on the lower surface of the 
inner condylar ridge there is a shallow notch, resembling in shape and position that in 
the tibia of some Gulls " (ib.), and that " the shaft curves forward slightly just where 
it begins to expand above the lower condyles, closely resembling in this respect the 
tibia of the Turkey " (ib. p. 207). 

Nevertheless on this portion of bone is founded the genus Laornis, of the order 
Natatores, bearing " a strong resemblance in many respects to the Lamellirostres and 
also to the Longipennes, but differing essentially from the typical forms of both these 
groups." 

With all respect to the learned Professor of Paleontology in Yale College, I would 
express the strong wish felt, with myself, by many of my fellow labourers in that science, 
that he would accompany his descriptions, notices, and names of new genera and species of 
extinct animals with figures, of the natural size, of the fossils on which such are founded. 
Casts would be still more acceptable for European comparisons. In relation to the 
subject of the present memoir it is plain that if the fossil tibia, "nearly as large" as 
that of a Wild Swan, prove to be really anserine, it cannot be referred to the genus 
Cnemiornis of 1865. 

The species representing this anserine genus was about the same size as, or, rather, 
exceeded, its contemporary, also now extinct, the ralline A])tornis defossor. Both equalled 
in bulk the smaller species of Cassowary. The heiftlit of the back of Cnemiornis above 
the ground probably exceeded 2 feet ; and the length of its body from beak to tail must 
have been at least 3 feet. 



DESCEIPTION OF THE PLATES. 

PLATE XXXV. 

Fig. 1. Side view of skull of Cnemiornis. lig. 6. Side view of skull of Cereupsis. 

Fig. 2. Back view of ditto. Fig. 7. Back view of ditto. 

Fig. 3. Upper view of ditto. Fig. S. Upper view of ditto. 

Fig. 4. Under view of ditto. Fig. 9. Under view of ditto. 

Fig. 5. Upper view of mandible. Fig. 10. Upper view of mandible. 

Fig. 11. Back view of base of maxilla of Cnemiornis. 

Fig. 12. Prefrontal portion of cranium of ditto. 

' See also ' Anat. of Vertebrates,' ii. (1866) p. 108, and Alphonse Milne-Edwards, ' Oiseaux Fossiles de la 
France,' 1867, 4to, pi. 7. figs. 1 & 2, is, w (tibial anterieur). 



272 PEOFESSOR OWEX ON CNEMIORNIS. 

PLATE XXXVI. 

Fig. 1. Side view of third cervical vertebra, Cnemiornis calcitrans. 

Fig. 2. Idem of ditto, Cereopsis. 

Fig. 3. Under view of ditto, ditto. 

Fig. 4. Side view of ditto, Tacki/eres irachypterus. 

Fig. 5. Under view of ditto, ditto. 

Fig. 6. Side view of twelfth cervical vertebra, Cnemiornis calcitrans. 

Fig. 7. Front view of twelfth cervical vertebra, Cereopsis. 

Fig. 8. Idem of ditto, Tachijeres brachypterus. 

Fig. 9. Side vie\y of ditto, Cercopsis. 

Fig. 10. Idem of ditto, Tachyeres. 

Fig. 11. Front view of second dorsal vertebra, Cnemiornis calcitrans. 

Fig. 12. Under view of ditto, ditto. 

Fig. 13. Front view of ditto, Cereopsis. 

Fig. 14. Under view of ditto, Tachyeres. 

Fig. 15. Side view of third dorsal vertebra, Cnemiornis. 

Fig. 16. Front view of ditto, ditto. 

Fig. 17. Side view of fourth dorsal vertebra, ditto. 

PLATE XXXVII. 

Fig. 1. Under view of sternum, Cnemiornis. Fig. 5. Outer view of coracoid. 

Fig. 2. Front border of ditto. Fig. 6. Scapular end of ditto. 

Fig. 3. Costal border of ditto. Fig. 7. Side view of ditto. 

Fig. 4. Inner view of coracoid. Pig- 8. Outer view of coracoid, fVreo/j.^j/s. 

PLATE XXXVIII. 

Fig. 1. Anconal view of humerus, Cnemiornis. Fig. 9. Proximal articular end of ulna. 

Figs. 2 & 3. Views of proximal half of ditto. Fig. 10. View of metacarpus. 

Fig. 4. View of distal half of ditto. Fig. 11. Distal articular end of ditto. 

Fig. 5. Proximal articular end of ditto. Fig. 12. Side view of metatarsus. 

Fig. 6. Distal articular end of ditto. Fig. 13. Idem, Cereopsis. 

Figs. 7 & 8. Views of left ulna, ditto. Fig. 14. Idem, Tachyeres brachypferus. 

N.B. All the figures of the preceding Plates are of the natural size. 

PLATE XXXIX. 

Fig. 1. Restored skeleton of Cnemiornis calcitrans. 
Fig. 2. Skeleton of Cereopsis, reduced to the same scale. 



.^^^TZ^^^^O^ "iB^^^^f. XXXV. 




9 vv' 



K-O.del f'nesbach liiii 



Mintem Bros imp 



SKULL OF CNEMIORNIS. 



j!kz^n^:^^?o^c^^ "i^.S^^.XXXV/. 




RO del GnesbcLCh luh 



VERTEBRAE OF CNEMIOBNIS. 



MinternBros imp 



0^zi^.J:^.cjU. ^j^.^.Mjxxvii. 




R.O.Hcl.Glieshiicli lull. 



STERNUM OF CNEMIORNIS. 



Mintern Bros lln 



^?r^n^.Sc?o^.<i/oo. "^U.^J^^.AIXVf/L 




R O.del, Gnestach tuh. 



HUMERUS k ULNA OF CNEMIORNIS. 



Minlem Bros imp 



c^^^^^-StT^e^ ^U.^Mjxxix. 




VO.del. Grlesbach lith. 



Mmtem Bros, imp . 



1- RESTORED SKELETON OF CNEMIORNIS. 
2 „ „ „,...CEREOPSIS. 



[ 273 ] 



IV. On the Curassows now or lately living in the Society's Gardens. By P. L. Sclater, 
M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., Secretary to the Society. 

Eead June 17th, 1873. 

[Plates XL.-LIII.] 

IN the 'Proceedings' of the Society for 1870 (p. 504 et seqq.) Mr. Salvin and I gave 
a synopsis of the species of the Gallinaceous family Cracidse, so far as they were then 
known to us. 

The various species of Curassows {Crax of Linnaeus), which constitute the first sub- 
family Cracinw according to the arrangement there adopted, are many of them very 
common birds in captivity. Specimens are to be seen in every collection of living birds ; 
and this Society has from time to time possessed examples of nearly all the known 
species. In spite of their being so common, however, the Curassows are by no means 
well understood, and there has been great confusion among the different species. This 
has arisen, not only from the general similarity of some of the nearly allied species, but 
even more from the fact that in some of the species the two sexes are nearly alike 
in colour, whereas in other species nearly allied they are quite different. It has thus 
come to pass that it is rare to find these fine birds correctly determined, either in living' 
collections or in museums, and that it is by no means uncommon to see the sexes of 
two different species associated together as male and female. 

With the view of diminishing this confusion as far as possible, and of rendering the de- 
termination of the species of Crax and their sexes more easy, I have had from time to 
time, during the last three years, figures taken of the specimens living in the Society's 
gardens. With the addition of a few other figures from examples in the British 
Museum and in other collections, there has thus been formed a complete series of 
illustrations of all the certainly known species of the subfamily, together with one 
still imperfectly known, the publication of which will, I trust, make the somewhat 
obscure subject much better understood than heretofore. 

The following synonymy of the species, and remarks upon their history, distribution, 
and other points, are mainly taken from the article by myself and Mr. Salvin above 
spoken of, such changes only having been introduced and such additions made as various 
opportunities of examining living and dead specimens of Curassows during the past 
three years have afforded me. 

VOL. IX. — FART IV. July, 1875 2 p 



274 MR. P. L. SCLATEE ON THE CUEASSOWS 

Genus I. Crax. 
1. Crax GLOBiCEKA. (Plate XL. <? et ?.) 

Crax globicera, Linn. S. N. i. p. 270 (partim) ; Taylor, Ibis, 1860, p. 311; Salvin, Ibis, 1861, 
p. 143 ; Sclater, P. Z. S. 1860, p. 253 ; Lawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. viii. p. 12, ix. p. 139 ; v. Frantz. 
J. f. O. 1869, p. 373 ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1870, pp. 513 et 838, et Nomencl. p. 135. 

Crax temminckii, Tsch. F. P. Aves, p. 287. 

Crax alberti S , Eraser, P. Z. S. 1850, p. 250, tab. xxviii. ( ? ). 

Crax blumenbachii, G. R. Gray, List of Gall. p. 15, et Hand-1. ii. p. 253. 

Crax alector, Scl. & Salv. Ibis, 1859, p. 223 ; Moore, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 61. 

Crax rubra, Linn. S. N. i. p. 270 ( ? ) ; Temm. Pig. et Gall. iii. pp. 21 et 687 { $ ) ; Lawr. Ann. 
L. N. Y. vii. p. 301 (?) ; Bennett, Gard. & Men. Z. S. ii. p. 225. 

Curasso bird, Edward's Gleanings, pi. 295, unde, . 

Crax edwardsi, Reich. Tauben, p. 134. 

Crax pseudalector , Reichenb. Tauben, p. 131, tab. 273. f. 1516 (?). 

Crax albini, Lesson, Traite d'Orn. p. 484, et Reictenb. Tauben, p. 135 (?) . 

Nitenti-nigra : ventre imo crissoque albis: cristiE elongatse plumis nigris, apicem 
versus recurvis : loris parce plumulosis : cera tuberculata et rostro toto luteis ; pedibus 
cornels : long, tota 34, alse 18'5, caudse 15"5, tarsi 4*7. Fein, castanea, ventre imo cinna- 
momeo : dorso superiore plus minusve nigro induto : capite cristato et cervice undique 
nigris, albo maculatis : alls extus caudaque nigro et ochraceo plus minusve variegatis 
et transfasciatis. 

Hah. Western Mexico {Deppe) ; Tehuantepec {Sumichrast) ; prov. Vera Cruz {Salle 
and Sumichrast) ; Guatemala, Vera Paz and Pacific coast (Salvin) ; Belize [Leyland) ; 
Honduras {Taylor and G. Wliitely) ; Costa Kica {v. Frantz.) ; Veragua {Arce) ; Panama 
{M'Cleannan). 

Linnseus's Crax glolicera is founded mainly upon the Crax curassous of Brisson (Orn. 
i. p. 300), which is more likely to be intended for this species than any other. Brisson 
mentions the tubercula ad basin rostri, rotunda, lutea — which excludes everything 
except the present bird and C. dauhentoni. And as he says nothing whatever of the 
tail being tipped with white, the balance of evidence is in favour of his having intended 
to describe the present species. Crax rubra of Linnaeus, founded upon Crax peruvianus 
of Brisson {op. cit. p. 305), is, there can be little doubt, intended for the female of the 
present bird. 

The first author who appears to have correctly identified these birds as male and 
female is Tschudi, who, in his ' Fauna Peruana,' accurately describes both sexes under 
the name Crax temminckii, from specimens obtained by Deppe in Western Mexico ; but 
he is no doubt in error in supposing that this was the species that he himself saw in 
the wood-region of Eastern Peru, where it is represented by Crax globulosa. 

In the first paper on the Ornithology of Guatemala, written by Mr. Salvin and 
myself, we erroneously called the Guatemalan bird Crax alector. This mistake was 



LIVING IN THE SOCIETY'S GARDENS. 275 

subsequently rectified, and the bird referred to Crax gloMcera, which name has generally 
been adopted by more recent writers for the Central-American species. 

In Mr. G. R. Gray's ' List of Gallinse ' this Curassow is called Crax blumenbachii, 
after Spix's figure (Av. Bras. ii. t. 64). It is possible Mr. Gray may be correct in this 
reference, as we have seen Central-American specimens of the female nearly as dark as 
is represented in Spix's figure ; but if this be so, it can hardly be true, as Spis states, 
that his specimen was obtained at Eio. 

This Curassow is the only species of the genus and subfamily met with in America 
north of Panama. I have examined a large number of specimens from different localities 
between the isthmus and Southern Mexico. The male is quite constant in colour, 
except that in one Panama specimen in Salvin and Godman's collection the tail shows 
a very narrow margin of white. The female, on the contrary, is very variable, as has been 
already pointed out in the diagnosis. In some specimens the wings are whoUy red, in 
others much banded with black and cinnamomeous : in some specimens also the tail- 
bands are very slight, and almost evanescent ; in others they are broad and conspicuous. 
The upper portion of the back varies from black to chestnut. 

The Globose Curassow, as it is usually called, is one of the commonest species met 
with in living collections. Within these last ten years, as will be seen by the sub- 
joined list, at least twenty specimens have been received by the Society ; so that we 
have had ample opportunity of becoming acquainted with it. 

List of Living Specimens of Crax glohicera exhibited since 1860. 

a, b. Females Presented by R. W. Keate, Esq., F.Z.S August 9, 1862. 

"■ ^^^^ I Presented by R. S. NewaU, Esq August 12, 1864. 

d. Female J 

e. Presented by Capt. Abbott August 31, 1864. 

f- -^^^^ 1 Purchased November 16, 1865. 

g. Female J 

7j. Presented by Commander Glynn, R.N August 20, 1866. 

*• ^'^'^ I Deposited October 20, 1866. 

j. Female J 

A;, h Received in exchange February 4, 1869. 

m. Female Purchased December, 13, 1869. 

n. Female Purchased May 25, 1870. 

"• ^"^^ I Purchased July 28, 1870. 

p. Female J 

q. Female Purchased July 16, 1872. 

r. Female Presented by Capt. Butler October 15, 1872. 

s. Male Purchased May 15, 1873. 

In the female specimen r (which died Feb. 26, 1873), Mr. Garrod informs me, the 
trachea was simple and without convolutions. 

2p2 



276 ME. P. L. SCLATEE ON THE CUEASSOWS 

2. Ceax DAUBENTONi. (Plates XLI. d, XLII. S .) 

Hocco, Faisan de la Guiane, Buff. PI. Enl. 86. 

Crax daubentoni, G. E. Gray, List of Gall. p. 15 (1867), et Hand-1. ii. p. 253 ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 

1870, p. 516, et Nomencl. p. 135 ; Sclat. P. Z. S. 1870, p. 671. 
Crax aldrovandi, Eeichenb. Tauten, p. 134, tab. 2736. f. 5038 ( d) et tab. 273. f. 1518 ( 2 ). 
Crax globicera, Temm. Hist. Nat. des Gall. iii. pp. 12 et 686; Eeichenb. Taub. p. 133, tab. 273. 

f. 1517. 
Crax mikani s , Pelzeln, Orn. Bras. p. 343 ( ? ) . 

Nitenti-nigra : ventre imo et caudse apice albis : cristse elongatse plumis nigria 
lecurvis : loris plumosis : cera tuberculata et mandibula utrinque ad basin carunculata 
flavis: pedibus nigricantibus : long, tota 32, alae 15'5, caudse 14, tarsi 4'5. Fern, marl 
similis, sed crista ad basin albo obsolete fasciata : ventre et tibiis albo transfasciolatis : 
cera et rostro nigris. 

Hah. Venezuela, near Caracas (Levraud) ; Tucacas ( Wright and Warmington). 

This Curassow was confounded by the older authors with C. globicera ; and it must 
always, perhaps, remain somewhat of an open question to which bird that name should 
in strict propriety be applied. Mr. Gray first correctly associated the two sexes of the 
present bird, and in his ' List of Gallinee ' gave the name daubentoni to it, in consequence 
of the male being figured by Daubenton as the Hocco, Faisan de la Guiane, in the 
' Planches Enluminces.' This species and its northern representative are certainly 
close allies, the chief difference between the two males consisting in the present bird 
having broad white tips to the rectrices. But the females, it will be observed, are very 
diff'erent. 

The forest-region of Venezuela is the only locality which I know of for this Curassow. 
M. Levraud transmitted specimens of it in his extensive collection from Caracas, which 
I have examined at Paris. In 1870 we received our first living pair of this species, 
fi-om Mr. James Wright, who obtained them from near Tucacas in Venezuela. In the 
following year Mr. A. Warmington was kind enough to bring us a male and two 
females from the same port, and to furnish me with the following notes on the 
subject. 

" The three Curassows (one male and two females) were captured at ' Maron ' near 
Tucacas, N. Venezuela, and at the present time are nearly two years old, having 
been taken from the nest when scarcely larger than a chick of two months old. They 
soon became perfectly tame, and would follow me about. When able to fly they made 
short flights, always quickly returning, and seldom alighting. At night they invariably 
roosted on the highest spot they could find in the home corral. They are called by 
the natives 'Peru.' Their cry is a sort of mournful prolonged whistle, and in the 
forest, when eight or ten are together, has a very singular effect. It is not common to 
see these birds on the ground. When they alight in a tree they almost invariably 
utter their cry, and at the same time raise the tail-feathers fan-like, thus exposing the 



LIVING IN THE SOCIETY'S GARDENS. 277 

white plumage beneath, and offering a conspicuous and tempting mark for the sports- 
man. They are excellent eating. I have never heard of these birds breeding in con- 
finement, though I cannot say they do not. The young ones are exceedingly beautiful 
delicate little creatures, marked very much like and having a very similar appearance 
to young Partridges or Quails. They become much attached to individuals who treat 
them kindly. These birds are common in all parts of Venezuela where there is a 
forest." 

Herr v. Pelzeln has kindly supplied me with accurate coloured figures of his Crax 
mikani, from which it seems evident that the supposed male of that species is the female 
of Crax dauhentoni, and the supposed _/(?ma^e the female of Crax alherti. 



List of Living specimens of Crax dauhentoni exhibited since 1860. 

a. Male 
b. 
Male 



Male 1 

_ , > Presented by J. Wright, Esq September 29, 1870. 

c. Male 1 „ 

_ , } Presented by A. Warmmston, Esq July 11, 1871. 

a, e. Females J o^j j ? 

f. Male Presented by George Hall, Esq September 5, 1871. 

g. Female Deposited , October 24, 1871. 

3. Ceax alectoe. (Plate XLIII. d et S .) 

Craa; alector, Linu. S. N. i. p. 269 ; Temm. Pig. et Gall. iii. pp. 27 et 689 ; Vieill. Gal. d. Ois. 
ii. p. 6j t. 199; Cab. in Schomb. Guian. iii. p. 746; Reichenb. Tauben, p. 130; Bennett, 
Gardens & Men. ii. p. 9; Pelzeln, Om. Bras. p. 286 ; Gray, Gen. of B. iii. p. 486, et Hand-l. 
ii. p. 253; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1870, p. 514, et Nomencl. p. 135. 
' Gallus indicus, Sloane, Jamaica, ii. p. 362 et t. 26, unde 

Crax sloanei, Reichenb. Tauben, p. 131 (?) . 

Purpurascenti-nigra : ventre imo crissoque albis : cristse brevis plumis nigris, versus 
apicem recurvis : loris nudis : cera et rostro ad basin flavis, hujus apice cserulescente : 
pedibus cornels: long, tota 35, alse 14'5, caudse 13'5, tarsi 4"5. Fern, mari similis, 
sed crista intus albo parce transfasciata. 

Hab. British Guiana {Scliomb.); Eio Negro, Rio Vaupe, and Rio Brancho (Natt.). 

The species most liable to be confounded with the present Ciurassow are Crax globi- 
cera and Crax sclateri. From both of these it is distinguishable by the purple tinge of 
its plumage, which is very noticeable in living specimens, and is also plainly seen in 
skins. From C. globicera it is likewise distinguishable by the naked lores and by the 
want of the protuberance on the cere ; from C. sclateri by the absence of the white 
tips to the tail-feathers and the black thighs. It differs not only from these, but from 
almost all other members of the genus in the sexes being nearly alike. 

The patria of C. alector is Guiana, Cayenne, and the adjoining districts of Amazonia 
up to the Rio Negro. In Upper Amazonia it is replaced by C. globulosa. 



278 MR. P. L. SCLATEE ON THE CURASSOWS 

lAst of living specimens of Cra.x alector exhibited since 1860. 

a. ■ Presented by W. Duncan Ste-wart, Esq June 26, 1861. 

h, c. Presented by R. W. Keate, Gov. of Trinidad August 9, 1862. 

cl Purchased May 3, 1865. 

e. Presented by Mr. Beaumont April 10, 1866. 

f-i. Deposited July 25, 1867. 

/, I: Presented by Col. May August 14, 1869. 

I. Presented by Mr. J. Stanton Jime 6, 1871. 

m, n. Presented by G. Browne, Esq September 7, 1871. 

0, 2^- Presented by Quintin Hogg, Esq July 16, 1872. 

q, r. Purchased September, 13, 1872. 

s. Presented by George Bruce, Esq May 14, 1874. 

The specimen r, purchased September 13, 1872, was found by Mr. Garrod to be a 
male on dissection, and to have a small superficial tracheal loop. 

4. Ceax sclateri. (Plate XLIV. d et S, et Plate XLV. S.) 

Mitu, Azara, Apunt. iii. p. 83. no. 338. 

Crax alector, Hartl. Ind. Az. p. 23. 

Cram sclateri, Gray, List of Gall. p. 14, et Hand-1. ii. p. 333 ; Pelzelu, Orn. Bras. p. 387 ; Scl. et 

Salv. P. Z. S. 1870, p. 515, et Nomencl. p. 135. 
Crax circinatus, Licht. MS. in Mus. Berol. {teste Pelzelno). 
Crax discors, Natt. MS. in Mus. Berol. {teste Pelzelno). 
Crax azaree, Natt. MS. in Mus. Vindob. {teste Pelzelno). 

Nitenti-nigra : ventre imo, crisso et caudae apice albis : cristas mediocris plumis nigris 
versus apicem recurvis : loris nudis : cera et rostro toto flavis : pedibus carneis : long, 
tota 32, alae 14, caudse 14, tarsi i: Fern, supra nigra, ochracesceuti-albo, nisi in cervice, 
transfasciata : crista alba, basi et apice nigris : subtus gula et cervice nigris : abdomine 
cinnamomeo, pectore nigro transfasciato : cauda nigra, hujus fasciis transversis et apice 
fulvis ; rostri basi obscura, apice cum pedibus flavis. 

Hal). Paraguay {Azara and Page) ; Brazil, prov. Mato Grosso {Natterer). 

Azara clearly describes both sexes of this Curassow, which appears to be the sole 
representative of the group in Paraguay and in the adjacent portion of the Brazilian 
province of Mato Grosso. It was, however, confounded with other species, or provided 
only with MS. names, until Mr. Gray described it in his List of Gallinse in 1867. 

As already remarked, the male of this species closely resembles the con'esponding 
sex of C. alector ; it is singular, therefore, that the females of the two species should be 
so very difi'erent. 

We have received four or five living specimens in the Society's collection which 
have been determined as " Crax sclateri ? ; " but I am a little doubtful Whether they 
really belong to this species or to the dubious Crax pinima. One of these, spec, b, 
received in 1863, is figured Plate XLV. It diflfers from the Nattererian specimen 
(figured PI. XLIV. fig. 2) in being rather larger, in having rather narrower bands above, 
and in having the tail-feathers distinctly terminated with white instead of fulvous. 



LIVING m THE SOCIETY'S GAEDENS. 279 

List of living specimens o/'Crax sclateri exhibited since 1860. 

a. Received in exchange March 12, 1861. 

6. Presented by the Prince de JoinviUe Octoher 13, 1863. 

a. Received in exchange February 21, 1872. 

d, e. Purchased January 20, 1874. 

Specimen b, which died February 9, 1874, was determined by Mr. GaiTod to be a 
female. The trachea was simple, without any loop. 

5. Crax globulosa. (Plate XL VI. cJ et 2 .) 

Cram globulosa, Spix, Av. Bras. ii. p. 50, t. 65 ( cJ), 66 ( 2); Gray, Gen. of B. iii. p. 486, et Hand-1. 

ii. p.253; Reichenb. Taub. p. 135; Scl. et Salv. P.Z. S. 1870, p. 515, et 1873, p. 307, et 

Nomencl. p. 135. 
Crax globicera, Bates, Naturalist on the river Amazons, ii. p. 113. 

Nitenti-nigra : ventre imo crissoque albis : crista nigra recurva : loris plumosis : cera 
tuberculata et mandibula utrinque ad basin carunculata flavis : rostri apice nigro : 
■pedibus rubris : long, tota 36, alse 16, caudse 14-5, tarsi 4-4. Fem. mari similis, sed 
tuberculo et carunculis rostri nullis et ventre fulvo diversa. 

Hab. Upper Amazons {Spix) ; Pebas (Cccstelneau and Deville) ; Kio -Napo (mus. 
G. N. L.). 

The well-developed yeUow caruncles at the base of the mandible distinguish this 
species from all its allies except C. dmtbentoni, in which the tail is broadly tipped with 
white. I have only seen one female of this species ; it agrees with Spix's figure and 
description. The variation of the sexes in this bird corresponds to that which obtains 
in Crax carvmculata, which has likewise conspicuous caruncles on the base of the bill. 
In the latter case, however, the caruncles are red instead of yellow. 

I have not yet met with living specimens of this bird. The figures are taken from 
skins in the collection of Mr. G. N. Lawrence of New York, whom I have to thank 
most sincerely for the loan of them. They were obtained on the Kio Napo. 

6. Ckax CAEUNCUiiATA. (Plate XLVII. d et S .) 

Crax carunculata, Temm. Pig. et Gall. iii. pp. 44, 690 (1815) ; Sw. An. in Men. p. 183; Gray, 
Gen. of B. iii. p. 486, et Hand-1. ii. p. 254; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1870, p. 517, et Nomencl. 
p. 135. 

Crax rubrirostris, Spix, Av. Bras. ii. p. 51, t. 67; Max. Beitr. iv. p. 528. 

Crax blumenbacM, Burm. Syst. Ueb. iii. p. 345. 

Craa yarrelli, Bennett, Gard. & Men. ii. p. 227; Yarrell, P. Z. S. 1830-1, p. 33 ; Sw. An. in Men. 
p. 188 ; Jard. et Selby, 111. Orn. iv. pi. vi. 

Nitenti-nigra : ventre imo crissoque albis : crista nigra versus apicem recurva : loris 
nudis : cerse tuberculo parvo et carunciila utrinque ad basin mandibulse rubris : pedibus 
comeis: long, tota 34, alae 15-5, caudse 18-5, tarsi 4. Fem. mari similis, sed crista 
albo fasciolata et ventre imo crissoque rufis. 

Hab. Wood-region of S.E. Brazil from Kio to Bahia {Max. and Burm.). 



280 ME. P. L. SCLATER ON THE CUEASSOWS 

This Cui-assow is easily distinguishable by its red bill, and has therefore been less 
often confounded with other species than most of its congeners. Burmeister, however, 
has united it to Crax hlumenhachi of Spix, supposing that Spix's figure may represent 
the female of the present bird. This can hardly be so. Spix's plate obviously repre- 
sents the female of C. cjloUcera, or of some allied species of which we do not yet know 
the male. If his locality (Rio) be correct, the latter is probably the case. 

List of living specimens of Crax carunculata exhibited since 1860. 

a. Male Purchased April 5, 1859. 

h. Female Purchased March 12, 1861. 

c, d. Purchased May 3, 1865. 

"■ '^^^^ I Received in exchange February 26, 1867. 

/. Female J 

^, h. Presented by Edward Thornton, Esq May 4, 1867. 

■i^ y. Deposited December 2, 1867. 

Ic. Deposited October 29, 1868. 

I. Female Purchased May 25, 1870. 

m. Male Purchased December 23, 1873. 

7. Crax alberti. (Plate XLVIII. J et ? .) 

Crax alberti, Fraser, P. Z. S. 1850, p. 216, t. 27 ; Gray, List of GaUinse, p. 15,.et Hand-l. ii. p. 253 ; 

Reichenb. Tauben, p. 136 ; Scl. et Salv. 1870, p. 517, et Nomencl. p. 135. 
Crax mikani ? , Pelzeln, Oru. Bras. p. 343. 

Nitenti-nigra : ventre imo, crisso et caudse apice albis : crista brevi, recurva, nigra : 
loris dense plumosis : cerse tuberculo et mandibulse carunculis cferuleis : rostri apice 
corneo: pedibus plumb eis : long, tota ,30-0, alae 15-5, cauda; 14. Fern, nigra: crista 
albo fasciolata: dorso, alis extus et cauda supra albo anguste transfasciatis : cauda 
albo terminata : remigibus externis et abdomine toto castaneis : ventre medio 
crissoque pallidioribus. 

Hob. Columbia. 

Mr. Eraser first described this Curassow (which may be readily known by its densely 
feathered lores and blue wattles), from a specimen living in the aviaries at Knowsley in 
1 850. It is, however, obvious that the bird described and figured by him (/. c. pi. xxviii.) 
as the female of C. alberti is not the true female of this species, but that of Crax 
globicera. 

Crax alberti is now not unfrequently brought alive to this country. There have been 
of late years specimens of both sexes in the Society's Gardens, as will be seen by the 
subjoined list. Its true patria, which was long unknown, is certainly the wood-region 
of Columbia. A female in the collection of Salvin and Godman was transmitted direct 
from Bogota by Mr. G. Crowther. There is a male in the Paris Museum, sent from 
the same locality by Dr. Lindig, and a female in the same collection obtained near Sta. 
Marta by M. Bonnecourt. 



LIVING IN THE SOCIETY'S GAEDENS. 281 

The bird described by Herr v. Pelzeln as the female of his Crax mikani, seems to be 
the female of this species, judging from the figure of the specimen, with which he 
has kindly supplied me, as also from his accurate description. 

List of living sjpecimens o/Crax alberti exhibited since 1860. 

n> *• Purchased April 2, 1868. 

c. Female Purchased JXay 25, 1870. 

d. Female Purchased July 28, 1870. 

«• Male Deposited October 26, 1870. 

/. Female Purchased March 1, 1873. 

9- Male Purchased January 21, 1874. 

As regards the preceding seven species of Crax, we are now acqu^nted with both 
sexes of each of them, and know the localities in which they occur in a state of nature. 
There remain some other dubious species, namely : — 

1. Crax pinima. 

Craxpinima, Pelzeln, Orn. Bras. pp. 287 et 341 ; Gray, Hand-1. ii. p. 253; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 

1870, p. 518, et Nomenel. p. 135. 
Crax fasdolata, Spix, Av. Bras. ii. p. 48, t. 62 a (?). 

Natterer obtained a single specimen of the bird described by Pelzeln as Crax pinima 
in the neighboui-hood of Para, and, as stated by v. Pelzeln, had at first doubts as to its 
being a valid species. He remarks in his MS. that the Mutmn pinima of Para, as it is ■ 
called there, does not differ from the Curassow of Cujaba and Paraguay (i. e. C. sclateri). 
Afterwards he appears to have changed his opinion, and to have designated the bird of 
Para C. pinima. On the whole I am inclined to believe that Crax pinima is founded on a 
female Crax sclateri. But I should be glad to be able to examine examples of both 
sexes of the Curassow of Para, in order to compare it with that of Mato Grosso and 
Paraguay, the range being rather extensive for one species of the genus. 

2. Ckax incommoda. (Plate XLIX.) 

Crax incommoda, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 690, et Rev. Cat. Vert. p. 295. 

In 1872 I proposed to give the temporary designation of Crax incommoda to the 
bird living in the Society's Gardens, of which I now give a figure. As will be seen, it 
comes nearest to the female of Crax daicbenioni, but is at once distinguishable by the 
narrow transverse white bars across the upper plumage, and the pale flesh-coloured legs. 
From the female oi Crax sclateri (PI. XLV .), which it likewise somewhat resembles, it is 
distinguishable by its larger size, white belly, baixed thighs, black bill, and differently 
coloured legs. 

VOL. i.\'. — PART IV. June, 1875. - 2 Q 



282 ME. P. L. SCLATEE ON THE CUEASSOWS 

This specimen, which was purchased of the Jardin d'Acclimatation of Paris in 1870, 
died in July 1873. It was examined by Mr. Garrod and ascertained to be a female. 
It is of large size, measuring in the skin (now in Messrs. Salvin and Godman's collection), 
total length 32 inches, wing 15, tail 13, tarsus 4 ; the lores are rather sparingly 
feathered. Mr. Garrod tells me the trachea in this bird was quite simple. 

[On October 30, 1873, we purchased (also from the Jardin d'Acclimatation) what is 
apparently a second specimen of the same species. It differs, however, in having much 
more white below, the feathers of the throat and breast being white, with transverse 
bars of black. There is also more white at the base of the crest. The iris is bright 
reddish brown ; the feet and legs pale greyish horn-colour. This specimen is still living 
in the Society's Gardens. — P. L. S. March 11, 1875.] 

[3. Ckax vikidikostris, sp. nov. 

Under this designation I have been somewhat unwillingly constrained to place on our 
register a Curassow which I met with in the Gardens of the Zoological Society of 
Amsterdam, during a recent visit, and which, having been most kindly lent to me by 
Mr. Westerman, is now in the Society's Gardens. It is perhaps most nearly allied to 
Crax alberti, having a large caruncle on the lower mandible as in that species. But 
this and the swollen cere are of a pale green colour instead of blue. It may be 
characterized as follows : — 

Nitenti-nigra : ventre imo crissoque et caudse apice albis : cristas plumis brevibus 
. exstantibus retroflexis : rostri cera tumida et carunculis mandibulse inferioris pallida 
viridescenti-fiavis : pedibus plumbeis : crassitie insignis : maiov q^xwca. Crax globicera. — 
P. L. S. June 3, 1875.] 

Genus II. Nothocrax. 

NoTHOCRAX URUMUTUM. (Plate L.) 

Crax ummutum, Spis, Av. Bras. ii. p. 49, t. 62; Gray, Gen. of B. iii. p. 486, et Hand-1. ii. p. 254; 
Cab. in Schomb. Guian. iii. p. 746; Keicheub. Tauben, p. 132; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras. p. 288. 
Urax urumutum, Burm. Syst. Ueb. iii. p. 347. 
Nothocrax urumutum, Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1870, p. 519, et 1873, p. 307, et Nomencl. p. 135. 

Rufescens, nigro vermiculata: pilei cristati plumis elongatis pendentibus nigris: 
cervice undique et corpore subtus castaneis, ventre imo in cinnamomeum traliente : 
Cauda nigricante, rectricum pogoniis externis rufescentibus nigro vermiculatis : spatio 
oculari late nudo, in ave viva cserulescente : rostro rubro : pedibus rubellis : long, tota 
24, alse 12, caudse 10, tarsi 2-6. 

Hab. British Guiana (iS'c/«o??i5.); Rio Negro {Spix zad Natt.) ; Rio Pastaza, Upper 
Amazons {E. Bartlett). 

We have not yet succeeded in obtaining living specimens of this rare and singular 
species. Mr. E. Bartlett's notes on its habits (P. Z. S. 1873, p. 307) are as follows : — 



LIVING IN THE SOCIETY'S GARDENS. 283 

" I first saw this beautiful species of Curassow in a Peruvian's house, at Santa Maria 
on the Huallaga, where it was running about along with the common fowls. The bird 
appeared to be lively and active, and would fight the dogs and fowls, driving them out 
of the house. A very curious circumstance is that when one of the hens commenced 
sitting, the bird would drive her off the nest and take her place ; this I witnessed 
myself: the attempt at incubation, however, was not of long duration ; for the Curassow 
destroyed the eggs, as I was informed afterwards by the owner. 

" I ascertained that the bird came from the Eio Pastaza ; and 1 believe it is not 
uncommon on that river and throughout the dense forests on the north-west bank of 
the Amazons. I have often heard this bird in the middle of the night near Nauta. 

" The Peruvians call it the Monte Piyu. 

" The habits of this bird render it most difficult to obtain, from its living in holes 
or burrows in the ground. The Indians remain in the forest all night at the place 
where it is first heard. I was informed by many of the Peruvians, whose word I could 
rely upon, that these birds come out at night, and ascend to the top branches of the 
lofty trees in search of food. The Indians are on the look-out, and shoot them just 
before sunrise as they are descending to return to their places of concealment, where 
they pass the day." — E. B. 

Natterer (Pelzeln, Om. Bras. p. 288) gives the same account of this bird's nocturnal 
habits, but says nothing of its living underground. 



Genus III. MiTUA. 

1. MiTUA TUBEROSA. (Plate LI.) 

Cram mitu, Linn. S. N. i. p. 270. 

Pauwi mitu, Temm. Pig. et Gall. iii. pp. 8, et 685 ; Gray, Gen. of B. iii. p. 487, et Haud-1. ii. p. 254. 

Mitu braziliensis, Reichenb. Tauben, p. 137. 

Ourax mitu, Cuv. Reg. An. 1817, i. p. 441 ; Temm. PL Col. 153 ; Bennett, Gard. & Men. ii. p. 129 ; 

Pelz. Orn. Bras. p. 288. 
Urax mitu, Bairm. Syst. Ueb. iii. p. 349. 
Crax tuberosa, Spix, Av. Bras. ii. p. 51, t. 67 a. 
Mitua tuberosa, Bates, Nat. on the Amazons, ii. p. 112, et ed. 2, p. 262 ; Sol. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1870, 

p. 520, et 1873, p. 307, et Nomencl. p. 135. 
Urax tuberosa, Bnrm. Syst. Ueb. iii. p. 348. 

Ourax erythrorhynchus. Swains. Classif. of B. ii. p. 352, et An. in Men. p. 187. 
Urax erythrorhynchus. Cab. in Schomb. Guian. iii. p. 747. 

Nigra purpurascente perfusa : ventre imo castaneo : caudse apice albo : loris dense 
plumosis : pilei plumis elongatis : rostri culmine valde elevate, antice cultrato, postice 

2q2 



284 MB. P. L. SCLATER ON THE CUEASSOWS 

incrassato, nibro: pedibus rubris: long, tota 33, alae 14, cauda? 12, tarsi 4. Fern. 
mari similis. 

Ilab. Rio Madeira and Mate Grosso (Natterer) ; Rio Tapajos (Bates) ; Eastern Peru, 
Chamicurros, and Loreto (JE. Bartlett). 

The occurrence of this Curassovv in British Guiana, though asserted by Schomburgk, 
appears to be very doubtful. It is a more southern species, and is probably only met with 
on the south side of the Amazons. Natterer obtained specimens of it near the city of 
Mato Grosso, and at various other points as he descended the Madeira. Bates met 
with it on the Rio Tapajos, and Bartlett on the Upper Amazons in Eastern Peru. 

Two males of this species [h and h of list), examined by Mr. Garrod, both presented 
a fair-sized tracheal loop. 

List of specimens ©/"Mitua tuberosa exhibited since 1860. 

a. Purchased August G, 1860. 

b, c. Presented by the Priuce de Joinville October 13, 1863. 

d, e. Presented by Sir AVilliara Clay, Bart December 17, 1863. 

/. Presented by E. Thornton, Esq . May 4, 1867. 

r/. Purchased May 25, 1870. 

Ji, I. Presented by Mrs. A. E. Nash January 2, 1875. 

2. MiTUA TOMEXTOSA. (Plate LII.) 

Ci-ax tomentosa, Spix, Av. Bras. ii. p. 49, t. 63. 

Pauxi tomentosa, G. R. Gray, Gen. of B. iii. p. 487, et Hand-1. ii. p. 254. 

Urax tomentosa, Cab. in Schomb. Guian. iii. p. 746 ; Burm. Syst. Ueb. iii. p. 349. 

Ourax tomentosa, Pelz. Orn. Bras. p. 288. 

Mitua tomentosa, Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1870, p. 520, et Nomeucl. p. 135. 

Nigra, purpureo nitens : ventre imo castaneo : caudse apice rufo : pilei plumis sub- 
elongatis, paulum exstantibus : loris dense phimosis : rostri culmine elevato, subcom- 
presso, rotundato, rubro, apice flavicante : pedibus rubris: long, tota 33, alse 15, caudte 
13-5, tarsi 4'5. Fern, mari similis. 

Hah. British Guiana {ScJiomh.) ; Rio Negro {Spix and Natt.) ; Rio Brancho (Natt.). 

Spix, the discoverer of this species, met with it on the Rio Negro, where Natterer 
also obtained many examples, as likewise on its northern affluent, the Rio Brancho. 
Schomburgk tells us that it is found on the wooded river-banks of the Savanna-rivers of 
British Guiana. 

List ofsjjecimens o/" Mitua tomentosa exhibited since 1860. 
a, b. Purchased January 14, 1862. 



LIVING IN THE SOCIETY'S GAEDENS 285 

Genus IV. Pauxis'. 
Pauxis galeata. (Plate LIII.) 

Crax pauid, Linn. S. N. i. p. 270. 

Pierre de Cayenne, BufF. PI. Enl. 78. 

Crax galeata, Lath. Ind. Orn. ii. p. 624. 

Pauxi galeata, Temm. Pig. et Gall. iii. pp. 1 et 683; Gray, Geu. of B. iii. p. 187, et Hand-1. ii. 

p. 354; Reichenb. Tauben, p. 137; Sel. et Salv. P.Z. S. 1870, p. 519, et Nomencl. p. 135; 

Sol. P.Z. S. 1870, p. 069. 
Ourax pauxi, Cuv. Regn. Anim. 1817, i. p. 441 ; Bennett, Gard. & Men. ii. p. 65. 
Lopliocerus galeatus. Swains. Classif. of B. ii. p. 353 et Au. in Men. p. 184. 
Ourax galeata, Tsch. F. P. p. 289. 

Nigra seneo nitens : ventre imo et caudse apice albis : pilei plumis brevibus, erectis : 
tuberculo frontali maximo, oviformi, ceeruleo : rostro rubro : pedibus carneis : loris 
dense plumosis : long, tota 34, alee 16, caudse 13, tarsi 4. Fern, mari similis, sed 
statura paulo minore. 

Hah. Venezuela : Rio Cassiquiari, and Upper Orinoco {Natt.) ; near Caracas (Levraud 
in Mus. Paris) ; near Tucacas ( Warmington). 

Natterer heard of this bird's existence when on the Upper Rio Negro, and has 
recorded that, according to information received from the natives, it occurs on the Rio 
Cassiquiari and adjoining parts of the Orinoco, and is called by the natives ''Pauxi de 
piedra," or Stone Curassow — a name also sometimes applied to it in English, from the 
pebble-like projection on the front of the bill. 

In Gray and Mitchell's ' Genera of Birds ' (pi. cxxii.), a figure is given of a brown bird 
(taken from a specimen in the gallery of the British Museum) which is named " Pauxi 
galeata." At the time Mr. Salvin and I prepared our Synopsis of the Cracidae, we 
were of opinion that this form (which is also represented here, PL LIII. fig. 2) was 
the normal female of the present species. But this appears not to be the case. 
Mr. Vekemans informs me that in a pair of these birds in the Antwerp Gardens, 
the female of which laid eggs in 1874, the only diiference consists in the smaller size 
of the female. 

Mr. G. Dawson Rowley, F.Z.S., writes to me upon the same subject as follows : — 

" In Gray's Genera, vol. iii., I find the plate of a brown bird named Pauxi galeata, 
of which I have shown to you an example living in my aviary. This example 
has been with me in perfect health for more than five years. It only differs from 
Gray's figure in that the edges of the feathers of the back and tail are nearly white, 
while he makes them light brown ; but this I suppose to be the consequence of age, as 
my bird is old, and the plumage is very perfect, fine and glossy. This bu-d is an 
undoubted hen. 

' Emended from " iVra.ri," in the same way as " Mitm " from " Miiu." Cf. Strickland, Ann. N. H. vii. 
p. 36 (1841). 



286 ME P. L. SCLATER ON THE CUEASSOWS 

" When I had the pleasure of consulting several high authorities respecting this bird, 
they all agreed that it was the female of Pauxi galeata, which for some time 
satisfied me. But one of the supposed Hack males of Fausi galeata in my aviary, small 
in size, has been seen to lay an egg, and has paired with the other black male, thus 
proving that the female in this species is exactly like the male, and not as described by 
you. P. Z. S. 1870, p. 519." 

Under these circumstances, I think there can be no question that the normal female 
of the present species resembles the male in plumage, and that the red bird either is of 
a distinct species or presents the exceptional case of a dimorphic female. I rather 
incline to the latter view, because Mr. Eowley's specimen was, I believe, received from 
the same port as his pair of the ordinary Patixi galeata, and because Temminck' says 
of this species, "Le plumage des femelles ne diifere point: les jeunes ont des teintes brunes 
et rousses." It may be, therefore, that in some cases the females remain throughout 
life in the immature plumage, as, I have reason to suspect, is sometimes the case in 
other species where the adult male and female are clad alike and the young has a 
different dress. 

lAst of specimens of Pauxis galeata exhibited since 1860. 

(7, h. Males C?) Purchased July 28, 1870. 



DESCEIPTION OF THE PLATES. 

PLATE XL. 

Crax glolicera, male and female, from specimens living in the Society's Gardens in 
September 1870. 

PLATE XLl. 

Crax daubentoni, male, from a specimen received from Tucacas, Venezuela, and pre- 
sented to the Society by Mr. J. Wright, September 29, 1870. See Rev. Cat. 
of Vert. (1872) p. 295. 

PLATE XLII. 
Crax daubentoni, female, from the specimen received on the same occasion. 

' Pig. et Gall. iii. p. 4. 



i 



LIVING IN THE SOCIETY'S GAEDENS. 287 

PLATE XLIII. 

Crax alector, male and female. Male, from a specimen living in the Society's Gardens 
in September 1870. Female, from a skin collected by Natterer at Barra do 
Rio Negro in September 1832, now in the collection of Messrs. Salvin and 
Godman. 

PLATE XLIV. 

Crax sclateri, male and female, fi-om skins obtained by Natterer on the Rio de Caba^al 
in 1825, now in Messrs. Salvin and Godman's collection. 

PLATE XLV. 

Crax sclateri, female, from a specimen living in the Society's Gardens in 1870, 
originally presented by the Prince de Joinville, October 13, 1863. See 
Rev. Cat. Vert. p. 294. 

PLATE XLVI. 
■ Crax glohulosa, male and female, from skins in the collection of Mr. G. N. Lawrence, 
of New York, C.M.Z.S. 

PLATE XLVII. 
Crax carunculata, male and female. Male, from a mounted specimen in the British 
Museum. Female, from a specimen living in the Society's Gardens. 

PLATE XLVIII. 
"Crax alberti, male and female. Male, from a bird living in the Gardens of the Zoolo- 
gical Society of Amsterdam. Female, from a specimen living in the Society's 
Gardens. 

PLATE XLIX. 
Crax incommoda, from the typical specimen living in the Society's Gardens, drawn in 
October 1871. 

PLATE L. 
Nothocrax urmmitum, from a specimen in the British Museum. 



288 MR. P. L. SCLATBR ON CUBASSOWS. 

PLATE LT. 

Mitua tiiberosa, from a specimen living in the Society's Gardens, September 1870. 

PLATE LIL 

Mitun tomenfosa, from a skin collected by Natterer at Marabitanas in April 1831, now 
in the collection of Messrs. Salvin and Godman. 

PLATE LIII. 

Fig. 1. Pauxis galeaia, from a specimen living in the Society's Gardens in 1874, being 

one of two specimens purchased July 23, 1870. See P. Z. S. 1870, p. 669. 
Fig. 2. Pauxis galeata, var. rubra, from the specimen in the British Museum. 



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[ 289 ] 



V. On JEgithogiMthous Birds (Part I.). By W. K. Parker, F.R.S., F.Z.S. 

Read February 18th, 1873. 

[Plates LIV. to LXII.] 

Introductory Remarks. 

J_ HOSE who take pleasure in ornithology know well that systematists, working for 
the most part from external characters, are continually at a loss when some new and 
mixed type, which will not fit into their plan, is brought before them. The pre- 
sent race of ornithologists is a vast improvement upon the past, and, with greater 
catholicity of mind, are not unwilling to receive help from workers who, not devoted 
to birds alone, nor in any group to outward characters merely, are wont to dig deeper 
for diagnostics. 

If any one shall say that taxonomic ornithology is full-blown and perfect, I would 
ask. Why then do no two systematists agree together \ A hundred classifiers, a hundred 
so-called systems. I suppose that the most violent raid ever made upon a people quiet 
and secure was when Professor Huxley read his invaluable paper before this Society 
(April 11, 1867) "on the Classification of Birds; and on the Taxonomic Value of the 
modifications of certain of the cranial bones observable in that class. "^ 

I am proud in the consciousness of having been of some service to the author of that 
paper, which is at once a model to work by and a platform to work upon. If such a 
production were perfect, it would cease to grow; but its large, sinewy, and rather 
awkward limbs give promise of something better than those full-grown but feeble 
" systems " the skeletons of which have filled this valley of vision with their bones. 

I know it will be said — it has been said, that to take the palate merely as a means 
for diagnosis is to be extremely partial, and that such characters will be misleading. 
Such objections are natural enough to those whose minds are most richly stored with 
a knowledge of the exquisite modifications of the outward structure of a bird, but 
whose studies have not been based upon accurate morphological knowledge. 

Even the outward form of the face gives the key-note to the whole bird ; the human 
face looking out from above the neck of a Girafffe would scarcely be more absurd than 
a Hornbill's face mounted on the neck of a Swan. The head and face rule all things 
else. Every modification in the organs of progression must be in correlation with that 
deeper change which has taken place in the storied and labyrinthic walls of the head 
So also, with regard to the other organs, chylopoietic, generative, and the like ; all these 

' See P. Z. S. 1867, p. 415. 

VOL. IX. — PART V. December, 1875. 2 a 



290 PROF. W. K. PAEKEE ON ^GITHOGNATHOUS BIRDS. 

are ruled by, all these follow, those subtle early modifications of the primordial struc- 
ture of the head. 

But those who, with the new lights of morphological science, seek to help the 
classifiers, to whom they are so much indebted, do not look upon a bird as if it were a 
special creation, a new thing in the earth, standing alone, a plumy wonder. The bird 
is, as it were, but a metamorphosed hot-blooded reptile ; and the reptile itself a step 
and stage upwards from a series of creatures still a little lower in the scale of life. And 
here lies the charm of the morphological study of birds, namely in the amazing meta- 
morphosis which the simple facial arches and nasal sacs undergo. It is the condition 
of these parts especially that has engaged my attention of late. The postoral arches 
have, indeed, been studied by me less than those in front of and above the mouth ; but 
the latter once determined and thoroughly made out, the others offer no difficulty. 

In working out the trabecular and palatine arches and nasal capsules, however, every 
refinement of histological method has to be used, and light fetched in from the mor- 
phology of the same parts in the other Vertebrata. 

In the present communication I have not been benefited alone by Professor Huxley's 
paper just referred to, but also by another with which he favoured us on the 14th of 
May, 1868 — "On the Classification and Distribution of the ' Alectoromorphse ' and 
' Heteromorphse '" (see P. Z. S. 1868, p. 294). A careful study of this latter paper 
has opened my eyes to what seems to me a most vital part of these studies. I refer 
to the light they may throw upon the variation and distribution of types. This idea 
has been incubating in my own slower mind ever since Mr. Sclater put it into my power 
to dissect the Southern type of Crow, namely Gymnorhina tihicen. That was eight or 
nine years since ; and the Crows have always, with that light, been to me divided into 
those of the "Notogeea" and those of the "Arctogsea." 

Moreover the terrestrial habits and earth-born physiognomy of several of the larger 
and middle-sized Southern Passerines have attracted my attention for many years past ; 
for I strongly suspected that these have had a much more direct and immediate 
struthious parentage than those highest results of metamorphic change, the songsters 
and Crows of our own hemisphere. This rooted belief has grown into something like 
certainty to me of late ; for within the present year my friend Mr. Osbert Salvin has 
put his rich collection of southern specimens of skeletons into my hands: my own 
rather extensive series consisted principally of northern types. 

These new treasures did not comprise many from Australia ; but our excellent 
Senior Clerk (Mr. W. J. Williams) has given me several spirit-specimens from that 
part of the Notogaea, and these have turned out to be of the utmost value. Working 
lately at the face of embryo bii-ds to supplement morphological deficiencies in my 
paper on the Fowl's skull (Phil. Trans. 1869), I stumbled upon the remarkable 
modifications of the embryonic passerine face which give to the adult the character 
denominated by Professor Huxley, " .Egithognathous." This type is characterized by 



PEOF. W. K. PAEKBE ON ^aiTHOGNATHOUS BIRDS. 291 

him in his usually terse and lucid manner ; but he does not give any very definite 
explanation of the meaning of the parts. Speaking of the region to which I have 
recently given most attention, he says (p. 451), "The anterior part of the nasal septum 
(in front of the vomer) is frequently ossified in ^githognathous birds, and the interval 
betvi^een it and the praemaxilla filled up with spongy bone ; but no union takes place 
between this ossification and the vomer." So far, true ; but this is a very meagre account 
of the matter ; and whether the " spongy bones," mostly cartilaginous, belong to the 
same category as our own " inferior turbinals," or are the large ornithic "' alinasal 
turbinals," is not stated ; neither is it noticed what kind of union takes place between 
the vomer and these turbinals. 

It is evident that nothing but the embryology of their parts, and their comparison 
through a huge series, can test the value of the group to which the term ^githo- 
gnathous is applied. 

Neither does our author fairly superimpose his " Coracomorphae " upon his "^githo- 
gnathse," although they come far nearer to fitting than any other of the groups charac- 
terized on the one hand by their general form, and on the other by their facial modi- 
fications. 1 have only found three families of the " ^Egithognathse " that cannot 
logically be placed amongst the "Coracomorphae" — namely, the " Cypselidse" in the 
crown, and the " Turnicidae " and " Thinocoridae " amongst the roots, of the great ornithic 
life-tree. But other facial groups, " Desmognathae," " Schizognathae," &c. turn up any- 
where and everywhere; so that the ornithologist mindful of great groups of one 
especial form, the Crow-form for instance, and yet desirous of seeing all things in the 
light of facial morphology, must work with both hands earnestly, now surveying the 
thousands of types in conformity with that one pattern, and then using his knowledge 
of their anatomical analysis. 

With regard to the form-gj'oiqjs,! have to complain that they are not of equal worth, 
but far from it ; these self-same " Coracomorphae " are, zoologically, worth four or five of 
other groups that might be pointed out, which yet have a like terminology : this must 
be remedied. Yet it is a fact that the Passerine birds are most potent of all in families, 
genera, and species, and that these, forming half the known birds, are, on the whole, 
wonderfully uniform. The limits of the aegithognathous group given here will not 
accord with those given by my friend. I reject his Goatsuckers and Humming-birds, retain 
his Swifts, and bring in from the lower kinds of Carinatae the Hemipods' and TMno- 
corus. These low types, especially, make the harmony of the two maps, the facial and 
the physiognomical, impossible. But they do this : they make the investigation of the 

' Professor Huxley did not, I believe, suspect that a family classed by him with the Fowls (Alectoromorphse) 
was possessed of an aegithognathous face ; yet this the " TurnieidK " have, as I find, both by examination of the 
skull of the young and adult Hemijjodius varius, and the skull of the young of Turnix rostratus. 

Mr. Robert Swinhoe, F.Z.S., sent me the latter; my friend Mr. Osbert Salvin, F.R.S., has lent me 
the Hemipod and many others, vital to my work ; and Mr. W. J. Williams, of the Zoological Society, pre- 
sented me with six invaluable passerine forms from AustraUa. 

2 e2 



292 PROF. W. K. PARKER ON ^GITHOGNATHOUS BIRDS. 

whole matter very bewitching, suggesting that we are somewhat near the stock (phylum) 
from which the multitudinous Passerines have sprung. 

Moreover every patient fellow worker will see eye to eye with me, that in the south 
we find the most struthious types, and in the north the highest, and that our bird- 
groups are as important for study in their geographical distribution as in their taxonomy 
or their morphology. 

The " Trochilidae " and " Caprimulgidse " have to be treated of separately ; and the 
" Celeomorphge " (Woodpeckers and Wrynecks, classed togetlier) may be designated, 
facially, as the " Saurognathse." These latter are peculiarly lacertian in their face ; the 
Humming-birds and Goatsuckers are schizognathous, not segithognathous, as Professor 
Huxley supposed {op. cit. p. 454). 

I find upon close examination that the " J^githognathse " admit of three morpho- 
logical subdivisions, and the " Desmognathse " of four ; and as the remainder of this 
research may have to rest awhile, these subdivisions may be given here. 

The " ^githognathae " present the three following modifications in their structure : — 
a, incomplete ; b, complete ; c, compound. 

a. Incomplete. — .lEgithognathism occurs in the " Turnicomorphse" {Ilemipodius, 
Turnix). Here the vomerine cartilages (cartilages to which the symmetrical vomers are 
attached)' are very large, and incompletely ossified, and the broad double vomer has a 
" septo-maxillary " at each angle ; but these bones are only strongly tied to the " ali- 
nasal " cartilage, and do not graft themselves upon it : their union is with the vomerine 
cartilage. 

b. Complete : Var. 1. — This occm-s in some of the lowest harsh-voiced " Coraco- 
morphse." The vomers are developed in large vomerine cartilages, which they often 
only partially ossify ; but these osseous tracts are distinct from those of the often bony 
alinasal walls and turbinals. A small " septo-maxillary," one each side, generally appears 
limpet-like, on the inturned angle of the alinasal cartilage, but does not run into it ; 
this is well seen in Fachyrhainphus, Piiyra, and Thamnophilus. 

Var. 2. — This occurs in an immense group comprising the higher " Coracomorphse " 
and also the Swifts (Cypselidse). Here all the vomerine bones are grafted upon the 
nasal wall, and thus the bird loses its primary " schizognathism." 

c. Compound. — This form of face occurs when, superadded to the perfectly segitho- 
gnathous face, desmognalhism is produced by ankylosis of the inner edge of the maxil- 
laries, with a highly ossified " alinasal " wall and nasalseptum. Examples Gymnorhina 
tibicen, Paradisea fapuana, Artamus leucorhimis. Of this type a feebler form is 
produced when the maxillaries only coalesce with the ossified alinasal wall, as in Dendro- 
colaptes albicollis, Thamnophilus doliatus, and Phytotoma rara. 

It may be as well to mention here the varieties of the " desmognathous " palate. 

' These belong to the labial category, and can be identified with similar elements in the face of the Snake, 
Frog, and Shark. 



PROF. W. K. PAEKEE ON ^GITHOGNATHOUS BIRDS. 293 

a. Direct, as in the Falcons and Geese, when the maxillaries meet below at the 
mid line, as in the mammal : two subvarieties of this form occur, as in the Falcon, 
where the nasal septum is ankylosed to this hard palate ; and in the Goose, where it 
remains free. 

h. Indirect. — This is very common and is best seen in Eagles, Vultures, and Owls ; 
the maxillo-palatines are ankylosed to the nasal septum by their inner margin, but 
are separated from each other by a chink ; this is well seen also in the fledgeling of 
the Falcon, which is indirectly desmognathous at that early stage. 

c. Imperfectly direct. — This is when the maxillo-palatine plates are united by 
harmony-suture, and not by coalescence. Example Dicliolophus cristatus. 

d. Imperfectly indirect. — Here the maxillo-palatine plates are closely articulated 
with and separated by the " median septo-maxillary " bone, but these are not ankylosed. 
Example Megalcema asiatica. 

A fifth variety might have been added, in such a case as Podargus, where the 
palatines as well as the maxillaries largely coalesce below ; to a less extent this is seen 
in the gigantic species of Hornbills, e. g. Buceros birostris (see Huxley, t07n. cit. p. 446. 
fig. 28). 

Podargus carries this desmognathism to the greatest extent of any bird ; in the 
Crocodile, and in the Anteater, a still more extended hard palate occurs, where the 
internal pterygoid plates form a lower bridge. 

The unpublished materials from which I have made these extracts illustrate several 
forms of desmognathism, besides the early conditions of the segithognathous palate 
and such schizognathous fonns as Trochilus and Caprimulgus. 

I have already given several figures of the schizognathous palate in my former 
paper, " On the Gallinaceous Birds and Tinamous " (Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. v. pi. 40). 
Here pi. 37 illustrates Syrrhaptes and Lagopus, and pi. 38 Vanellus and Columha ; 
pi. 40 gives the struthious or dromseognathous face of Tinamus. But the most familiar 
and simple illustration of the schizognathous face is seen in the Fowl (Phil. Trans. 
1869, pis. 81-87). 

These details of morphology have to be mastered before the taxonomic value of 
these facial characters can be known, or in any way appreciated ; and they are matters 
that lie somewhat deeper than the length or thickness of a primary quill, or the 
direction of the outer toe. 

The materials out of which the segithognathous face has been formed, exist, in a raw 
state, in the reptiles (Lacertilia, Ophidia) and, still nearer home, in the Rhea. 

The counterparts of the cartilages in which the first osseous centre for each " vomer " 
is found in the " ^githognaths," were long since figured by me in the Ehea (Phil. 
Trans. 1866, pi. 10. fig. 14, alate sections on each side of r.b.s and v), and also were 
found in the common Snake (Natrix torquata) and in the embryo of Eunectus murinus ; 
these studies of the Ophidian face have not, however, been published. 



294 ■ PROF. W. K. PARKER ON ^GITHOGNATHOUS BIRDS. 

Besides these " vomerine " or labial cartilages, there is what I shall freely illustrate 
here as the " recurrent trabecular lamina ;" this is formed by the apices of the recurrent 
trabecular cornua, which have coalesced. 

The first group I now take up will make these matters clear to the reader, and will 
also give us the most rudimentary and reptilian condition of the nasal labyrinth — one 
very important part of the present subject. 

On the Morphology of the Face in the " Tuenicomorph^." 

I have had rare opportunities lately for studying this peculiar group of birds, and 
can correct some things in which I was misled in my former paper (" On the Galli- 
naceous Birds," Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. v. p. 172). 

A few years since my friend Mr. Swinhoe, Consul at Amoy, sent me some young spe- 
cimens of Tnrnix rostrata, from Formosa, in spirits ; Mr. Salvin has put into my hands 
a very perfect skeleton of Hemipodius varius, in which the nasal cartilages are preserved 
in a dry state ; and I have also the separate parts of the skull of a young Hemijiodlus 
varius, the gift of Dr. Murie. 

If the palate of the young Turnix (PI. LIV. fig. 1) be compared with that of the 
Syrrhaptes, Grouse, Plover, and Pigeon, already referred to as figured in my former 
paper, it will be seen at a glance that these birds have much in common ; they belong, 
evidently, to one morphological stratum, or nearly so. But the Turnix is the lowest 
of these types ; and it would seem as if he and his compeers were the waifs and strays 
of a large and widely distributed group of birds only a little higher in the scale than 
the Tinamous. 

From such a group, largely extinct, the Sand-Grouse may have arisen ; from such a 
stock the Plovers ; and these old types may also be looked upon as zoologically paternal 
to several other modern families, the greatest of these being the Passerines. As to the 
relation of the Hemipods to existing types, I cannot do better than refer the reader to 
Professor Huxley's paper on the " Alectoromorphae " (Zool. Proc. 1868, pp. 302-304). 

There, however, no suspicion has been given as to the meaning of the broad " vomer " 
in relation to the Passerines ; it is merely compared to that of the Grouse — not of 
Lagojnis, but of Tetrao urogallus (see " On the Classification of Birds " Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1867, p. 432, fig. 140). But even that vomer is a poor representative of that of the 
Hemipod, and for some years it has been a mystery to me because of its passerine 
form. 

The flat-faced stump of the bone which in Hemipodius binds on each side the 
trabecular to the palatine arch — " basi-pterygoid process " (PI. LIV. figs. 1 & 9 i.j^ff) — 
accords exactly in place and size with that of the Pigeon and Plover, and is less 
struthious than that of Syrrhaptes. 

The parasphenoidal bar (fig. 1, pa.s) is rather massive in the young; but in the old 



PROF. W. K. PAEKEE ON ^GITHOGNATHOUS BIRDS. 295 

Hemipod (fig. 9) it is much more like that of the Ostrich family ; and this trabecular 
underbearer of the ethmoid (fig. 11, ja.e) is swollen and spongy as in the " Eatitse." 

The cranio-facial " hinge," however, is as perfect as in the Fowl ; and the rest of the 
coalesced trabecular bar is unossified and forms the lower edge of a feeble septum nasi 
(s.n). As in the Crow and many of the " CoracomorphaB," the trabecular base of the 
septum is alate in its middle region (fig. 4, s. n, tr). The prsemaxilla (figs. 1, 2, 9, 
10, 11, ^.r), even in the old bird, remains but little different from what is seen in the 
ripe chick of the Fowl (" Fowl's Skull," pi. 84), having a form common to Pigeons, 
Sandgrouse, and Hemipods. 

The body of the bone is of small extent, the dentary processes thin and splintery 
(d.j)x), the palatine processes (fig. 1, p.px) very slender styles, such as we everywhere see 
in the feebler Coracomorphse ; and the early ankylosed nasal processes (fig. 2, n.px) 
are flat, splintery, and struthious. These processes retain their outline in the adult (fig. 10) 
after they have coalesced with their surroundings. But the greatest marvel in this bird's 
face is the peculiarities of its vomer, both in form and development. Very strange in 
form is the one figured by me in my earlier paper (" On the Gallinaceous Birds," &c. 
pi. 34. fig. 1, v), where it is described as the " little broad vomer," which is convex 
anteriorly, with a short horn at each angle, and ending behind in a slight style on each 
side for attachment to the palatine '. 

This species was not determined ; but it had the most coracomorphic vomer of the 
three worked out by me ; compare that figure with those of the young Crow (Monthly 
Micr. Joum. Nov. & Dec. pis. 36-39, v). 

But dry, adult specimens give no idea of the true meaning of this vomer, which is com- 
posed of four osseous and two cartilaginous elements, as in the huge " family," or 
rather " order," of the Coracomorphse. Amongst the birds that have uprisen from the 
Tumicine " stratum," the Plovers have a symmetrical vomer, formed of two sickle-shaped 
pieces, in indifierent tissue. The Sandgrouse and Pigeons, as far as 1 have seen, have no 
vomer (" GaUin. Birds," pis. 36 & 37) ; but the true Grouse, and all the "Alectoromorphse " 
proper, have an azygous vomer formed in indifferent tissue (op. cit. pi. 36. fig. 6 ; and 
"Fowl's Skull," pi. 83. fig. 1, pi. 84. fig. 6, pi. 86. figs. 3, 4, 5, 10, 14, 15, and pi. 87. 
fig. 5, v). 

Thus, starting from the truly struthious face of the Tinamou, with its immense 
symmetrical vomer, we suddenly find ourselves in the very midst of vomerine modifi- 
cations which are only a little more specialized even in types the furthest removed from 
the base^. 

In the young of Turnix rostrata the broad part of the vomer (fig. 8, v) is very short, 

' The " praevomers " there spoken of are the true " maxillaries ;" the " prtevomerine " ossicles or " septo- 
maxillaries " are the separated " horns " of the vomer, as I shall soon show. 

'' If the convenient fancy of our ornithic life-tree be kept in mind, to help the memory, then this tree must 
be one of many branches, suddenly starting from the root. 



296 PROF. W. K. PAEKER ON ^GITHOGNATHOUS BIRDS. 

and the styliform crura long and delicate ; the fore margin is clearly notched ; it then 
suddenly widens, and on each shoulder there is a triangular snag with its projecting 
base looking outward and fixed and grafted upon a sigmoid spatula of cartilage (v. c). 
This compound lyre-shaped vomer is strongly attaclied to the nasal floor (al. n) by a 
broad and short ligament composed of connective fibres. In the adult (fig. 9, v) the 
angular snags have been segmented off as small " septo-maxillaries " {s.mx), the body 
of the bone has become very thick, and the crura stronger. The inferior surface is 
subcarinate, the superior scooped. Here the main difference between this vomerine 
arrangement and that of the Passerines is, that the bony substance has affected the 
cartilaginous segment, but not the nasal labyrinth. Yet the amount of metamorphosis 
seen in these birds is greatly in advance of the pupal simplicity of the Rhea ; even where 
the vomerine cartilage occurs in a high type, as in the Celebesian Woodpecker [Hemi- 
lophus fulvus), there is no morphological union with the vomerine bones. 

The pterygo-palatine arch is very strong in its posterior half, and of extreme tenuity 
in front. The suspensorial segment, " pterygoid " (figs. 1 & 9, pg), is not tip-tilted 
as in most of the Coracomorphae, but agrees in this respect with the forms that lie 
in its own lower stratum, the apex being compressed and bilobate, so as to abut against 
the quadrate up to its orbital process. For the rest, its form is exactly that of a 
Pigeon or Plover ; but it appears to be gallinaceous in one important aspect — namely, 
that the mesopterygoid spur is fore-shortened, and is here formed into a crest, convex 
without and concave within, where it forms a gliding joint on the swollen basifacial 
beam (fig. l\,pg, pa.s). But in the young Ilemipodius varius it is a long separate bone 
(fig. 13, ms.pg) ; and what is unusual is its coalescence with the pterygoid again, and not 
with the palatine. This being the case, the narrow outturned postpalatine bar fits but 
loosely to that beam, but converges to meet its fellow below it, to form a fibrous com- 
missure, symmorphic of a very early condition of the lyriform trabecular arch. The 
small " interpalatines," which are inbent snags, are of less extent than the overlying 
ethmopalatine laminae, which articulate with the feet of the vomer (figs. 1 & 9, i.pa, 
epa, v). Opposite these the palatines bend gracefully round to pass forward as the long 
prsepalatine styles (pr.pa) ; there is therefore no rudiment of the " transpalatine angle ;" 
yet the groove between the outer and inner edge on the lower face of the bone is rather 
deep. In front these bones reach to the solid part of the praemaxillaries, and stretch 
themselves in front of their chief splints, the maxillaries (figs. 1 & 9, ^jr.po;, ww). These 
latter bones are simple models, out of which, by further extension of bony matter, the 
maxillaries of any kind of " Carinate " bird might be evolved. Each frail bony bar has 
the usual processes and parts, namely : — the main or dentary portion, fish-like in lying 
within the prtemaxillary ; the ascending facial process, which articulates with the 
descending crus of the nasal (fig. II, n.tnx) ; the conjugational " maxillo-palatine " hook 
(mx.p) ; and the retral jugal style {j. mx), or zygomatic process. 

In the young Turnix (fig. I, ?jm'.^) the former are very slender styles, blunt-pointed 



PKOr. W. K. PAJiKEE OX ^GITHOGNATHOUS BIEDS. 297 

at the end, and /-shaped ; but they are thicker in the young and old Ileniipodius, are 
bowed outwards, and have a process at the base : this is most marked in the adult ; it is 
pedate, its broad end looking to that of its fellow (fig. 9, mx.p). As far as mere length 
is concerned, this is equal to what is seen in their counterparts in the Coracomorphte 
generally ; it is a state of embryonic simplicity. The jugal styles of the maxillary, the 
slender jugals and quadrato-jugals of the young (fig. l,j, q.j) are all coalesced together 
in the adult ; so that whilst in number the bones conform to the Galline and Pluvialine 
types, in condition they approach the Passerines. 

The same two-facedness is shown in the great tripartite ethmoid, which I will de- 
scribe in the adult first, and then give the details of the nasal labyrinth in the young. 
Behind the very complete craniofacial " hinge " the trabecular base of the middle 
ethmoid is greatly swollen into an anterior and posterior mass, with a vertical sulcus 
between, a little in front of the pteiygoid ; for the pterygoids clasp the hinder of these 
swellings, and the ethmo-palatine laminae that in front. Thus the trabeculse give off 
a short pair of conjugationals as they converge towards their long and complete com- 
missure ; and then the two arches cling to each other by the reconsolidated mesoptery- 
goids and the ethmo-palatines, the trabecular bar swelling towards them. But there is 
no " OS uncinatum," and the conjugational process of the palatine (ethmo-palatine) clasps 
the splint, or parasphenoid, and the united trabecular bar. 

The median ethmoid is continuous with the lateral masses, or " ecto-ethmoids ;" and 
these have become spongy hones in another sense than their counterparts the upper and 
middle turbinals of Man. In us they infold themselves to give room for the olfactory 
mucous membrane ; in the Hemipod they, by swelling into bony tubercles, exclude the 
olfactory tract (figs. 10 & 11, e.eth). This is seen in a lesser degree in Pigeons (espe- 
cially the Dodo), in the Sandgrouse, and the Plovers ; but the Hemipod has only one 
rival in this character, namely the Bell-bird [Chasmorhynchus), which I shall describe 
anon. The antorbital mass {p.p) is a rounded kregular cake of bone, and has no seg- 
mented angle answering to the " os uncinatum." 

The frontals, nasals, and nasal processes of the praemaxillaries largely enroof the 
ethmoid, which, however, appears at the eave of the large orbit in front. That appa- 
rent subdivision into an antorbital and lachrymal, as described and lettered in my former 
paper, is a mistake, caused by my using analogy for my guide ; there is no lacrymal ; 
and in this respect the Hemipod differs from Plovers and Pigeons. In my former 
paper (p. 195) I supposed a lachrymal in Syrrhaptes; but it seems to be as apocryphal 
as in Hemipodius. In the great Crow-group, only the largest kinds have even a very 
secondary fore-wedged pupiform lacrymal; in most it is either absent or extremely 
small. 

The nasal labyrinth of Hemipodius is neither struthious nor coracomorphic, nor does 
it correspond with what is seen in birds near its own ornithic level ; it is a stepping- 
stone from the simplicity of these parts in the reptiles to their elegant labyrinthic con- 

VOL. IX. — PAET V. December, 1875. 2 s 



298 PKOF. W. K, PAEKEK ON ^GITHOGNATHOUS BIEDS. 

dition in the ordinary bird. That of the Fowl (Phil. Trans. 1869, plate Ixxxvi.) may 
be taken as a medium form ; and a comparison of these together will reveal the ornithic 
shortcomings of the Hemipod. Seen from above (fig. 2) and from below (fig. 1) the 
whole labyrinth is large and tumid, the " alinasal " region (al.n) occupying two thirds 
of the whole ; and of the remainder much belongs, like the fore part, to the air-sifting 
region, that which is supplied merely by the nasal branches of the fifth nerve. 

A transversely vertical section through the first third of the long narial slits (fig. 3) 
shows the sharp fore end of the nasal septum (s. n) and the " alee " given off by it, the 
alinasal roof. Near the septum a flap of cartilage is given oif as a secondary growth, 
which turns its hollow face outwards and thickens below ; this is the "alinasal turbinal" 
{a. th) ; it is very similar to what is seen in the Fowl (torn. cif. plate Ixxxvi. figs. 1 & 2, 
n. tb). Letting the eye follow this series of sections it will be seen that the continuity 
of the various flaps has been destroyed by the first section, these divided cartilages being 
only apparently separate. If the whole labyrinth were separated out, and held with its 
fore end upwards, it would be seen to be two imperfectly closed tubes with three upper 
internal divisions, with the under surface split into four ribbons of cartilage, and having 
the base or the antorbital region closed in by a large sheet of cartilage, continuous with 
all but the infero-median flaps. The alinasal roof overlaps the wall ; and at this part 
the wall is cojjed with a double outgrowth ; it is also coiled upon itself into three fourths 
of a cylinder, the inner edge coiling towards the turbinal («. tb): thus the tvall becomes 
the _^oor- Over this section we have the thick root of the nasal portion of the prse- 
maxillaries ()!.ji)x); against it the dentary part {d.px), the apex of the maxillary {mx), 
and, below, the prsepalatine spur (jjr.jM). 

In the next section (fig. 4), within these bony bars we have a changed condition of 
the labyrinth ; the septum has its basal, trabecular (tr) thickening (rudimentary " sub- 
nasal laminffi "), and the alinasal turbinal (a. tb) bent knee-like at its upper third and 
much expanded below. The upturned nasal floor has become separate fi'om the down- 
turned nasal wall (n.f n. w). In fig. 5 the fore part of the upper crus of the nasal (w) 
has been cut through, and the face has been severed where the skin of the forehead 
insheaths the skin of the beak, as we see in Ostriches and Tinamous. This sheath is 
indicated by a dotted line in fig. 2. This section is through the double valley between 
the alinasal and aliseptal swellings (fig. 2, al.n, al.s) ; and a branch of the nasal nerve 
[n. n) is seen piercing the thickness of the cartilage on each side of the septum, 
above. 

As the alinasal region overlaps the aliseptal below, it (with its turbinal) lies lower in 
this section ; its outgrowth («. tb) has become more angular, or genuflexed, towards the 
septum, and thicker and upcoiled below. The uptilted floor-flaps [n. f) are brought 
closer to the turbinals {a. tb) and to the septum, and much further from the wall, the 
section of which is now largely hammer-headed. This section (fig. 5) is a front view ; 
and from the short aliseptal region {cil.s) we see a small ear-like process (outgrowth) ; 



PROF. W. K. PAEKEK ON ^GITHOGNATHOUS BIRDS. 299 

this is the anterior extremity of the true " inferior turbinal " (i. tb). This turbinal is 
shown in the next section at its fullest development (fig. 6, seen from behind), a mere 
foot-shaped outgrowth from the little extended "aliseptal" region, this part being 
almost aborted by the huge nostril-covers (alse nasi). We shall see that in the Rook 
the " inferior turbinal " infolds itself two and a half times, in the Fowl twice, in the 
Rhea (" Ostrich Skull," pi. 10. figs. 14 & 15) and in the Tinamou (ib. pi. 15. fig. 9, tb) 
three times, whilst in the " Casuarinse" (ib. pis. 10. & 12) this fold breaks up so as to 
be a veritable " arbor vitee " in section. In this section (fig. 6) the septum (s. n) is thin- 
ning out towards the hinge ; the alinasal wall is coiling inwards and thickening, still 
having its huge turbinal flap {a. tb) ; close behind this part the long submesial flap is 
tied strongly to the vomerine cartilage (fig. 8, lower view). The floor-flaps (»./) 
are very large here ; near their end their strongly bowed inner faces are very close 
together. 

The next section (fig. 7) is viewed from behind ; and the left antorbital plate or " pars 
plana " {p. ]}) is cut away : it is very large, as is shown on the other side. Between 
the alar and median parts of the fast-hardening ethmoid {]}. e) and the antorbital 
wall there is a large open space, admitting the ingress of both first and fifth nerves 
(1, n. n). 

This ecto-ethmoidal cartilage (upper ethmoid and pars plana) appears on the surface 
above and laterally; hence the abortion of the lachrymal, as in the Passerinte. 
There is nothing to be called " upper turbinal " (u. tb) except the circular infolding of 
the aliethmoid (al.e) just in front of the antorbital wall; and the " inferior turbinal" 
shows a greater curvature just in front of that wall. The " middle turbinal " is only 
represented by a somewhat ridgy condition of the great posterior plate, between the 
other two. Having studied these parts in the highest Amphibia {Sana) and in the 
Snake, Lizard, Crocodile, and Turtle, I am enabled to say that the " TurnicomorphEe," 
although formed on the ornithic plan, yet have their nasal labyrinth very little in ad- 
vance of what is seen in those cold-blooded types, and considerably below that of the 
" saurognathous " Woodpeckers. The postoral region presents a peculiarity which can- 
not be passed over, although the plan of the present paper does not strictly include 
those parts. 

In my former Plates of these birds I figured in H. varius a large tympanic (" Gallina- 
ceous Birds and Tinamous," pi. 35. figs. 1 & 2), and in the other species (pi. 34. figs. 1 
& 2) a larger and a smaller bone ; but in this invaluable skeleton, lent me by Mr. 
Salvin, I find six (PI. LIV. fig. 12, ti/) ! and the last but one of this chain is much the 
larger, and is folded upon itself like a viper's tooth, as if to enclose some tube. I am 
not certain whether the " siphonium," which carries air into the lower jaw, is embraced 
by this bone or not ; in my next instance it is, as I will soon show. 

Considered by itself, the Hemipode is a low type of the " Carinatse," more reptilian 
in some respects than the " Ratitae " down below it. But if it be looked at as a remnant 

2s2 



300 PEOF. W. K. PAKKEE ON ^GITHOGNATHOUS BIEDS. 

of an ancient and almost extinct race, a race from which the most highly gifted and the 
most numerous of all the feathered tribes have probably sprung, then the interest in- 
creases ten-fold, and the morphologist will never rest until the relations of every 
branch to this simple stock are understood. 

To this end a clear conception of what is highest in the facial morphology of birds 
is, before all things, necessary; and our Old-World Crows and Warblers will furnish 
us with " that which is most perfect in its own kmd," and therefore fit to be " the 
measure of the rest." 



On the Morphology of the Face in the Coeacomorph^. 

Example 1. Corvus frugilegus. 

Hahitat. Great Britain and Europe. Group " Oscines," Miiller ; family " Corvidee." 

In all respects, physiological, morphological, and ornithological, the Crow may be 
placed at the head, not only of its own great series (bii'ds of the Crow-form), but also as 
the unchallenged chief of the whole of the " Carinatse." 

The earlier stages of the skull-face of this type have already been given (see 'Monthly 
Microscopical Journal," Nov. 1872, pis. .34-39, pp. 217-226). The figures of the 
fledgeling here given (PI. LV. figs. 1-4) are a further working-out of the oldest figured 
in that paper (pi. 38). The dissected palate of this bird (C. frugilegus) is a full revela- 
tion of an " segithognathous face." Once clearly understood, this will serve as a ready 
diagnostic in the discrimination of numberless species ; by this they all may be judged, 
and then take the right or left-hand file — either to be classed with the Coracomorphse, or 
take their room lower down with the less-specialized groups. 

The parasphenoidal rostrum (fig. l,^j«.s) is short, and spreads into the symmetrical 
tympanic wings or " posterior pterygoid processes." Near the end it has a slight rudi- 
ment of the basipterygoid processes. At the opposite, distal end of the trabecular arch 
the coalesced prsemaxillaries have a strong scooped triangular body ; from this proceeds 
the dentary and palatine process, very close together, and, above, the combined nasal 
processes (d. px, p. ju; n. lu). The parasphenoid (^;«.s) has completely coalesced with 
its endo-skeletal part, the proximal half of the fused trabecule ; but the praemaxillaries 
have formed no such union with the anterior half The azygous praenasal cartilage (jm) 
is still only half absorbed ; behind it the coalesced distal ends of the trabeculse are deve- 
loped into a " recurrent process " {rc.c); behind this part they reappear in their originally 
broad flat form {tr), and then immediately in front of the " hinge-notch " they are com- 
pressed again : this part is seen in front of and above the vomer {v). But this foremost 
facial arch (the trabecular) cannot be studied here separately from the nasal labyrinth. 
In this palatal or under view (fig. 1) the alinasal laminse {al.n) are continuous witli the 
fore ends of the trabeculae (cornua trabeculee, c. tr), and also with the azygous prsenasal 



PEOF. W. K. PARKER ON iEGITHOGNATHOUS BIRDS. 301 

rostrum (pn), meeting beneath the axial parts ; they are continuous with each other 
also ; and this compound structure is one very important to be understood : morpho- 
logically the " recurrent trabecular cartilage " (rc.c) is formed by the free ends of the 
comua trabeculse. 

The space between the front wings and their outer wall (al. n) is the external nostril 
(e. n). The outer wall of this nasal vestibule has in its inner side the large " alinasal 
turbinal " {a. tl) ; and this is separated by a narrow space from the subnasal (trabecular) 
laminae {tr). 

Behind, both wall and turbinal are continuous with the bony vomer {v). All this is 
made clear by the transverse sections. 

The first of these (fig. 2) was made close behind the external nostril : the lateral 
and upper portions are here continuous. The razor has passed through the thick part 
of the nasal process of the prsemaxillaries [n:px), the upper crus of the nasal (;t), the 
dentary part of the prsemaxillaries {d.])x), the maxillary before it has given off the 
maxillo-palatine process (mx.p) and the prsepalatine spur {pr.pa). Below, the nasal 
wall (h. w) rests in a groove of the maxillary ; at its middle it gives off' the " alinasal 
turbinal " {a. tb), which is large, and is thrice bent upon itself in an angular manner, 
giving off" at the last two bends a slight secondary outgrowth. Above, the " alinasal " 
passes into the " aliseptal " cartilage (cd.s, fig. 3) ; and here we have a section of the 
fore end of its turbinal, the " inferior " — anterior in the Bii-d, although below the others 
in Man. This is here scarcely more than half a cylinder. In this region the common 
wall between the nasal sacs is continuous with the crests growing from the flat, tilted, 
and coalesced " trabeculee ;" these are seen to be large and curved. 

The next section (fig. 3) is through the maxillo-palatine processes (mx.p), which here 
are distinct in section from the marginal portion (mx) ; they form a pair of slanting 
planks, on which the compound vomer rests at its sides. The roof-bones (n, n.px) are 
here flattened out over the broad gently swelling " aliseptal " roof. At this point the 
wall has died out below ; and the aliseptal lamina, after growing downwards and inwards 
for a short distance, folds itselt suddenly inwards, and is coiled two and a half times 
{i. tb). Between these large inferior turbinals a diff'erentiating cleft has appeared, 
causing a dehiscence of the nasal septum (s. n) from the trabecular bar and 
crest [tr). The cartilages which lean towards this on each side are the common end 
of the alinasal wall and its turbinal ; and the bony plate which is grafted upon both and 
binds them together is the vomer [v). The anterior face of the same somewhat solid 
section (fig. 4) shows more of the nasal cartilage ; it is magnified twice as much. 

The part of the trabecular commissure and crest {tr) seen here shows it to be small ; 
it is not, however, far from the "hinge;" the trough formed by the vomer and the 
" inturned alinasal laminae" [i. a. I) is very deep and large; and in the adult the bony 
matter, creeping along the cartilage to some distance, gives the vomer, in the macerated 
skull, the appearance of one very deeply scooped bone. 



302 PEOr. W. K. PAEKEE ON .EGITHOGNATHOUS BIEDS. 

The bone itself (fig. 4, v) is concave above ; it was formed from two symmetrical 
scythe-shaped moieties, each of which began as endostoses in the corresponding " vome- 
rine cartilage :" they ossified it thoroughly, and then seized upon each alinasal wall, 
where they ended by turning inwards. But the broad cartilaginous band below (see 
fig. 4, i. a. I) has a separate bony graft, the " septo-maxillary " (fig. 6, s.mx); and this, 
with the extended bony matter in the nasal cartilages, gives the peculiar appearance 
the vomer of the adult bird has when viewed from below (fig. 6) : it resembles the face 
of a bull, the ascending laminte being little ears, and the outturned septo-maxillaries 
its short diverging horns. The septum nasi ossifies in the adult : — in front, from the 
ossification of part of the alse ; and the freed trabecular part (tr) by its own centre. 

The compound " vomer " of the adult Crow has therefore been formed from : — • 

a. A pair of vomerine cartilages. 

b. A pair of vomerine centres (endostoses of those cartilages). 

c. A pair of septo-maxillaries — exostoses formed upon the following, namely 

d. The end of each inturned alinasal wall, combined with the end also of its 

" outgrowth " the " alinasal turbinal." 

Then, as if this amount of metamorphosis were insufficient, the crura of the vomer 
coalesce with the ethmoid processes of the palatines (e.jm), so that in each movement 
of the face the whole nasal labyrinth is carried forwards and backwards by the mobile 
pterygo-palatine arch. This second preeoral arch has a short and stout suspensory seg- 
ment, the " pterygoid " (pg), which, however, as the bird grows older, becomes slenderer, 
especially behind, where it acquires the epipterygoid hook or " hamular process." It 
flattens out horizontally in front, and then sends a spur to overlap the palatine. This 
becomes the " mesopterygoid " — separate in a young flyer (fig. 5, mspg), but soon to 
ankylose with the palatine. 

The distal segment of this arch, the palatine [pa) is greatly longer than the pterygoid : 
with the fore end of the latter it tends to form a commissure, which is only completed 
by membrane ; it is then bowed out on each side, and each moiety runs far forwards as 
a finely pointed style (fig. 1). Where it is overlapped by the pterygoid, there it is split 
mesiad into two laminse; these end in front in sharp spurs, to the upper of which the 
vomerine legs are articulated ; the lower or " interpalatine processes " are merely united 
by a ligament to the maxillo-palatine spatulse. 

If this were all, the palatines of the Crow would correspond with those of the Hemi- 
pod. But the first bony shaft does not calcify all the arch-moiety ; it leaves an external 
outgrowth, which has time to become solid hyaline cartilage: this is the "transpala- 
tine " element {t.pa), and it is a sure sign and correlate of complete segithognathism. 
This free auricle of cartilage becomes, in a young summer-bird, a distinct bone (fig. 5, 
t.pa), ossifying at first by endostosis ; and then, in the adult, it shows no sign of having 
ever been separate from the body of the palatine (fig. 6, i.pa, t.pa). 



PEOF. W. K. PAEKER O:^- .EGITHOGNATHOUS BIEDS. 303 

The fledgeling shows how ichthyic the maxillaries remain, even in this high type 
(fig. 1, mx) ; they wedge in below the dentary and palatine processes of the preemaxil- 
laries, and then, growing broader, send inwards the gi-eat slanting spatulate maxillo- 
palatine spur (mx.j)). This has a struthious coarseness now, but becomes elegant in its 
curves and scoopings afterwards (fig. 6), and acquires a distinct pedicle. That pedicle is 
much more slender and defined in many of the feebler forms that crop up around the 
true " Corvidee ;" and its form, ruder or more elegant, is very useful as a mark of high 
or low breeding in any type. The long jugal style (/) has no quadrato-jugal subdivision, 
but binds directly on the quadrate. 

This latter bone and its relationships, although not coming within my stricter plan, 
has to be brought in here. It curves backwards (fig. 7, q) to be articulated with a raised 
facet common to the periotic and exoccipital regions : this " otic process " is merely the 
expression, morphologically, of the hooked form of the proximal end of every facial bar ; 
its orbital process is the " pedicle " or apical process (2>d). 

Here, in the bird, instead of being enclosed in the tympanic cavity, it forms its cres. 
centic anterior wall and boundary, and to it the rim of the membrana tympani is largely 
attached. Our ancestors called the quadrate the " tympanic " '■ ; but younger eyes have 
beheld the true tympanic in another form : here it is seen divided into a fine chain of 
bones, seven in all ; one of the seven, the largest, has a side duty imposed upon it, 
namely the walling-in of the " siphonium." This tube (fig. 1, s])m) is membranous in 
the fledgeling; but afterwards in the Cor^idse, and in many of the singing-buxls, the 
principal tympanic is coiled upon itself, the opposite edges uniting ; thus the tube is 
quite enringed. 

My demonstrations of these parts are from an old Carrion-Crow {Corvus corone) ; this 
is the example mentioned by Prof. Huxley (Elem. Comp. Anat., note to p. 249) as 
having six tympanies, as I had then informed him. 

In fig. 7 the bone attached to the jugal [j) and that behind the articulare are " sesa- 
moids " {sd) in the " external quadrato-articular ligament ;" but the more massive bone 
running downwards from the tympanic ring to the upper surface of the " internal 
angular process" of the mandible is the " os siphonii" or principal tympanic. 

In fig. 8 the pneumatic passage into the lower jaw is shown, a bristle passing into 
it ; in fig. 9 the bristle passes also through the lower third of the insheathing tympanic, 
which is seen to be folded upon itself. Fig. 5 a is the upper or tympanic end of the 
bone, its edges perfectly closed in, forming an oval aperture. In the Crocodile (see 
Huxley, " On the Eepresentatives of the Malleus and Incus," Proc. Zool. Soc. May 27, 
1869, p. 391) the siphonium carries air from the quadrate into the articulare — but in 
the bird, from the tympanic cavity, as Nitzsch has rightly described it. 

Correlated with the compound vomer, attached to the nasal vestibule, we have, with 

' This fine old race of teleological anatomists is nearly extinct ; only Owen remains of the remnant of the 
giants. 



304 PEOr. W. K. PAEKEE ON ^GITHOGKATHOUS BIEDS. 

one notable exception, the ecto-ethmoid (e.eth) standing out flush with the rest of the 
face, and cropping up on the forehead, in this latter respect agreeing with Crocodiles 
and Monitor Lizards. 

The great, gently scooped antorbital wall (fig. 5, j^-p) is ossified in the young flyer by 
its own centre — a centre which backs the middle and lower turbinal regions. But the 
back of the upper turbinal region has, in the Crow, its own centre of ossification (fig. 5, 
e.eth). This "upper turbinal bone" is seen in the retired, smaller ecto-ethmoid of Buteo 
vulgaris and some other birds ; but here, in the Crow, it forms the top of the outstand- 
ing " prsefrontal " bone. The first and fifth nerves have each their own chink or 
passage, the pars plana growing into the aliethmoid between them. 

The lacrymal (fig. 5, I), with one exception (the same as above, namely Menura su- 
j)erba), is, at its uttermost growth, a mere pupiform bar, thrust forwards by the huge 
lateral ethmoid, and wedged in between it and the nasal. 

In a very large number of the ^githognathfe the lacrymal cannot be seen at any stage ; 
and in many of those in which it does occur it soon ankyloses either with the nasal in 
front or with the ethmoid behind. I find no orbito-sphenoid in the eye-socket of the 
Coracomorphse, only a " prsesphenoid." 

Before passing to the next family, it may be mentioned that the vomer of the Corvidse 
is not always typical ; in Fregilus graculus its anterior half is a decurved, narrow, thick 
spoon, subacute terminally (PI. LV. figs. 10-12). 

Example 2. Eiiticilla 'phoenicurus juv. Europe. 

Habitat. Migrating in spring to Great Britain. Group " Oscines," Miiller ; family 
" Sylviidse." 

To me it seems evident that the genus Sylvia contains the highest or most specialized 
of the small Passerines, and this notwithstanding the corn-husking and fruit-crushing 
powers of the small conirostral Passerines, which are the result of secondary specializa- 
tions ; but in the fulness of their organization as to all that lifts a bird on high above 
a reptile, or above a reptilian bird, these types are, as to family, what a blood-horse is 
as to breed ; they are of the highest and the purest blood. That these birds (the very 
aristocracy of the " Oscines " or songsters) are small does not much affect the question ; 
for if we wish to look for a low bird of mean reptilian blood, we search for it amongst 
the ponderous giants, the small-brained, wingless, raft-breasted Cassowaries and Emues. 
It is as difiicult to see the fundamental reptile in these refined ovipara as it is to discover 
the lineaments of the Caterpillar in Vanessa io. 

In this pin-feathered nestling of the Eedstart (Euticilla phoenicurus) I have given as 
simple an expression of the two prseoral arches and the nasal sacs (PI. LV. fig. 13) as 
possible, omitting nothing important. Being the palate of a very young bird, it will 
difl'er less from what is seen in the adult of lower types than that of an old bird of this 
genus. 



PEOr. W. K. PARKER ON .EGITHOGNATHOUS BIRDS. 305 

The trabecular arch, hidden behind by its under-beam the parasphenoid {pa.s), has no 
basipterygoid processes. Beyond the " hinge " it is soft, and, as in the Cj ow, is first 
narrow, and then spreads out as two oblique wings with a crenate and wavy margin [tr). 
The pra-nasal cartilage has been absorbed ; and, beneath, the coalesced trabecular horns 
have grown into a triangular tongue of cartilage : this is the " recurrent lamina " {re. c). 
The ox-faced vomer {v) has two crescentic emarginations in front ; it is not uncommon 
to find a fore-looking projection at the mid line. This bone becomes pinched behuid, 
its sharp legs converging ; it has below a scabrous appearance from the loss of its peri- 
osteum, which was supplying it with new osteoblasts. On its shoulders it carries the 
great nasal vestibule ; its moieties are grafted upon the " inturned alinasal laminee " (/. 
a. I). Neither in the young Eedstart, nor in the adult Whitethroat {Sylvia cinerea) have 
I been able to detect any lateral ossicles or septo-maxillaries. I have also searched for 
them in vain in the Wagtails {Budytes rayi and MotacUla yarrelli) ; but in the Willow- 
wren {Phylloscoims trocMlus) they are very evident on each side 'in the substance of the 
nasal cartilage. This bird differs in some other respects, as we shall see. In the Red- 
breast {Erithacus macula) they are very small. The segmentation of the trabecular to 
form the cranio-facial hinge is, if the now absorbed prsenasal be taken into the measure- 
ment, in the middle of the bar. 

On each side of the septum nasi the nasal wall bends in as a wavy-edged floor-plate {n.f), 
above which is seen the large alinasal turbinal {a. th). The coalesced priemaxillse are 
such as we see in the young of all these birds, the dentary portion {d.}jx) largely over- 
overlapping the maxillaries {mx), and the palatine spur {j).px) binding the outside of 
the prsepalatal bar {^v-pa). 

The large vomer almost wedges aside the moieties of the palato-pterygoid arch as 
much as in the " Ratitse." Indeed the adults of the Coracomorphse seldom form any 
thing like a " palatine commissure " such as is so common in other perching and climb- 
ing birds. The right and left bars are bound together by the inwedged vomers ; and the 
practical commissure is made by the early fusion of these bones. 

The long, slender, rounded pterygoids — more slender still in the adult — have but a 
little epipterygoidean process in the young {e.-pg) ; but this is evident and well formed in 
the old bird. A '■ mesopterygoid " {ms.^ifj) is breaking itself off from the fore part, 
where it overlaps the palatine. But for the diagnostic transpalatine lobe of cartilage 
{t.pa), the body of the palatine would be the almost exact counterpart of that of the 
Hemipod (see PL LIV. fig. 1, pa), the main difference being the greater lengtli of the 
ethmo-palatal spurs that bind the outer edge of the vomerine crura. The transpalatine 
element answers very exactly to that of the Crow, being a rounded auricle ; but in the 
adult (at least in Sylvia cinerea) the periosteal layers grow backwards, and give it an 
angular finish behind. The maxillary (fig. 13, mx) ends in front as far forwards as 
the palatine, and behind almost reaches the quadratum. The delicate jugal {j) nearly 
reaches the angle of the praemaxillary in front. The maxillo-palatine process {mx.p) is 

VOL. IX. — PART V. December, 1875. 2 T 



306 PKOr. W. K. PAEKEE ON ^GITHOGNATHOUS BIRDS. 

narrow, thickish, scabrous, and solid, very unlike the elegant pedunculated trowel of 
the adult bird, with its angular projections and pneumatic chamber. But it is very much 
like its symmorph in the lower types of the Coracomorphse, which seldom become 
pneumatic, and are but little pedunculated. 

In the figure the rest of the nasal labyrinth is indicated on the left side by dotted 
lines ; in the adult {Sylvia cinerea) the " os uncinatum " is only obscurely marked out 
on the rounded lower border of the pars plana. 

Having endeavoured to give both the contrast and the harmony of the lowest and the 
highest of the birds possessing the gegithognathous palate, it will help to keep both 
writer and reader from embarrassment if we take next the lowest forms of the true but 
rotigh-voiced CoracomorphcC, all of them belonging to the " Notogaea " — old types inha- 
biting the New World. 

The lowest of these is the Lyre-bii'd ; at least it is the most abnormal in relation to 
the segithognathous typ'e ; and, supposing it to have had an ancestry amongst extinct 
" Turnicomorphse," they must have been far less passerine, and much more related to 
Tinamous and ancient Cranes than the modern forms'. 

Example 3. Menura superha. 

Ilahitat. Australia. Group " Tracheophonse," Miiller ; family " Menuridse." 

What I have to say upon the affinities of this bird will be merely from what I see 
in its fore face. Other workers may see what can be done with all the rest of its 
organization. 

Side by side with Mr. Salvin's specimen I put the skull of the Trumpeter (Psophia 
crepitans). The comparison of these two types causes the mind to waver ; and how- 
ever necessary it may be to place the Lyre-bird with the Coracomorphse, yet it belongs 
evidently to the same ornithic stratum, and most probably corresponds in time to this 
ancient Crane, with its dense, almost ophidian bones, and its lacertian chain of 
" superorbitals." 

The basipterygoid processes are thoroughly aborted ; the parasphenoidal beam 
(PI. LVI. fig. 1, pa.s) is of moderate thickness, it projects little, in front, below the 
hinge. That subdivision of the facial axis is nearly perfect (fig. 3). In this skull, of 
a female evidently old, the nasal labyrinth in front of the hinge is unossified : it has 
been lost by maceration ; yet the remnants of it are very thin lamellse. The prsemaxilla 

' I say " ancient Cranes ;" and the probability is that these abounded in the Tertiary period. The Eunjpyga 
represents one family, the Kagu another, Psophia another, and Thiiwcoriis (and I suppose with it we must asso- 
ciate Aitagis) a fourth. 

All these are ancient types that have lost their nearest relations. They are altogether more struthious than 
the ordinary " Gruidae." Professor Newton, in a letter to me, insists that Thinoeofus belongs to the " Limicolse :" 
as to its body it does ; its head is a morphological mixture. 



PEOF. W. K. PAEKER ON ^GITHOGNATHOUS BIRDS. 307 

(figs. 1-3, 2}x) is of that moderately developed kind which might be found in a feeble- 
faced bird of almost any great group : notably it is like that of Eeinipodius (PI. LIV. 
fig. 11, px). The large open nasal space in the dry skull, the feeble difierentiation 
of the palatal process of the prsemaxillaries, and the subcarinate, triangular form of 
the fore part of the vomer (v) — all these are like what is seen in the yoimg of the Crow 
(PI. LV. fig. l,p.px, v). At first sight the vomer appears to militate against the bird 
being of the " kind " of the Crows ; but what I show in the young Eook clears the 
thing up, and still better what may be seen in the Chough (Fregilus graculus). In 
this bird the vomer (PI. LV. figs. 10-12) is seen to be scarcely at all more passerine 
than that of Menura ; it is more downbent in front ; and the scooped facets, from 
which the angle of the " intumed alinasal lamina " {i. a. I) has been macerated, are 
somewhat lai-ger. 

As the relation of the vomer to the nasal capsule is my proper text, I think it will 
be seen that I have here pointed out the true diagnostics in Menura^. 

The vomer of Menura (PI. LVI. figs. 1, 3, 5, v) is lanceolate, rather solid, carinate 
below, and ankylosed by its crura to the ethmo-palatine plates. It is bent downwards 
in front (fig. 3), but not so much as in Fregilus (PI. LV. fig. 12, v). The nasal scars 
(fig. 5, i. a. I) are shallow-rimmed cups, as in Fregilus. In neither of these types does 
the vomer encroach so much on the nasal cartilages ; and in neither of their adult 
skulls can any septo-maxillary centres be seen : they may have existed near the vomer 
on the nasal cartilages. 

The pterygo-palatine arch is almost typical ; the pterygoid itself is short, but neat 
and well-shaped, having a large " epipterygoid " hook, a well-formed cup for the 
quadrate, a large anterior lobe clamping the basifacial beam, and a well-detached 
large " mesopterygoid " (fig. 3, pg, e.pg, ms.])g). The palatines (figs. 1 & 3) have an 
evident transpalatine territory {t.pa), which, being uncinate, makes the angle almost 
as much developed outwards as in the Rook (compare PI. LVI. fig. 1, with PI. LV. 
fig. 6, t.pa). The interpalatine spurs {i.pa) are stout, and are exactly like those of the 
young Eook (PI. LV. fig. 1, i.pa), being larger than those of the adult (fig. 6). The 
thin conchoidal ethmo-palatal laminae (figs. 3 & 5, e.pa) do not extend further forwards 
than the interpalatine spurs ; they rise and attach themselves to the upper edges of 
the vomer, exactly as in Fregilus. The angle on the outer edge of the palatine, wheie 
it suddenly narrows into the praepalatine bar {pr.pa), is precisely like what is seen in 
the Eook (PI. LV. fig. 6) ; and so is the thickening of the edge at that part. The prae- 
palatine bar remains distinct from the prffimaxillar-y and maxillaiy (figs. 1 & 2). 

The sides of the broad part of the palatines are much steeper than in the Corvidae ; 
the sulcus between the side and the interpalatine edge is deeper: and the interpalatine 

' I have very long been familiar with the peculiarities of the passerine palate ; but my recent paper, in the 
Monthly Microscopical Journal (Nov. 1872), on the Crow's skuU is the first matter published by me directly on 
this subject. 

2t2 



308 PROF. W. K. PARKER ON ^GITHOGNATHOFS BIRDS. 

laminfe grow much nearer together, and more perfectly enclose the nasal tube. The 
maxillary (figs. 1 & 2, mx) is a long, narrow bone, elbowing out very little at the angle 
of the mouth, and widening very slightly where the maxillo-palatine process (fig. 4, nix.j')) 
is given off. This process has a very delicate, flat pedicle ; and the broken root of this, 
in Mr. Salvin's specimen, appeared to me to be the whole process, very small. But, 
happily, at the last moment. Professor Garrod has corrected my mistake ; and in his 
specimens, kindly lent to me, they are seen to be unusually large and pedate, quite like 
their counterparts in the Corvidse. They are not pneumatic ; but in Corvics they are very 
slightly so. 

The long slender jugals are ankylosed to the jugal process of the maxillary. The 
nasals (n) and the large external nasal opening are altogether and thoroughly coraco- 
morphous. Let ,these parts be compared with those of a Robin or a Wren, and their 
close correspondence will be seen. 

But the ethmoid and its surroundings are the real stumbling-blocks in this bird ; and 
if this part had been placed in my hands as an unnamed fragment, it would have taken 
a place close by Psophia. Yet the antorbital plate fits much more closely to the large 
spongy lacrymal (/) in Menura than in Psophia. In both there is, in this bone, a large 
superorbital portion, joined by a narrow waist to a pedate base, close to the jugum. 
In Psophia the antorbital runs into the osseous back wall of the upper turbinal ; in 
Menura it is quite distant from the roof; a large oblong space, through which the 
olfactory and nasal nerves (1, 5, 5') pass, extends from the meso-ethmoid to the inner 
face of the lacrymal. 

The antorbital is wholly ossified (fig. 3, jy.p), it is square, entirely lies within the 
orbit, and has a rounded infero-external angle, with no sign of an " os uncinatum ;" 
this is aborted by the pedate base of the lacrymal ; yet there is in that bone, in front 
of the angle of the antorbital, an elegant pyriform lobe, with its narrow end looking in- 
wards, whose direction is towards the ecto-ethmoid. This is undoubtedly the same as the 
distinct " os uncinatum " of many birds. At the brow-edge of the great lacrymal there 
is a larger anterior and a smaller posterior superorbital. In Psophia there are seven such 
bones on one (the left) side ; on the other they are ankylosed so as to form only five. 

All the three orbital bones of Menura come up flush with the broad, flat frontal 
region (fig. 2, /. I, s.ob). There is one superorbital perched on the end of the long spur 
of the lacrymal in Eagles and Hawks ; but a chain of bones, reduced here to three 
counting the lacrymal, is very rare; Psophia and theTinamous are all I have seen with 
such a chain'. 

And now it may be asked. If Timiix be taken as a sort of stock form for the whole 
of the " Jigithognathse," how is it that Menura is in some respects lower than Turnix 1 

• Since the above was written I have received from James Wood-Mason, Esq., his paper on the ArboricoliE 
(Wood-Partridges). He has found a perfect chain of superorhitals in four out of the eight known species of 
that genus (see Journ. Asint. Soc. Bengal, vol. sliii. part 2, plate 2, 1874). 



PEOF. W. K. PAEKBE ON .EGITHOGNATHOUS BIEDS. 309 

To this I answer that the existmg " Tumicomorphfe " are most probably a few re- 
maining wanderers, that still exist from Europe to Australia, of a huge family of birds 
of all sizes, in great variety of shape, and specialized to all sorts of life. We may 
imagine innumerable kinds of Struthionidse, Tinamida;, Turnicidae, and that " by these 
was the whole earth overspread," and that amongst all this variety of " Eatitse," and 
of " CarinatsB " with almost keeUess breast-bones, there arose from time to time birds 
with new characters, the stocks and forefathers of walking, wading, swimming, diving, 
perching, and climbing types : hence came the Dodo and the Solitaire ; and from the 
same ancient bird-world sprung the gigantic Eails of New Zealand {Aptornis defossor, 
Owen, and Notornis ManteUi). 

The direct ancestors, in the wide paleontological sense of the word, of the Lyre- 
bird would most likely have a huge body, feeble wings, a less exuberant tail, an 
almost keelless breast-bone, bony eye-brows, and a vomer more pointed and relatively 
larger than in the recent bird ; and that vomer would, like the same bone in Turnix, 
be attached to the nasal walls by a ligament, and not grafted upon it. 

Then, on that level, possessing incomplete " segithognathism," such a bird might 
have belonged to a family allied to the " Turnicomorphse." 

Example 4. Pipra auricapilla. 

Halitat. Guiana. Group " Tracheophonse," Miiller; family " Cotingidse." 

This bird may be said to stand on the direct road from the lower CarinatEe to the 
Crows, and not on the bridle-path, like Menura. 

The bat-shaped swollen basitempoials (b.t) imderlie a thick parasphenoid (PL LVII. 
fig. l,pa.s), with no trace of basipterygoid process; then the beam becomes gradually 
narrow to the cranio-facial hinge. In front of the hinge, which is as complete as in 
the Crow, there is an alate septal base ifr) also perfectly corvine. A fenestra partially 
separates the trabecular from the nasal part of the septum ; below and behind the 
fenestra this part of the first arch had its own bony centre ; in front and above, the 
bony matter belongs to the median part of the nasal labyrinth. A perforate nostril is 
here formed by the round deep notch below the alate septum {tr) and the recurrent 
fold (figs. 1 & 3, re. c). Although the septum is so well ossified, the rest of the nasal 
labyrinth, in front of the hinge, is soft. 

The gently cui-ved beak has an almost triangular outlme (fig. 1); and although its 
elements are ankylosed together, the various processes can be made out ; the palatine 
bars of the prsemaxillaries {p.pjx) end in a sharp point ; the dentary processes {d.px) 
overlap the maxillaries {mx) at the angle of the mouth ; and the nasal processes have 
shortened ends to articulate with the frontals. Here, again, the vomer (figs. 1 & 2, «) is 
the most important part. 

The vomerine moieties are broadish and very thin in front, and become filiform be- 
hind. This part is three fifths the length of the whole ; and their crui-a are very near 



310 PROF. W. K. PAEKBE ON ^GITHOGNATHOUS BIRDS. 

together ; they coalesce with the ascending palatine plate. The thickened shoulders 
of the vomer are bevelled off; and here it is seen that the bony matter has ossified only 
the posterior clavate portion of the vomerine cartilages (compare PI. LVII. fig. 2, v, v.c, 
with VI. LIV. fig. 8, V, V. c). The bony substance of the vomer is in immediate contact 
with the inturned alinasal lamina {i. a. I), but does not run into it ; the same may be 
said of the small, triangular, apiculate " septo-maxillaries," which are attached (one on 
each side) to the posterior border of the nasal cartilage, where it overlaps the vomerine 
cartilage. These modifications form an exact half-way between the Crow and the 
Hemipod. These form the first variety of " complete segithognathism," these parts 
in this type being quite distinct, the septo-maxillary grafting itself on the scarcely 
ossified vomerine cartilage, and not on the inturned alinasal wall (PL LVII. fig. 2, i. a. I, 
V. c, s.nix, v). 

The " maxillo-palatine processes " (figs. 1 & 2, mx.p) are simple, flat, pedate out- 
growths of the maxillaries ; and in Pi^ra they do not bind tightly against the vomer, 
as in those next to be described, but lie on a considerably lower plane. Behind these 
processes, the maxillary continues broad for some distance, and then becomes filiform, 
running without any suture into the jugal (J). 

In the endo-skeletal elements of the second arch we have a subtypical condition of 
the parts. The epipterygoid process of the pterygoid (e.jyg, J^g) is not much developed ; 
but the bones themselves are thoroughly passerine, the flat anterior head articulating 
with its own segment, the mesopterygoid, which is now confluent with the palatines. 

The palatines (fig. 1, t.2}a, jir.j^a, pt.pa) are very instructive ; they are strongly bowed 
out behind the short, straight prsepalatal portion ; but the angle is small, square, and 
notched. This transpalatine process (t.pa) was evidently formed in a very slight angular 
cartilage ; and I much doubt its having had a separate bony centre. 

The interpalatine spurs (i-jJa) are very large and spinous ; and the concave bridge of 
bone between these and the angular process is of greater extent than the upper or 
ethmo-palatal lamina, which sends a small spur along the outer edge of the vomer. 
The postpalatal laminae (pt.pa) meet each other below the parasphenoidal rostrum 
[pa.s), and are greatly enlarged, orbitally, by the mesopterygoid segment. 

The lacrymals are, I believe, corvine (but are lost in this specimen) ; and so is the 
ethmoid {])■]))■ As in Memira, the passages for the first and fifth nerves are not distinct, 
one broad roadway, very wide on the inside, existing between the upper edge of the 
thick spongy antorbital and the ethmoidal roof. 

The vertical width of the antorbital is small inwards ; but it is flush with the face, 
and very massive outside and below (see fig. 1, p.p, where it is indicated by fainter 
shading). I have not found any separate " os uncinatum ;" it may have been lost with 
the lacrymal. 

Example 5. PachyrhampJms 1 

Habitat. Gnmn?!.. Group " Tracheophonse," Mliller ; family " Cotingidse." 



4 



PEOr. W. K. PAEKEE ON ^GITHOGNATHOUS BIEDS. 311 

This skull, at first sight, might be taken for that of a Tanager ; but it is widely dif- 
ferent : it corresponds in all essentials with that of Pipra. Notwithstanding the great 
expansion of the face in front, the palatine region is less divergent behind, and in some 
respects we get here a truer repetition of turnicine characters than in Pipra. 

The bat-shaped basitemporal region has a broader middle part (PI. LVII. fig. 4, b.t) ; 
the basifacial bar {pa.s) has no basipterygoids. The hinge is not quite perfect; a bony 
isthmus connects the ossified septum nasi and perpendicular ethmoid above. 

There is no fenestra in the deep, stout, thoroughly ossified nasal septum separating 
the nasal from the trabecular portion (s. n, tr) ; and thus this type is, in this respect, 
intermediate between the Tinamou and Syrrhaptes (" Gallinaceous Bu-ds," pi. xxxvi. 
figs. 1 & 4 ; and " Ostrich Skull," pi. xv. fig. 8, s. n, c.f. c). The triangular expansion at 
the fore part of the base of the septum is due to the coalescence with it of the " recur- 
rent lamina." The depth of the septum brings it into immediate contact with that 
retral process ; and the nose is not perforated as in Pifra, with its alate, shallow septum 
(fig. 3). 

The vomer (figs. 4 & 5, «) keeps its breadth better than in Pipra ; its less convergent 
crura are ankylosed to the ethmo-palatine spurs. As in Pipra (see fig. 2), the ox-faced 
vomer has only utilized the clavate hinder part of the " vomerine cartilages" {v. c), which 
converge towards the septum, and are separated from the inturned laminae {i.a. I) by 
a very moderate distance (fig. 4). The alinasal wall with its tuxbinal is ossified 
throughout by endostosis. It is not so hard as the vomer ; but these two bones keep 
their own proper morphological territory ; and the line of junction of the two is at 
the roof of a deep rounded sulcus (fig. 5, i. a. I, v), covered by the curling inwards and 
downwards of the inturned angle of the alinasal. Exactly where the two osseous tracts 
meet at their inner side,- a small limpet-like bony centre stands, looking forwards, and 
forming a boundary-stone between the alinasal and vomerine regions : this is the septo- 
maxillary {s.mx). It does not, as in the higher Coracomorphse, form an ectosteal patch 
to the alinasal wall, which has ossified independently of it. The shoulders of the broad, 
stout vomer are strongly thickened and downbent to articulate with the maxillo-pala- 
tine plate (mx.p), the whole build of the palate being stronger than that of Pipra. 

Thus the inferior face of the vomer is excavated in front, and its fore edge has a squared 
emargination. Another upper palatal element, the os uncinatum, or " palato-trabeculai- 
conjugational bone," is here beautifully distinct (figs. 4, 6, 7, o. u), but has been dis- 
placed outwardly by the corvine laciymal (I) from its earlier ecto-ethmoidal relationship 
(p.p, e.eth). This small seed-like bone has a rounded outer edge, and articulates by an 
inner suture with the lower and outer edge of the lacrymal ; its mother substance was 
a secondary bud, growing from the outer edge of the trabecula. In this type the 
great lateral ethmoids, although less swollen than in Hemipodius, have a greater lateral 
development ; indeed they carry this to a greater extent than any known bird (figs. 4, 
6, 7). The very narrow frontals covering the great outspread ethmoids (" prsefrontals ") 



312 PROF. W. K. PABKEE ON ^GITHOGNATHOUS BIRDS. 

give this part of the head a very crocodilian aspect. The si^ongy inner part of the pars 
plana (fig. 6, p. p), however, is of small vertical extent, as in Pipra ; and the nerve-pas- 
sages run freely into each other. Part of the alinasal is ossified on the outside round 
the external nares (figs. 6 & 7, al.n) ; this gives, in the dry skull, a notched appear- 
ance to these wide passages. The small semi-lacertian inferior turbinals are ossified by 
endostosis. Every thing hitherto shows Pachyrhamphus to be a very generalized bird in 
its own great family or suborder ; the lower palatine structures will yield like evidence. 
The pterygoids (fig. 4, pg) are stronger and moi'e arched outwards than in Pipra ; but 
the ejiipterygoid spur is bound close to the front of the quadrate, as in the Turnicidse 
and Gallinacete. The whole bar, by ankylosis, has relapsed into unity ; for the ptery- 
goid, mesopterygoid, and palatine have lost all their sutures (fig. 6, 2^g, e.pa, mspg)'. 
Between the postpalatine descending lips {pt-pa) there is more of the i^arasphenoid 
seen than in Pipra ; and these inferior lip-like laminse soon cease, passing into the inter- 
palatine spikes (fig. 4, I'.jja), which are spongy and have ragged edges. 

The body of the palatine is but little bowed, and sends only a few toothlets back- 
wards as rudiments of the transpalatine region [tpa) ; thence the bar is narrow, feeble, 
bowed in, and then curved outwards a little before it ends, converging towards its 
fellow. The upper lamina or ethmo-palatine (fig. 6, epa) is of the same extent ; but 
its spike, ankylosed to the vomer, is smaller than that of the lower or intevpalatine 
lamina. 

The prsemaxillaries and maxillaries together form an elegant leaf-like rostrum (figs. 
4, 6, 7), not unlike that of the Boatbill ( Cancroma). The whole structure is extremely 
light, and coarsely spongy ; and the coalescence of the maxillaries, prcemaxillaries, nasals, 
and jugals is all but complete ; a little remnant of the suture is seen above the hinge. 

On each side, close inside the angular process of the preemaxillary, are seen the large, 
broad-based, struthious, maxillo-palatine processes (figs. 4 & 5, mx.p) : these are pneu- 
matic, somewhat hooked, and bind by their inner edge on to the downturned shoulder 
of the vomer. These processes also show that this form is more generalized than Pipra ; 
the palatines 'and septum nasi show the same thing. 

Example 6. Thamnophilus doliatus. 
Habitat. Guiana. Group " Tracheophonse," Miiller ; family " Formicariidffi." 
This strong-billed bush-bird shows the " Formicariidee " to be on the same ornithic 
level as the " Cotingidse." They have both cleared the turnicine boundary hy a long 
distance; but they are metamorphosed in the fiice much less than the typical Crows, 
Warblers, and Finches. A mere glance at the figures (PL LVII. figs. 1, 4, 8) of the 
palates will show how near Thamnophilus comes to those last described, especially to 
Pachyrhamphus ; in some respects this form comes nearest to the Hemipods, in others 
the latter. 

The basitemporal and parasphenoidal regions are precisely like those of the " Cotin- 



PEOF. W. K. PAEKEE ON .EGITHOGNATHOUS BIEDS. 313 

gidte ;" and the nearly perfect hinge is bounded in front by a knife-like septum, as in 
St/rrhaptes, Hemipodius, and Faclnjrliamphus ; but this is not ossified ; it is not alate in 
the middle, but has in front two triangular laminae of bone underpropping it ; the lower 
of them is a median process of the prsemaxillary ; and the higher is the " recuiTent 
lamina " of the trabeculse {re. c) ; this is largely edged by unossified cartilage. 

In Thamnophilus we have a pertinent instance of the occurrence of intense ossification 
in a low type, showing that arrest of ossification is not of itself a sign of low position'. 
The whole nasal capsule is ossified, with the exception of the margin of the very large 
recurrent laminse and the septum, and had better be considered along with the vomerine 
structures. 

The alinasal turbinals (a. tl) are very large and bony, and they articulate by their 
convex end with a concavity on the horns of the enlarged vomer (fig, 9, a. tb, v). The 
alinasal wall(«/.M) is not even fl:ush with the facial bones (fig. 10), but sinks in, and is 
thoroughly ossified ; below and within it is seen to have coalesced completely with the 
maxillo-palatine process (fig. 9, i. a. I, mx.p), and is of very small extent in the floor of 
the nose, which is here open, exposing the alinasal and inferior turbinals {a. tb, i. tb). 
Here the bony growths are much in conformity with the morphological regions, save 
that the ankylosis of the alee nasi with the palatine plate of the maxillary has produced 
a form of desmognathism. 

In Thamnophilus the vomerine moieties are as much indebted to hyaline cartilage for 
the formation of their wings and crests as in the Crow, but the source is diff'erent : here 
the cartilage is the vomerine spatula ; there, in the Crow, that cartilage is soon used up, 
and then the bone grows into the nasal capsule to a certain extent. In this instance the 
vomerine cartilages are themselves large enough to form a substratum for all the out- 
growings of the vomer, so large and massive in the adult. 

Not only does the alinasal turbinal form a cup-and-ball joint with the vomer, but the 
vomer itself has an elevated subconvex facet on each side, which fits into a subroncave 
facet on the upper surface of the corresponding maxillo-palatine plate. Altogether this 
segithognathous palate is developed into a very complex kind of desmognathism. 
At first sight the septum would seem to be ossified ; but a side view shows that it is 
only the inferior edge which is bony, and the bone is quite free from the cartilage ; it is, 
in this state, merely a membrane bone, a " median septo-maxillary " (fig. 8, m. s.nw). 
We shall soon meet with this element again. 

The preemaxillaries form the strong, narrowish, decurved beak, and are thoroughly 
ankylosed to their surroundings. 

The pterygo-palatin€ arch has a typical apex, the epipterygoid hook (e.pg) ; it is longer 

than is usual even in the higher forms. The pteiygoids are rather long, elegantly bowed, 

and have given off a large mesopterygoid, which has become ankylosed to the upper edge 

of the palatine ; the pterygoids remain distinct. The palatines are extremely like those 

' Neither intense ossification nor pneumaticity of the bones ar« signs of " high degree." 

VOL. IX. — PAET v. December, 1875. 2 v 



314 PEOP. W. K. PAEKEE ON ^GITHOGNATHOUS BIRDS. 

of the " Cotingidse," having a long, sharp, inferior postpalatine keel on each side, between 
which a small tract of the parasphenoid is seen. The middle palatine region is suddenly 
dilated, but is of very small extent — the band connecting the base of the preepalatine bar 
with the interpalatine spur being very narrow (fig. 8, i.jja), and the transpalatine 
rudiments very small and gnawed {t.pa). The middle nasal passage is made vei-y wide 
by the large rounded fold of bone which connects the " ethmo-" with the " interpalatine " 
(figs. 8 & 9, e.pa). The praepalatine band is narrow, feeblish, a little bowed outwards ; 
and ankylosed, in part, to the prsemaxillary. Here, with very typical pterygoids, the 
palatines are the simplest and most turnicine I have hitherto seen in this great group, 
with the exception, perhaps, oi Pitta. 

The maxillaries and jugals are ankylosed together; the maxillo-palatines (mx.p), 
partly described already, have a very broad, pneumatic root, and are as struthious as in 
the " Cotingidse." I miss the lacrymal, seen in the last family ; but the lateral ethmoid 
is very similar ; both above and below it is more than flush with the rest of the face ; 
it shows no separate os uncinatum ; yet the foot of the antorbital is very large (fig. 10,p.p). 
Above that plate there is, as in the " Cotingidae," a large common chink for the nerves 
going to the nose ; but the proximal part of the pars plana is much deeper (compare 
figs. 6 & 10, ^.^j). 

Altogether this bird's face is of extreme interest, as instructive as that of the last 
type. 

The structure of the face in ThamnopMlus atriccppillws is precisely like that of 
T. doliatus. 

Example 7. Pitta melanocephala. 
Hahitat. Borneo. Group " Tracheophonae," Miiller ; family " Pittidae." 
This form is closely allied to, and yet differs considerably from, the last. 
The basitemporal and parasphenoidal regions are the same as in Thamnophilus ; 
but the fore face is straighter, and the angles of the mouth expand more, so that the 
dentaty part of the prsemaxillaries is more outtumed (PL LVI. fig. 6, di.;px) ; the general 
structure of the bone is coarser ; and altogether there is something more struthious in the 
stiffness of form and general inelegance of build. Instead of the intense ossification of 
Thamnophilus, the outer nasal structures are but littie ossified, principally the septum. 
The vomer (y) is very flat below, and, above, rises towards the mid line, its groove 
receiving the large septum, which is not notched off from the ethmoid ; the upper lobes, 
in front, are moderately developed ; and the lower are swollen, so as to give a heart- 
shaped appearance to this part : these latter lobes (fig. 7, v) are strongly articulated to 
the maxillo-palatines {mxp). The vomer has evidently grafted itself upon the alinasal 
turbinal, although it owes nothing, or scarcely any thing, of its size to that cartilage. 
Yet this intimate union of the vomer with the nasal capsule puts Pitta into the typical 
division ; in this respect it has " complete segithonathism " of the 2nd variety. 



PEOr. W. K. PAJRKEE ON ^GITHOGNATHOUS BIRDS. 315 

Thus this genus is very interesting as leading upwards towards the typical forms. In 
this macerated specimen, the septo-maxillaries have evidently been lost ; for the angle of 
the alinasal turbinal has been removed. 

The second arch has its hinder segment less, and its fore segment more typical than 
in Thamnophilus. 

The epipterygoid is feeble ; and the rest of the bone (fig. 6,^(7) is like that of Fiiwa 
(Plate LVII. fig. 1, fg), short and straight ; but it is thicker and coarser. 

The mesopterygoid element has coalesced with the palatine, leaving the pterygoid 
itself free. The postpalatine keels (fig. &,pt.pa) are deep, as in these low Coracomorphae 
generally ; and the broad part of the palatine is attached to the prsepalatine region at 
right angles, so that the appearance is that of a pair of hatchets stuck into the basis 
faciei, opposite each other. The transpalatine portion {t.pa) is a badly developed snag ; 
the interpalatine spurs {i.pa) are very small ; and the two laminee end in front, one 
above the other, very nearly — the ethmo-palatine swelling out as in Thamnophilus, and 
passing a little in front of the interpalatine plate (PL LVI. fig. 7, e.pa). The prsepalatine 
bar is very flat and broad in front ; and the whole of this arch is stiff, coarse, and unty- 
pical. So also are these great flap-shaped maxillo-palatines (figs. 6 & 7, mx.])) ; broad- 
based, lathy; with a thickened inner edge, roundly notched for the vomerine joint, 
these ear-shaped processes are strong marks of inferiority of type. The zygomatic 
process of the maxillary is broad and flat proximally, and is thin and vertical where it 
becomes one with the jugal (_;'). 

The lateral ethmoidal region is quite Thamnoj)hiline ; but the pedate jiTOcessMS unci- 
natus of the thick pars plana is less marked. There is here, again, no lacrymal ; and 
the 1st and 5th nerves pass through one wide, oval, very large cavity from the orbit to 
the nose : Menura, Pipra, Pachyrhamplius, ThamnopMlus, Pitta, and Qrallaria all agree 
in this character ; and they do not agree by accident. This great open door will lessen, 
and be barred across, as we ascend. We have seen it to be so in the Eook. 

Example 8. Grallaria squamigera, 

Hahitat. Andes of Columbia. Group " Tracheophonse," Miiller ; subfamily " Formi- 
cariidse." 

In the palate of Grallaria, as compared with Pitta, two or three striking points of 
contrast are seen, modifying the great general harmony between the two. 

The whole structure is less stifi"and clumsy; the palatines are better developed; the 
angle of the mouth is not so wide; and the nasal labyrinth, in front of the vomer, is 
much longer. There is still less ossification of the interior nasal structures than in Pitta ; 
but that this does not affect the zoological or even the morphological height of the type 
is evident ; for in Thamnopldlus below, and in the next higher than Grallaria, namely 
Artamus, ossification is intense, whilst in these two intermediate forms it is arrested. 

As compared with Pitta, this form has the same gallinaceous epipterygoid (fig. 8, e-i^g), 

2 u2 



316 PROF. W. K. PAliKER ON .IIGITHOGNATHOUS BIRDS. 

and an equally straight but slenderer pterygoid (pff) ; between these the parasphenoid 
(pa.s) is thick and without basipterygoid processes. Above the parasphenoid the thick 
perpendicular ethmoid (^>. e) and the septum nasi are but parts of one continuous 
orbito-nasal septum, as in the Tinamidse; for here the cranio-facial cleft is as 
imperfect as in Tinamus variegatus (" Ostrich Skull," pi. xv. fig. 8, c.f. c) : even in that 
species there is a considerable " notch." There is this carinate character, however ; and 
that is, that the ossification stops at the usual place, and the bony matter does not pass 
from the ethmoid, forwards, to ossify the nasal septum {op. cit. pi. xv. fig. 10,^. e, s. n). 
Yet in respect of this almost undivided orbito-nasal septum, this ground-bird is one of 
the most struthious of the carinate types ; it has, however, a small oblique fenestra in 
front of the " meso-ethmoid " (fig. 10, c.f. c). 

The anterior part of this vertical plate in GmUaria is principally hyaline cartilage, 
unchanged ; but abeve, a septal bone appears ; and below, a very frequent centre, the 
" postseptal " or trabecular bone {tr) has commenced. This is the bone which, in many 
typical Carinatse, forms the postero-inferior angle of the septum nasi ; and it bounds 
the great " hinge " in front. Here it is seen midway between the ethmoid and the 
fore part of the huge, deep septum. The symmetrical parts of the nasal labyrinth are 
supplied with arrested centres of ossification ; on the inner face of the alinasal turbinal 
(figs. 8, 9, a. th) there is a long, lanceolate tract of endostosis ; and on the base of the 
posterior third of the left alinasal turbinal there is a patch (fig. 9, a. tl) both ectosteal 
and endosteal. 

On the outer face of the " inferior turbinal " there is a large wedge-shaped, well- 
ossified tract, with its base behind ; and on the outer face of the upper turbinal there is 
a squarish bony tract, the size of that on the inferior turbinal. Also the posterior half 
of the alinasal wall is ossified as in Gecinus viridis and many of the " Coccygomorphee." 
All these bony centres are of great interest ; for they represent the various commence- 
ments of the continuous bony growths seen in this region in such birds as Gymnorhina, 
Artamus, and also in birds that lie beyond the passerine boundaries. 

Perhaps in the whole range of ornithic morphology there is no character more to be 
depended upon than that cleft in the trabecular commissure which, growing upwards, 
divides also the anterior nasal from the true olfactory region. Yet in Pitta and Grallaria 
this is almost absent, and their intense struthiism is combined with Eegithognathism 
of the highest degree. The vomerine moieties have grafted themselves upon the end of 
the alinasal turbinals (fig. 9, a. tb, v); and, on each side, a septo-m axillary {s.mx) supple- 
ments this peculiar metamorphic union of diverse parts. The thick, massive upper 
lobes of the vomer evidently owe their great size both to the alinasal turbinals and to 
the proper vomerine cartilages. As in Pitta, the rest of the vomer is flat, and the crura 
are near together ; they coalesce with the coiled ethmo-palatine. 

The next arch is extremely like that of Pitta (see figs. 6 & 8) ; the pterygoids {pg), 
however, are slenderer, and the postpalatine keels longer : these are separate from the 



PEOP. W. K. PARKER ON ^GITHOGNATHOUS BIRDS. 317 

pterygoid ; but they are greatly developed above by a mesopterygoid segment, larger 
than that of Pitta. 

So also we have in Grallaria slenderer prsepalatine bars {pr.pa) and much more 
development of the transpalatine spike {t.jia), which is here in a state very common in 
the higher Southern Coracomorphae. The arrest of the lower spike of the palatine 
(interpaiatine, i.pa), the coil of the upper or ethmo-palatine {e.pa), and the narrowness 
of the band connecting these laminse with the outer edge, these are all pittine cha- 
racters ; but this bond is oblique, and not transverse as in Pitta ; in this, it agrees with 
the next and much higher type, namely Artamus. The elements of the upper jaw and 
zygoma are strongly soldered together ; and from the maxillary region there grow 
struthious maxillo-palatines (mx.p), exactly like those of Pitta. 

The nerve-passage above the antorbital is narrower than in Pitta ; and the plate itself 
is thinner and more produced at its angle (fig. 8, p.^) ; but there is no sign of either 
a lacrymal or an " os uncinatum." 

On the whole, the cranio-facial differences seen in these two types, whose habitat is 
so far apart, merely bespeak a subgeneric distinction. Close to the Struthionidse in 
certain respects, in others they have made a stride past the lower Coracomorphse gene- 
rally. That the lower struthious characters are due to arrest at a stage which corresponds 
to the end of the second third of incubation in the true Crows (Corviis) and in the Fowl, 
does not affect the relationship of these birds to some lost forms of the " Ratitae." 

Example 9. Artamus leucorhinus. 

Habitat. Celebes. Group " Oscines," Miiller ; family " Artamidse." 

The last instances were ttvo-faced; they looked to the Ratitse, and to the nobler 
Southern Coracomorphee. My present instance is also one of these. 

Looking at the palate of this " Wood-Swallow," it is difficult to say to which of these 
two types it is most related ; it is in some things intermediate between them. This great 
similarity is modified by two things, namely by far intenser ossification and by complete 
ornithic metamorphosis. Although the growth of another branch, yet this bird culmi- 
nates, as a southern type, at nearly the same level as the Piping Crow {Gymnorhina) . 

The basitempoi-al region (PL LVIII. fig. 1, h.t) is less evidently trilobate than in 
Pitta ; and the parasphenoidal region (j»a.s) is less bulky. The rostrum ends at an 
unusual distance behind the hinge ; and the basis faciei shows no mark of its former 
compositeness. 

The hinge, or cranio-facial cleft, is perfect, totally unlike its pittine prototype ; and 
the fore part of the middle ethmoid shallows gradually, and is rounded in front. The 
trabecular and nasal elements are all ankylosed ; and the bone here, as in the rest of the 
skull, is more elegantly light and spongy than in Grallaria and Pitta. 

As in Grallaria, the nasal vestibule is of very great size ; but here it is ossified to an 
unusual extent ; and the nasal floor, so small in the types just described, but largely 



318 PROF. W. K. PARKEE ON ^GITHOGNATHOUS BIRDS. 

developed in the Turnicidce (PI. LIV.), is here quite perfect, has undergone thorough 
ossification, and is ankylosed with all the surrounding parts (PI. LVIII. figs. 1 & 2, n.f) ; 
hence the septum (which is here a crest to this strong, bony plate) is not seen in the 
palatal views. Yet, within, the posterior part of the alinasal turbinals, and, without, 
the hinder part of the alinasal walls are soft ; and so also are the inferior turbinals. 
The extreme end, however, of the alinasal turbinals has a borrowed source of bony 
matter in the large upper spongy lobes of the vomer (d) ; these have evidently coalesced 
with the small lateral septo-maxillaries (see Gmllaria, Plate LVI. fig. 9, s.mx). The 
upper and anterior vomerine lobes wall-in a deep sulcus, and are extremely beautiful 
and pneumatic ; their air-passage is above, and is very large. The diff'erence which can 
be detected in this very Fitfine vomer is, that it is more spongy, has drawn more upon 
the turbinals, is subcarinate below, and has a larger space between its crura ; in the 
shortness of its conjoined part it is like Gmllaria and not like Pitta : this oscillation 
between these two relations is to me a very striking thing'. 

Of exactly the same pattern, yet the palate, like the rest of the face, is broader than 
that of Grallaria ; and this outspread form of the whole face gives wider individual 
parts. In mere form, the pterygoids, with their arrested epipterygoid hooks, are not 
altered visibly ; but they, and their mesopterygoid segment, have become ankylosed to 
the palatines : this is part of the generally intense ostosis of this bird. In the palatines 
a change is easily discerned ; it is the lessened condition of the postpalatine keels {;pt.pa), 
so large in the lower CoracomorphEe. The " transpalatines " {t.])a) are broader and 
altogether more developed ; they arefliatter and better-formed; and, having had a fuller 
matrix of cartilage, they are less like mere periosteal outgrowths. 

The ethmopalatine lamina takes a less sweep ; its spur is fused with the upper edge 
of the vomer ; as in the two last, there is no interpalatine spur {i.pa). Strongly as all 
the fore palate is fused together, the broad prsepalatal bars (jyr.pa) are only ankylosed 
by their tips ; they are flat, very elastic, and yet exquisitely pneumatic. At first sight, 
the maxillo-palatines (wu'.^j) would seem to be as large as in Grallaria ; they are, how- 
ever, enlarged by their bony union with the " inturned alinasal well" {i. a. I). 

The process, however, has a broad base, and belongs to the simple type ; the maxillary, 
behind the process, is broad and spongy, and is widened by the divergent angular process 
of the prsemaxillary : the jugal bar is one continuous bone. 

In the ethmoid we see an ascent in type ; for the common nerve-passage is more chink- 
like, the antorbital has aborted the lacrymal as in the last two kinds, its angle is 
modified ; it is prsmorse, as in Pitta ; but the outer angle of the bitten part turns 
inwards, and forms a very distinct " processus uncinatus" (fig. 1, o. u). 

The antorbital is spongy, but it is thin, as in Grallaria, not swollen as in Pitta — 
another instance of that peculiar oscillation of this bird towards the Bornean and 

' Here is a lesson for the paleontologist ! Fragmentary fossils, the palatine remains of this bird, especially 
if the second arch had remained intact, could never have told any other than a pittine or a graUarian tale. 



PEOF. W. K. PAHKEE ON ^GITHOGNATHOUS BIRDS. 319 

American types ; it is as if its father had been a GraUaria and its mother a Pitta, but 
to become an Artamus it had risen higher in the ornithic scale than either of its parents. 

Example 10. Bendrocolaptes albicollis, Vieill., 6 . 

Habitat. Brazil. Group " Tracheophonse," Miiller ; family " Dendrocolaptidae." 

Mr. Sahin's collection yields me five types of this kind of Southern passerine, in 
which the segithognathism is of the first or distinct variety of the complete kind ; the 
members of this family and of the " Tyraunidse " seem to me to stand near to, but in 
reality higher than the " Formicariidse ; " 1 speak thus, however, rather of their facial 
morphology than as an ornithologist. 

In some of these, as in my present instance, the basipterygoids are indicated by spurs 
of the basitemporal (PI. LIX. fig. 1, b.t, b.pg). At first sight this seems a trifle ; but 
morphology has no trifles : it is a Lacertian stigma. Every student knows that the 
innermost laminw of the massive " parosteal " basitemporals of the bird become the 
practical symmorphs of the Lizard's basisphenoids — symmetrical ectostoses ; also that, 
whilst in the bird the basipterygoids are ossified by the parasphenoidal rostrum, in the 
Lizard they are hardened directly from the basisphenoids. In our ascent from the less 
developed to more highly metamorphosed types, we constantly come across this 
" changing of hands," in the finish of a part. That Dendrocolaptes should have the 
Lacertian character is like a touch of " atavism ; " it can scarcely be other than a 
delicate link in a long evolutional chain. The strong, rounded parasphenoid (PI. LIX. 
fig. 1, pa.s) is short in this long-faced bird ; it forms the underbalk to a very massive, 
non-fenestrate interorbital septum. 

The ossification of the nasal labyrinth is very similar to that of GraUaria ; but I find 
no trabecular bone ; the upper septal ossification is less ; and so is that behind, on the 
upper turbinal ; that on the inferior turbinal is larger. 

The alse nasi outside are quite soft ; but their turbinals have each a long endosteal 
tract, as in GraUaria (see PI. LVI. fig. 9 ; and PI. LIX. figs. 1 & 2, «. tb). I find no 
subnasal alse to the thin knife-like cartilaginous septum nasi : the fenestra separating it 
from the meso-ethmoid (fig. 3, p. e, c.f. c, s. n) has become a " notch " by extension 
downwards of the cleft, such a closed cleft as is seen in GraUaria (PL LVI. fig. 10, c.f. c). 
In this respect Bendrocolaptes has risen above those " Formicariidse ; " but in its 
aegithognathism it is below them ; for I cannot find any advance of the bony matter of 
the vomer into the turbinals ; it stops quite short. The vomer («) is very curious, its 
coalesced part being very wide and short, and its legs almost close together. A small 
septo-maxillary (fig. 2, s.mx) is seen intervening between the outer angle of the upper 
vomeiine lobe and the extremity of the alinasal turbinal. The flat, broad, closely 
clinging vomerine crura are ankylosed to the ethmo-palatine plates ; the angular process 
on each side, in front, is articulated obliquely and strongly to the maxillo-palatine, in 
the manner of a zygapophysis. The ankylosis of the secondary bones of the upper jaw 



320 PEOP. W. K. PARKER ON ^GITHOGNATHOUS BIRDS. 

does not obscure this region; the tlentary, nasal, and palatine processes of the prsemax- 
illary are well marked (figs. 1-3) ; the body of that bone is of great length. 

The palatine arch, like that of Arfamus, has lost the distinction of proximal and distal 
segments ; the pterygoids, as in the last three instances, are straight, stout bones, 
becoming alate in front ; the epipterygoid hook (fig. 1, e.pg) is typically developed. 
The postpalatine crests (pt. pa) are less everted than in Grallaria, and are very close 
together ; they are quite as large as in that tjpe and in Pitta; the interpalatine spur 
is aborted, and the ethmo-palatine lamina is scrolled (fig. 3, e.pa). The mesopalatine 
region is becoming of greater extent ; and the transpalatine snags have that remarkable 
development backveards seen in many Southern passerines. The prsepalatines are very 
pittine, short, broad, fibrous, concave above, and convex below. 

The maxillo-palatine laminae are elegant little ears of bone, and are far apart, articu- 
lating with the angles of the broad-shouldered vomer ; the strong but slender and com- 
pressed zygoma {j) is one with the rest of the fore face. 

Dendrocolaptes is above the Formicariidee in the condition of the maxillary palatal 
plates, as well as in the palato-pterygoid arch. As in many of the higher passerines, 
there is a small lacrymal (fig. 3, I) ankylosed to the upper part of the descending crus 
of the nasal. The antorbital (fig. 3, p.p) has a concave outer margin, and a very 
imcinate angle ; below, it has a suture, dividing off the tip and the fore part of this bar 
from that which passes inwards to the meso-ethmoid (jj. e). The angle and part of the 
outer face is the os uncinatum [p. u) ; and this has most probably coalesced above with an 
upper lateral ethmoid, the bone described in the Rook (PI. LV. fig. 5). The foramen 
for the two nerves (figs. 3, 1, 5') has lessened very much in size. The ecto-ethmoid is 
not flush with the face as in most passerines ; and the frontal portion is small. This 
bird is not one of the highest of the Southern Coracomorphae ; it is an ascent, however, 
from the Formicariidse. 

Example 11. Anceretes parulus. 

Habitat. Chili. Group " Tracheophonse," Miiller ; family " Tyrannidse." 

This is one of the smallest of the family, and, like one of the smallest of our native 
Warblers (the Wren), shows a peculiarity not seen in larger forms, namely a develop- 
ment of the vomerine cartilages equal to what is seen in Tiirnix. 

The bat-shaped basitemporal plates, and the rounded parasphenoidal beam (PI. LIX. 
fig. 4, p)a.s) are quite similar to those of the next example, Synallaxis (PI. LIX. fig. 6, 
bt,pa.s); the hinge is perfect; and the septum nasi {s.n) is very large and thoroughly 
ossified ; it is alate, as in Corvus and Sylvia. 

The recurrent alinasal fold (fig. 4, re. c) and the hinder part of the alinasal wall 
(fig. 4, n. w) are also ossified. The postero-inferior element of the septum nasi is entirely 
ankylosed with the bony matter from the roof and front of the septum ; and the chink 



PEOF. W. K. PARKER ON ^.GITHOGNATHOrS BIRDS. 321 

between the septum and perpendicular ethmoid is very small above : it agrees, then, in 
this respect, with Bendrocolaptes. 

The vomer (figs. 4 & 5, v) is very large, relatively ; and anteriorly it is twice as wide as 
it is behind : this answers to Dendrocolajjfes. Here the vomers proper do not unite 
with the inturned alinasal lamina (?'. a. I), but form the ossified and coalesced hinder 
portion of the " vomerine cartilages " (v. c), which are longer, relatively, than in Turnix, 
and reach more than halfway along the sides of the septum nasi towards the recurrent 
lamina {re. c). 

This species and the Common Wren {Troglodytes vulgaris), where the two vomerine 
cartilages coalesce in front, and the Hemipod, are the instances which satisfy me that 
the vomerine cartilages are not merely the long extremities of the recurrent fold, 
detached, and separately chondrified, through the rapidly produced " prognathism " of 
the bird's face, but are a pair of upper labials. The broad shoulders of the vomer 
are formed by the addition of a square septo-maxillary {s.moc) on each side ; and it is 
this bone which grafts itself on the inturned alinasal wall {i. a. I). 

The pterygo-palatine arch is very similar to what I am about to describe in Synallaxis 
and Muscisaxicola (PI. LIX. figs. 6 & 9). The pterygoid retains its distinctness (fig. 4, 
pg) ; and its " hamular process " is long and slender. As in Muscisaxicola (fig. 9) and 
Bendrocolaptes (fig. 1), the postpalatine ridges {ptpa) are fined ofl"; and as in Synal- 
laxis (fig. 6), the slenderer transpalatine spurs {t.pa) are turned outwards as well as 
backwards. Of the laminae that form the roof and the floor of the nasal passage, the 
latter ends in a long interpalatine spur, and the former is arched (fig. 4, i.pa, e.pa). 
The forward continuation of the palatines is very slender {pr.pa). 

The lateral ethmoids are large, square, and have one wide, large opening above the 
antorbital, for the 1st and 5th nerves. The frontal region of the lateral ethmoid is 
moderate, the os uncinatum below not distinct ; and there is no lacrymal, as far as I can 
see ; the maxillo-palatines are not pedunculated (see fig. 4, mx.p, which shows the root 
of this process). 

Example 12. Synallaxis flavigularis. 

Habitat. Chili. Section " Tracheophonae," Miiller ; family " Dendrocolaptidse." 

The skull of this bird is unrivalled for elegance and delicacy of structure ; this is 
especially seen in the palate (PI. LIX. fig. 6). The swollen, cellular basitemporal plate 
{b.t) is bat-shaped, and has the median part not much produ,ceid forwards. The para- 
sphenoidal beam {pa.s) is very broad-based, and is without basipterygoid processes. 

From the Eustachian opening {eu) to the solid part of the prsemaxillaries, the basi- 
facial axis is one continuous structure ; but the posterior or upper third of the trabe- 
cular bar is separated from the ethmo-prsesphenoidal bar by a very large interorbital 
fenestra ; the rest of this coalesced arch is in a state of permanent fusion with the 
descending septal crest of the nasal organs. 

VOL. IX. — PART V. Becemher, 1875. 2 x 



322 PEOF. W. K. PAEKEE ON .^GITHOGNATHOUS BIEDS. 

Moreover it is evident that in these songless passerines we have not travelled far 
from the level of the great j)luviaHne stratum ; for the " notch " is only marked out by bony 
tracts (fig. 8,p.e, s.n), the fore part of the perpendicular ethmoid being separated by 
synchondrosis, and not by fibrous tissue, from the postero-inferior septal bone — a tra- 
becular tract ; and this has in front of it two bones belonging to the common septum of 
the nasal sacs. The foremost of these, as usual, ossifies the recurrent lamina, and the 
alate region of the septum nasi (tr). Let this state of things be compared with what 
the reader will see in Ocydromus australis, Gavia ridibunda, Uria troile, and Alca 
torda, and he will see at a glance how near this elegant little Southern passerine comes 
to the more specialized pluviaUne " Schizognaths." The lateral parts of the nasal 
vestibule are all soft ; the part of the compound vomerine bone joined to the inturned 
alinasal wall is a distinct, transversely placed bone, somewhat reniform — the septo- 
maxillary (fig. 7, s.mx). The vomerine elements themselves have ossified the fore part 
of the vomerine cartilages ; and these serrated blades of bone lie on a higher level than 
the thick part of the vomer, the commissural part of which is squared in front, and has 
a rounded notch behind. The shoulders of the bone pass gently into broad crura, which 
stride along the parasphenoid, and are welded to the coiled ethmo-palatine laminae. 
This type is spgithognathous in a complete manner; but it belongs to the first variety. 

The pterygo-palatine arch displays the same southern characters as the trabecular. 
The pterygoid has a long, delicate hook, a straight shaft, spreading in front ; its fore edge 
is free ; and the palatines, which, although typical in borrowing a mesopterygoid lamina, 
have long, rod-like transpalatines {t.pa) ; these spurs are turned outwards. The broadish 
floor of the nasal passage is twice notched, in a shallow manner, behind, and sends a 
sharp interpalatine spur {i.pa) forwards. The roof of the tube is elegantly arched, 
passing forwards to combine with the vomer ; the postpalatine keels are large and 
divaricate {pt.pa). 

The thick edge of the outspread mesopalatine region passes on into the prsepalatine 
(pr.pa). This is a most slender bar, which, from a compressed, becomes a depressed 
band, ankylosed in front to the prsemaxiliary. 

The external bones, prsemaxillary, maxillary, and jugals, are all ankylosed together. 
The maxillo-palatine process (nnv.p) is delicate and falcate ; it is subpedunculated ; the 
body of the bone, where it arises, is pneumatic. The palatine processes of the prac- 
maxillary {p-px) are very well marked and extremely slender. 

The lateral ethmoid (fig. ^,p-p) has a concave outer edge — an uncinate " lower angle " 
(o. u), a large common foramen above, and is not flanked by any apparent lacrymal. 

On comparing this type with the large Bendrocolaptes, it is easy to see that most of 
the difl'erence between the two arises from mere size. All that is independent of that 
cause, however, is of a very instructive nature ; and much as this elegant little bird 
resembles our Old- World Chats, Wagtails, Pipits, &c., it is a creature of the " Notogsea," 
and belongs to a lower level. 



PEOF. W. K. PAEKEE ON ^GITHOGNATHOUS BIEDS. 323 

Example 13. Muscisaxicola mentalis. 

Habitat. Chili. Group " Tracheophonse," Miiller ; family " Tyrannidee." 

This is a larger bird, and has a stouter face than the last ; yet, on comparing the 
palates together, it is easily seen how near they are in nature. The character of the 
bony substance in the two is exactly alike, both in the cellular and in the fibrous parts ; 
it is of the most delicate kind. The basitemporal projects more at the mid line under 
the Eustachian opening (PI. LIX. fig. 9, b.t, eu) ; and the posterior part of the para- 
sphenoid (pa.s) is not so thick. The hinge-notch is more perfect than in Synallaxis, 
and the septum much deeper and more largely alate (PI. LIX. figs. 9 & 10, tr) ; it much 
resembles that of Jlomorus (see PI. LX. figs, 1-4), but it is deeper, as in Dendrocolaptes 
(PI. LIX. fig. cijS.n). The alse nasi are soft externally; but their turbinals are ossified 
(fig. 9, a.th), as is also the nasal floor {n.f.) and part of the recurrent fold [re. c). 
The inferior turbinals have patches of endostosis. On the whole, the anterior part of 
the palate is very much ossified for so small a bird. The vomer is large (figs. 9 & 10 v)\ 
and the inturned lamina [i. a. I), like the alinasal turbinal, is ossified by its own endosteal 
deposit, and articulates with the large swollen lobes of the vomer — that is, with its 
coalesced septo-maxillaries : this belongs to the 1st variety of " complete desmognathism." 

The bony septum, behind its large subnasal alsc. is very solid and even bulbous ; and it 
is almost embraced by the still more bulbous upper lobes of the vomer. The vomer is 
broad, flat, largely united at the mid line ; and its flat crura are near together, and anky- 
losed to the ethmo-palatines. 

The likeness and the unlikeness of the next arch in this type and in Synallaxis is very 
instructive, as showing very fine, and yet quite measurable and evident diversity. The 
delicate, arcuate, ascending apex of the pterygoid {e.pg) has here its fullest oinithic 
growth; the whole pterygoid (fig. 9,j)(/) is longer, more arcuate, and clings more closely 
to its fellow in front, where it sends upwards a flat, leafy lobe, which articulates in 
front with the mesopterygoid lobe of the palatine, once a separate bone. 

The postpalatine laminae are cut away, as it were, below ; and the body of the bone 
is more spongy than in Synallaxis; the prsepalatal bars are equally delicate, and form 
one continuous and almost straight bar with the edge of the broad part and the retral 
transpalatine [t.pa). The ethmo-palatal is dome-shaped, as in all these types. 

The investing bones are all ankylosed together ; the maxillo-palatines (figs. 9 & 10, 
mx.p) are like pruning-hooks, and are somewhat pedunculate. 

The ecto-ethmoid is squarer than in Synallaxis, its outer side being less concave, 
and its angle less developed ; it is a flat, spongy plate, appearing moderately above, 
and having over its antorbital region a huge doorway from the orbit into the nasal sac, 
through which both kinds of nerve pass. 

Example 1 4. Ilomorus unicolor. 

Habitat. Mendoza, La Plata. Group " TracheophonEe," Miiller ; family " Dendroco- 
laptidse." 

2 .X 2 



324 PEOF. W. K. PAEKEE ON ^GITHOGNATHOUS BIEDS. 

My third example of these South -American " Dendrocolaptidee," is twice as large as 
the others ; it is likest Muscisaxicola, and is of- great interest, inasmuch as it underlies 
the Piping Crow, just as Grallaria underlies the Wood-.Swallow (^rtemiis). 

If this should seem to be fanciful, I would request the most imaginative believer in 
sudden, separate creations, to compare the two as they have been drawn by me in PI. LX. 
(figs. 1 & 5). 

Moreover, if the same grave doubter of the unity of Nature will supply me with the 
ripe chick of a Piping Crow, I will promise to make a drawing of its palate that shall be 
superimposable on that of Homorus, and the twin drawings shall, for lack of difference, 
be undistinguishable. 

On the whole, this type comes very close to LendrocoJaptes ; and the first thing to be 
remarked is, that beneath the metamorphosed apices of the trabeculse we come upon the 
basipterygoid processes, springing from the basitemporal bones, as in Dendrocolaptes 
(see Plate LX. fig. 1, and PI. LIX. fig. 1, M, bpg). 

The parasphenoidal rostrum {pa.s) is full behind, and narrows gently forwards ; it 
scarcely projects below the hinge; the crest of the trabeculse is of moderate height, 
below the interorbital fenestra. The septum nasi is well ossified, alate, and typical 
(PI. LX. fig. 4, s.n); it is separated from the diminished front end of the meso-ethmoid 
{p. e) by synchondrosis, as in Synallaxis (PI. LIX. fig. 8, s. n, p. e) ; so that the notch 
is only half through the ethmo-sejital plate. The ossified septum sends its bony matter 
along the well-marked recurrent lamina {re. c) ; and this process lying below the septal 
subnasal alae {tr), a space is formed ; this is the well-known perforation of the ornithic 
nostrils. Here the alinasal floor is large and unossified {n. f) ; and the wall (fig. 4, n. w) 
is partly ossified behind. 

The alinasal and inferior turbinals are soft, or nearly so ; behind the flat part of the 
septum, which is ossified — a true facial (trabecular) bone, there is a median ossicle, 
one of the " septo-maxillary " series (figs. 2 & 4, m.s.mx) ; we shall find this bone in 
the next higher type. The vomer (figs. 1. & 2, v), is of immense breadth in front, and 
very spongy ; it soon narrows ; and its crura are compressed and wide apart. A point 
of cartilage still unossified on the inner angle of the large upper lobe of the vomer 
shows that here this bone largely owes its size to the vomerine cartilages {v. c) ; they 
are also partly ossified by a pair of septo-maxillaries, which form large epiphyses to 
the vomer (figs. 2 & .3, s.mx). The groove on the upper surface of the vomer is 
narrowish and tolerably deep. In this type the alinasal turbinal is attached to the 
large septo-maxillary ; and this kind of complete aegithognathism is of the first variety. 
The ethmoidal region is wholly dendrocolaptine : the falcate pars plana {p. p) is widely 
severed from the roof, and carries a seed-shaped " os uncinatum " (o. u) on its out- 
turned extremity ; this, as we have seen, is an endo-skeletal element of the first or tra- 
becular arch. 

The pterygo-palatine arch is true to the family character. The short, straight pteiy- 



PROF. W. K. PAEKEE ON .EGITHOGNATHOUS BIEDS. 325 

golds (fig. 1) are elegantly hooked behind, and terminate in front by ankylosis ; this ele- 
ment and the rest fall back into the original simplicity of this bar. The mesopalatine 
region (fig. 1, pa) is large, both fore and aft and transversely ; the postpalatine ridges 
are moderately developed ; and the transpalatine processes are strong, retral, somewhat 
out-turned spines ; they are continued as an outer ridge to the broad part, and then 
the bone is passed forwards as a stiff bar, gently converging to its fellow : thus there is 
but a slight sinuosity from the terminal point of the bar and that of the retral process. 
The space between the outer ridge and the interpalatine ridge is well scooped ; the spurs 
are short. The arched ethmo-palatine is notched in front. The investing facial bones 
are strongly ankylosed together ; the maxillo-palatine processes (mx.p), like those of 
Muscisaxicola, are flat, gently curved, and knife-like ; they do not form a strong con- 
nexion with the shoulders of the vomer. 

Thus, with its own peculiarities and an evident tendency towards the Southern-Crow 
type, this bird is related very intimately, right and left, to the other members of the 
family " Dendrocolaptidse." 

The lacrymal (fig. 4, /) is very small in Homorus, as in many Coracomorphse. 

Example 15. Gymnorhina tibicen. 

Habitat. Australia. Group " Oscines," Miiller ; family " Gymnorhinidae." 

Here is another eastern type, which is merely a more highly specialized, a more com- 
pletely metamorphosed dendrocalaptine bird. Suggesting to the observer its o^\^l name 
(Crow) with the modifying epithet " Piping," this is yet a bird which is the culmina- 
tion of a very different branch of the J^githognathte from that of the true Crows of the 
Old World (" Arctogeea"). There are not many iuternodes between this upper type and 
the Chilian and Brazilian birds that grow out below it. Two of the further speciali- 
zations that characterize it from these are a greater intensity of ossification, and the 
metamorphosis of the contractor trachem muscle into the motors of the " syrinx." 

Comparing the skull of this bird with that of Homorus, in a general way, as to form 
and strength, the difference is very similar to that between those of Gecitms viridis and 
Picus major ; yet there is, altogether, in Gymnorhina a rise, both zoological and mor- 
phological. 

The basitemporal and parasphenoidal regions {b.t, pa.s) in these birds would, to a 
hasty observer, seem to differ only in size ; so much is one a repetition of the other. Yet 
a second look shows that in Gymnorhina the basipterygoid processes (PL LX. fig. 5, b.pg) 
have found their proper ornithic position, namely on the parasphenoid (pa.s). This bar 
itself is also more elegantly narrow than in Homorus (fig. 1). Yet the presence of these 
basipterygoids, even as prickly rudiments, is a rare thing amongst the Coracomorphae, 
and bespeaks a nearer relationship to the plebeian types below than obtains in the true 
Crows of the Old World. 

In the absence of the young of this bird no other type could have been found more apt 



326 PEOP. W. K. PARKER ON ^UITHOGNATHOUS BIRDS. 

as a key than the far-western Homorus ; for in Gymnorhina, ossification runs riot, and 
the very numerous osseous centres melt into each other, if not here, yet there ; at some 
point or extremity, or jutting snag, they lose their individuality, making the morpho- 
logist wonder why this puzzle grew from so many pieces. The notch in the basifacial 
axis is a very large triangle, with its apex upwards ; it is perfect, and the point of the 
parasphenoid does not reach it. In front of the notch, or hinge, is the well-ossified nasal 
septum, which is fenestrate and deep in front, and shallow behind ; and its lower edge 
and subnasal alse are ankylosed to the intensely ossified nasal floor (fig. 5, n.f) ; and 
this is a continuation of the solid, bony alinasal. Where they arise, there the alinasal 
turbiuals are ossified ; for the rest, they are soft, save at the end, where the upper 
vomerine lobes (figs. 5 & 6, v) have run into them, by grafting (fig. 7, v, i. a. I). So also 
tlie alisej)ta] has coalesced by bony union with the outer facial walls, as in the mammal, 
and has also, as in the young mammal, a top-shaped bone, formed by ossificaticn of its 
posterior end, the part attached to the bony " pars plana." Hence, in seeking in the 
adult for the "trabecula; cranii," we find that foremost facial arch metamorphosed into 
a great variety of substructural bars and beams and outgrowths of periosteal bone. 
The apices of the two early coalesced bars are involved in the great " temporal wings of 
the parasphenoid," forming the "anterior tympanic recess" (fig. b,a.t.r); then the 
narrowing portion forms the sides of the sella turcica; narrowing still, it forms the base 
of the interorbital fenestra, where the two primordial bars first formed their commis- 
sural union. 

A continuation of this part substructs the septum between the functional part of the 
nasal sacs — the perpendicular ethmoid ; there the notch severs the once double bar, 
and the rest of the trabeculse form the base of the partition between the vestibular 
parts of the nose and also, where the trabeculte keep flat, the floor of the nose between 
the outer nostrils. The azygous process of the trabeculse (the praenasal cartilage) is 
absorbed, being aborted by the huge splints formed upon it, as upon a model : I refer 
to the foremost facial splints, the praemaxillaries. Yet this does not exhaust even the 
'• endo-skeletal " parts of this arch ; for the lateral ethmoid has a small os uncinatum 
(fig. S,2}.]}, 0. u) attached to its lower angle; this is the conjugational bone between 
the two prseoral arches. 

1 have spoken of the dense and everywhere ankylosed prsemaxillaries ; these are the 
foremost splints: but five more secondary ossifications belong to the trabecular arch; 
these form a single bone in the adults. But these five osseous elements were brought 
into relation with a pair of " vomerine cartilages." All these things are hidden in the 
curious three-horned vomer of the adult ; and this now single bone has lost its freedom, 
being bound to the ascending plates of the palatines behind, and grafted upon the ali- 
nasal turbinals in front (fig. 5, i', e.pa ; figs. 6 & 7, «, i. a. I) ; also it is articulated strongly 
.by a kind of zygapophysis to the maxillo-palatine on each side (figs. 5,6, 7, v, nix.p). 
The stones and the cement used in this building, the strength and safety of which have 



PKOF. AV. K. PAEKEE ON ^GITHOGNATHOUS BIEDS. 327 

been " cared for with all this care," are illustratively shown in the more general type 
last described, namely Homorus (PI. LX. figs. 1-4). 

The septo-maxillaries have become fixed with the vomerine moieties to form the 
shoulders of the compound bone (compare figs. 2 & 7) ; but these paired ossicles do not 
account for the spine which grows from the middle of the vomer above (figs. 5-7, 
m.s.mx) ; this is not symmorphic with the long style in which the vomer ends in the 
Humming-birds, which is in them merely an ongrowth of the two halves of the bone ; 
but here the membrane-bone seen separate in Homorus (figs. 1, 2, 3, ms.mx) has 
coalesced with the other vomerine elements. 

But for Homorus, I should have spoken more cautiously of the median vomerine 
spine of Gymnorhina ; but now I speak boldly, and can show the sceptical reader the 
same thing in many a type. It is, indeed, an ossification of the lower edge of the mem- 
brane that fills up the " cranio-facial notch," and is therefore peculiarly ornithic; 
he who would seek for it in other classes should consider that it cannot be there, as 
they possess no such cleft in their facial axis. In Gymnorhina there is in this bone a 
gTowth upwards, tending to fill the gap; this crest is fenestrate (fig. 7, m.s.mx). 

There are differencing characters in the two types here compared ; but the South- 
American bird is merely a more embryonic and smaller bird than the Australian Piping 
Crow, which in size and in specialization has stolen a march upon its meaner relative. 
The observer reads this in a moment in the two palates (figs. 1 & 5) ; and the portrayal of 
these parts on one scale makes the comparison easier. The short, stiff, uncinate ptery- 
goids (fig. 5, pg) of Gymnorhina are not quite so alate in fi-ont as those of Homorus 
(fig. l,]}g); yet they are in both ankylosed to the palatines. This continuity of bone- 
matter makes a wall on either side of the posterior nasal canal, which is here much longer 
than in Homorus ; and these ridges, belonging chiefly to the palatines, are not so strong 
and outstanding as in " Dendrocolaptidae " and " Formicariidae;" they are also more 
bevelled ofi" towards the end. The ridges which enclose the basifacial balk are princi- 
pally due to the coalesced mesopterygoids ; and they end in front in a less arched ethmo- 
palatine, which is ankylosed to the vomerine crura. Both the interpalatine plates, with 
theii- aborted spurs, and the upper ethmo-palatine laminae are of small extent, fore and 
aft, as compared with Homorus (fig. 1) ; hence the postpalatine region and the trans- 
palatine spikes {t.pa) are much longer than in the lesser bird. 

These peculiar styliform transpalatines are found, as far as I have seen, only south of, 
or upon the equator ; and their very curious character, always correlated with other 
differences, might justify one in dividing the " Coracomorphse " into two sections, the 
" Noto-Coracomorphse," and the " Arcto-Coracomorpha3." "With a most remarkable 
amount of harmony between the two types, namely Corvus and Gymnorhina (PI. LV. 
figs. 1 & 6 ; and PL LX. fig. 5), this modification of the palatines strikes the eye at 
once ; and looking abroad we find it characterizing the " Formicariidee," " Dendroco- 
laptidae," " Gymnorhinidae," " Tanagridae," and " Artamidae," and in those exquisite 
little Australian types Acanthorhynchus and Pfilotis (" Meliphagidse "). 



328 PEOr. W. K. PARKER ON ^GITIIOGNATHOUS BIRDS. 

In the " Cotingidse " and " Tyrannidse " the transpalatine process is very rudimentary, 
and also in some of the " Formicariidee " (as in Thamnojjliilus), also in the Australian 
Menura. In Artamus and in Elainea (Tyrannidse) the process is flattening out; and 
they approach our own " Laniidse." 

In Gymnorhina, from the retral apex of the transpalatine process to the extremity of 
the palatine, in front, this bony bar is straight and stifi"; from being obhquely com- 
piessed it becomes, further forwards, depressed, and is fast bound down to the prsemax- 
illary in front (fig. 5, pr.jia) ; but, as in Artamus, it is quite free from the hard nasal 
floor, and is, indeed, some distance below it. 

The palatines and maxillaries are only in contact in front, where they are ankylosed 
to each other and to the preemaxillaries ; for the maxillo-palatine flaps (figs. 5 & 6, mx.p) 
are a good height above the strong elastic palatine bar. These processes are ankylosed 
to the inturned alinasal floor, the edge of the lower process of which fringes the antero- 
internal edge of the maxillo-palatine {n.f, i. a. I, mx.j)). 

The form of the maxillo-palatines is like an ear ; and they are thin, sinuous, tooth- 
edged laminae, shaped like those of the Crow (PI. LV. fig. 6, mx.}>), but not possessing 
the thickened inner edge which in that type borders a large air-cell. Behind these 
processes the maxillaries are developed inwards behind the angle of the preemaxillaries, 
still striving to floor-in the palate. In front they are ankylosed to the prsemaxillaries, 
nasals, and ossified nasal sacs, and behind to the strong compressed jugal {j). 

With the exception of Pachyrham;phus (" Cotingidse " — PI. LVII. fig. 7, e.eth), Gymno- 
rhina has the largest frontal plate to its lateral ethmoid. The antorbital is very thick 
and spongy ; it has a concave outer margin, an outward lower angle, a large common 
foramen above it (as large, relatively, as in Homorus), and, as in that species, the angle 
carries a small epiphysial os uncinatum (PI. LX. fig. 8, o. u). As to the lacrymal, it is 
thoroughly corvine (fig. 8, /) both in position (jammed in below the prcefrontal and 
nasal) and in shape and substance. 

In short, to sum up the characters and relationships of the Piping Crow, it is a " Noto- 
coracomorph," an ascent from the short-billed " Dendrocolaptidse " of the western regions 
of the " Notogsea," a true singer, ha^dng large inferior laryngeal muscles ; and it has 
a fine voice. It crops up in the great bird-tree like another and scarcely inferior 
>' leader " to that formed by the Old-World Crows, Daws, and Magpies. 

Example 16. Ilyloterpe sulfuriventer. 

Habitat. Celebes. Group " Oscines ; " family " Sylviidse." 

This Malayan type (PI. LVIII. figs. 3 & 4) strongly reminds one of the South- 
American " Cotingidae," Pipra and Pachyrhamphus (PI. LVII. figs. 1-7) ; and indeed it 
seems to me to be another eastern form which has undergone further metamorphosis 
than its western relatives. It appears to be related to the "Cotingidae" just as the 
Piping Crow is to Homorus and the Wood-Swallow to Grallaria. 



PROF. W. K. PAllKElt ON iEGlTHOGNATHOUS BIRDS. 829 

If this be the case, if these instances of changed forms in the Eastern " Notogsea," 
corresponding to unchanged (or less changed) types in the Western " Notogsea," can be 
shown to be common, it will go far towards the establishment of a true theory of the 
dispersion and modification of types \ 

Near this type 1 should place Lanius (PI. LXI. figs, 3-6), and below it Elcnnea 
(" Tyrannidse " — PI. LXI. figs. 1 & 2) ; and 1 think the true order of these types upwards 
is " Cotingidse," " Tyrannidse," " Laniidse," and " Sylviidse." 

The peculiarly soft spongy character of the skull in Pachyrhamphus and Pipr'a is re- 
placed by a somewhat denser structure in Elainea and Hyloterpe ; but this latter differs 
much from Lanius, the skull of which is much more den.se and fibrous, like that of a 
true C'orvus, only on a smaller scale. So also in these the basiternporal (PL LVIII. 
tig. 3, b.f, and PI. LXI. fig. 1) region is bat-shaped, as in the "Cotingidse;" and the 
strong rounded cellular parasphenoidal rostrum (j^a.s), without a trace of " basiptery- 
goid processes," is very similar. In Hyloterpe the notch is perfect in the basifacial 
axis, and the upper or nasal part of the nasal septum is ossified. Mr. Salvin's specimen 
does not show whether it is alate. 

The alse nasi have a bony patch on each side behind the nostril ; and the large ali- 
nasal turbinals (figs. 3 & 4, «. th) have a large patch on their inner face of an ectosteal 
character (.s.j^w/) ; it represents the anterior part of the ophidian septo-maxillary. 

This bone articulates with another sliorter bony scale, the proper septo-maxillary 
{s.mx), and this with the upper edge of the front of the vomer (v). This latter bone 
has its two halves thoroughly ankylosed for the first half of its length : it is now a 
large flatfish bone with a sharp shoulder, a median and two lateral points below in 
front, and very flat gently diverging crura that are ankylosed to the palatines. The 
vomer is slightly carinate in front, that part dipping very evidently. 

The OS uncinatum is very evident and very instructive (PI. LVIII. figs. 3 & 4, o. u) : 
it is a sharp prickle with a broad bulging base, and appears as an outgrowth of the 
inner face of the swollen ecto-ethmoid {p-p); this latter element has a" notched outer 
margin and a common passage for the olfactory and nasal nerves, as ui the low types. I 
see no trace of a lacrymal in HyJoterpe. 

The second preeoral arch (fig. 3, pg, pa) may be seen at a glance to be intermediate, 
both in its primary and secondary elements, between a low Cotingine type and the high 
Corvines. The pterygoids {pg) are very similar to those of Pipra (PI. LVII. fig, 1); 
but they have a better " hamular process," and are slightly arcuate. The laminate 
anterior end articulates with the leafy plate of the palatine — its mesopterygoid region. 
The palatines {pt.pa) have strong posterior keels, a large median portion with its post- 

If not, if every zoological species has been created as it is now, and fenced in by laws that cannot be 
broken, " a hedge set about it and all that it hath," then I U'ust, for the sake of true science, that this glamour 
will soon be removed from our eyes, and that we shall not be lured on further after evolutional Will-o'-the- 
wisps. 

VOL. IX. — P.\ET V. December, 1875. 2 t 



330 PEOF. W. K. PARKER ON ^GITHOGNATHOUS BIRDS. 

narial roof and floor, and a much more definite two-toothed transpalatine region. The 
roof-plate, or ethmo-palatine (e.jm), has lost its highly arched form, and has become more 
typical ; it coalesces with the vomer. The prsepalatine bars are narrow behind, flatter 
in front, and bowed like those of Pachyrhani])lms (PI. LVII. fig. 4); their apparent 
width in front is partly due to their coalescence ^nth the palatine process of the prse- 
maxillary. That bone, the maxillary, and the jugal are all ankylosed together. The 
maxillo-palatine processes {mx.p) are of great interest, as they retain the non-peduncu- 
late shape of the low types, and are large, broad-based, pointed knives of bone, less 
typical, indeed, than those of the " Formicariidse " and " Dendrocolaptidse." They are 
like those of Lanms, but simpler (PI. LVIII. figs. 3 & 4, and PI. LXI. figs. 3 & 4, mA-.j)). 

Example 17. Elainea , sp. ? 

Habitat. Barbadoes. Group " Tracheophonas," Miiller ; family " Tyrannidae." 

In comparing together the skulls of an old Lanius colhtrio, a young first-summer bird 
of the same species, and an adult Elainea, I saw clearly that I had before me three 
clear morphological strata (see PI. LXI. figs. 1, 3, 4). The likeness in the fashion of 
these three palates, and their measurable degrees of difference, are neither fanciful nor 
accidental. If I can show that the skull of Lanius is, morphologically considered, a 
further metamorphosis of a Tyrannine type of skull, and that of Tyrannas the modifi- 
cation and ornithic improvement of a Cotingine type, then surely there must be some 
common root for all these. Below the Cotinga comes the Hemipod, and below the 
Hemipod the Tinamou and the terricolous Ratitm ; and here we have ground-leaves, 
stem-leaves, bracts, calyx, and- corolla to our fanciful bird-tree : the metamorphosis is 
real, however expressed in words. 

The basitemporal region in Elainea is bat-shaped, and the well-shaped rostrum is of 
moderate size, and without basipterygoid processes (Pi. LXI. fig. 1, b.t, pa.s). 

The cranio-facial hinge is perfect, and is bounded by bone both before and behind ; 
that in front is a well-formed thoroughly bony nasal septum (figs. 1 & 2, s. oi). This 
vfall runs, in front, into the two recurrent laminae (re. c) ; it is then alate for the fore- 
most half, and the hinder part of the base is alate also where the nasal nerves run. 
The posterior part of the alse nasi is ossified ; and the bony matter runs inwards above 
and in front of the maxillo-palatine process as the inturned lamina (fig. 1, i. a. I). The 
vomer (figs. 1 & 2, v), where it has utilized the vomerine cartilages and part of the 
alinasal cartilage, is formed of two swollen divergent lobes, each of which is open outside, 
(fig. 2), the hollow cavity vsdthin having a gaping air-passage. The rest of the double 
bone is flat and quite normal ; no remains of the suture exist between the subsidiary 
septo-maxillary and the true vomerine piece. The thick spongy ecto-ethmoids are well 
seen above, have a straight outer mai-gin, a huge common foramen above, and are scarcely 
pedate below. 

The lacrymal (fig. 2, I) is pedate, and also shows a good face in the frontal region ; 



PEOF. W. K. PABKER OX .^;GITHOGNATHOUS BIRDS. :-531 

it is one of the largest, relatively, in the whole of the " Coracomorphse," agreeing with 
Pac]iyrliam])hi(s among the " Cotingidse " at one end of the series, and with 'the " Cor- 
vidse " at the other end. 

1 find no trace of a separate " os uncinatum," nor of a process that can be certainly 
claimed as its symmorph. Yet I suspect that the pedate base of the lacrymal is the real 
element disguised, as a long lacrymal in the Coracomorphse will at times have an os 
uncinatum at its outer angle — for example, in Sturnella militaris (Icteridse) and in 
Phytotoma rara. 

The pterygoids (PI. LXI. fig. l,^^^) are very similar to those of Pipra (PL LVII. 
fig. 1), but have the hamular or epipterygoid process much more developed ; they 
articulate with the palatine and its borrowed mesopterygoid region. The palatines 
are bevelled off behind, as in Pipra ; and in like manner the broad part is a mere 
isthmus of bone, uniting the almost equal and equally pointed ethmo- and inter- 
palatines with the fore-stretching main bar. From this bar there is a jutting snag, 
outturned as in Pipra, but not denticulated : this is the very embryonic transpalatine 
{t-lia), very similar in form and proportions to that of the embryo Eook (Monthly 
Micr. Journ. Nov. 1872, pi. 35. fig. 1, pa). From thence forwards the palatine bar is 
rather broad and very flat, and at its extremity has coalesced with the preemaxillary 
(fig. 1). The palatine processes of the praemaxillary {p.px) are very distinct, as in 
embryo Crows; but the nasals, prsemaxillaries, maxillaries, and jugals («, ^.r, mx,j) are 
all ankylosed together. The maxillo-palatine processes {;mxp) have the stamp of low- 
ness upon them ; they are broad-rooted decurved flaps of bone, essentially like those 
of the " Cotingidee" and " Formicariidas." 

The importance of this type to the morphological zoologist will be best seen in the 
next, a more specialized and nobler form of the " Coracomorphse." 

Example 18. Lanius collurio. 

Habitat. Great Britain. Section " Oscines," Miiller; family "Laniidse." 
These rapacious passerines, the Butcherbirds, come next beneath the lesser Cor- 
vidse, such as the Jay ( Gari'ulus) ; they are not equal to them ornithically. 

The whole structure of the skull is of a denser more fibrous bone than in the lower 
related types, and is very similar to that of the Jay. The basitemporal (PI. LXI. fig. 3, 
b.t) region is now a low triangle with its base behind. The rostrum of the parasphenoid 
is slender and void of outstanding basipterygoid processes behind ; it is thoroughly 
blended with the overlying trabecular beam. The notch in front of these parts is per- 
fect ; and in front of the notch there is an ossified septum nasi in the adult (fig. 5, s. v). 
Here, however, the ossification is not so intense as to mask the composition of the parts; 
for the large postero-inferior bone is separate from the anterior and upper part, which 
is not quite ossified below the large internarial fenestra (i.n. f). 

2 y2 



382 PROF. W. K. PARKER ON ^GITHOGNATHOUS. BIRDS. 

In front of the fenestra the recun-ent lamina (re. e) is ossified (fig. 5) ; and behind 
its posterior boundary there is another, smaller opening — a posterior nasal fenestra 
(p. n.f). 

The alcC nasi are not ossified, except where they turn inwards, behind ; and here also 
the aliseptal lamina is partly osseous. 

The fore part of the septal base is alate (fig. 4) ; and behind this the thick lower edge 
of the large deep septum is pneumatic ; the large opening is seen from below (fig. 4, 
s. n). In the young (fig. 3, v) the vomer is almost exactly the counterpart of that of 
Elainea ; but its lobes are not so divergent. In the adult it is a huge bone (figs. 4 & 5, ■«) 
alate laterally, and with large swelling pneumatic lobes above. So high are these lobes 
that they allow the posterior septal (trabecular) bone to ride in between them ; for they 
rise as a wall on either side. • The air-cell within opens on each side, looking also for- 
wards ; these foramina gape widely, and show through the fore part of the vomer, the 
diploe of which has been extensively absorbed to form this thin-walled, two-mouthed air- 
bottle. The septo-maxillaries are lost in the lateral alse of the vomer. 

The pterygoids [pg), as in Elainea, are long and slender, well hooked behind, and 
laminar in front. Even in the young the mesopterygoid has coalesced with the palatine : 
in the old bird the pterygoids and palatines coalesced. The palatines {pa) are of great 
interest zoologically. In the young (fig. 3) they have less of that weak outbent form 
seen in Elainea, and the prsepalatine bars are wider; the bilaminar tract running 
from the outer angle to the mid line is much longer fore and aft, and ends in front in 
almost equal ethmo- and interpalatine spurs. 

The postpalatine keel {ptt-jja), running from the intei-palatine, is bevelled, as in 
Elainea ; and the transpalatine spur (fig. 3, t.pa) is exactly such as that of Elainea 
might have been if periosteal growths had gone on lengthening and sharpening the 
retral process. In the old bird (fig. 4) all this is intensified. And now, if the reader 
will refer to the figures of Hemipodius, Thamnophilus, Pachyrhamplms, Pipra, Elainea, 
Lanius young, and Lanius old, he will see a most perfect series, with the exception of 
the crowning typical form, namely Corvus (compare Plates LIV., LV., LVII. & LXI.)'. 

Near the fore end of the praspalatal band there is on the inside in the adult a broad- 
ening of the bone with a free retral spur ; this is not, as in the Woodpecker, the end 
of the palatine process of the praemaxillary, but the end of the recurrent alinasal 
lamina, the right and left processes being wide apart and not near as in Elainea (fig. I) ; 
the relation of the palatine to the pi-semaxillaries is quite normal (see figs. 1 & 3, p.px, 
[jr. pa). 

The dentate, bract-shaped maxillo-palatines (mx.p) are very elegant hooked flaps of 
bone, only pneumatic at their broad, non-pedunculate root : they are not typical. And 
here also I have to note the " Laniidse " as being ielow the Crows. 

' If this is accidental, then we search in vain for order, law, or Lawgiver in the Cosmos ; for these grada- 
tional instances of relation are only culled haphazard from thousands of bird-forms. 



PEOF. W. K. PAEKBR ON .EGITHOGNATHOUS BIRDS. 333 

There is in Lanius, as in Gpnnorhina (PI. LX. fig. 5), a tendency to iill-in the hard 
palate ; for the maxillary keeps a good width behind its maxillo-palatine process, and, 
indeed, forms the rudiment of another and similar palatine spur. The pars plana 
(figs. 5 & &,p-p) has the concave outline, externally, of the FormicariidaB ; but the first 
and fifth nerves have separate passages (i & 5'). There is no separate os uncinatum; 
but the lacrymal is moderately developed. Here also there is a curious gradation ; for 
in Elainea (fig. 2, 1) it is large and corvine and is seen above, in the young Lanhis 
(fig. 6, 1) it is much reduced in size, and in the old bird (fig. 5, 1) it is still smaller. 
Here we see that an " investing " bone, which has a very precarious existence in the 
great group " Coracomorphse," and is never full-sized except in a most exceptional 
form, becomes partly absorbed during age, as if to reduce it to the general level of these 
particular types. 

Several Celebesian passerines claim attention now ; they stand on the same general 
level as our familiar genus Lanius : some of these lean, however, more to the Crow- 
side ; and others look towards the Birds of Paradise. Two types from that island have 
already been described, namely Hyloterpe (PI. LVIII. figs. 3 & 4) and Artamus (PI. 
LVIII. figs. 1 & 2) ; my next instance, namely Bicrurus, seems to be almost equally 
related to the Shrikes, Wood-Swallows, and Crows : the ornithologists shall set me right, 
and place it where they list amongst these types. 

Example 19. Bicrurus leucops. 

Habitat. Celebes. Section " Oscines," Miiller ; family " Sylviidse." 

This genus comes very close to the last {Lanius) ; but there are some very interesting 
differences \ 

The basitemporal and parasphenoidal regions are quite corvine (PL LVIII. fig. 5, b.t, 
pa.s) ; the cranio-facial hinge is perfect, and is bounded by a high dividing wall of bone 
both before and behind; that in front is the very strong, thoroughly ossified, nasal 
septum (figs. 5 & 6, s. w). This bony mass is broadly alate below, as in Corvus ; and of 
these alae the right is notched and fenestrate, and the left fenestrate. The postero- 
inferior region is umbonate on each side behind and above the subnasal alee; these 
bosses arise on the septum over the nasal nerve ; and the septum is partly divided behind 
by a slanting, lanceolate fenestra, where the right and left nerves almost touch each, 
other. 

In front the septum has a large, elongated fenestra, which re-differentiates the tra- 

' Here let me confess that I am studying these Celebesian passerines in profound ignorance of their acknow- 
ledged zoological position as to " families," " subfamilies," and the like. These invaluable specimens belong to 
my friend Osbert Salvia, Esq., F.E.S. ; and the spirit-specimens from which they were prepared were named 
for him by the Viscount Walden, Pres. Zool. Soe. I am now (Dec. 5th, 1872) waiting for Mr. Salvia's help 
in placing these birds so that they shall please the eye of the systematist. 1 mention this to show that my 
little adjudications are unbiased. 



334 PEOF. W. K. PAEKER ON ^GITHOGKATHOUS BIEDS. 

becular crest from the true nasal partition-wall. The recurrent lamina is fused with 
the median part of the prsemaxillary ; the al^ nasi are slightly ossified at their edges 
above and below ; the os uncinatum is not separate from the large, leafy, inturned base 
of the pars plana {p-jy) ; above the pars plana there is a large opening, divided within 
by a small bar of bone into two nerve-passages. A lacrymal, the size of that of the old 
Lanius, is ankylosed to the upper region of the ecto-ethmoid. 

The broad vomer (y) has strong crura, not far apart, ankylosed to the palatines ; its 
solid anterior part is very remarkable. The part running by ossification into the semi- 
ossified alinasal turbinals is very large indeed (fig. 6, s.mx) ; and on the left side only 
one septo-maxillary can be seen ; but on the right side, not only is the junctural part 
with the nasal cartilage separate, the upper edge has a small ossicle, and the shoulder 
and lower face another, much larger, osseous centre. 

Thus, counting the ectosteal plate on the right alinasal turbinal, there are four bones 
on that side that correspond to the single septo-maxillary of the Snake. The pterygo- 
palatines are like those of the Shrike in form, but like those of the Crow in strength. 
The pterygoids and palatines are thoroughly ankylosed together ; the postnasal keel 
and the internasal spars are well developed. The bridge connecting the great trans- 
palatine snag with the inner edge of the bone is less developed than in Lanius. 

The maxillo-palatine processes are thoroughly corvine, being like those of the Jay 
(Garrulus (jlandarius), pedunculated, with a thick, rounded, pneumatic extremity; for 
the rest, the facial bars, internally, are all ankylosed together. 

Example 20. Enodes erythrophrijs. 

Habitat. Celebes. Section " Oscines," Miiller ; family "Sturnidae." 

This bird is evidently not a distant relation of the last ; and yet to the morphologist 
it yields certain very important characteristics. Uicrurus leucops is nearly the size of a 
Jay, and has a more arched and a stronger face ; this bird is the size of a Song-Thrush, 
and their skulls are very similar ; but Enodes has a stronger head and face, and is more 
laniine, and the arcuate bill and the palatines give it some claim to be related to the 
Birds of Paradise. In a wide sense of the word, it is corvine, as it belongs to the 
higher Coracomorphee ; but wherever placed, it must go near Uicrurus. 

The basitemporal and parasphenoidal regions agree with the last; the nasal sac is 
very little ossified, and the nasal septum is soft. 

The vomer (PI. LVIII. fig. 7, v) is very emarginate in front, and it is altogether 
flatter and more fibrous than in Uicrurus ; its lobes are less ; and mounted on them are 
prickle-shaped septo-maxillaries (s.mx), one on each side. 

The pterygoids are well uncinate behind, and are distinct in front, as also the meso- 
ptcrygoids (PI. LVIII. fig. 8, pg, ms.pg). The palatines [pa) are intermediate between 
those of a Shrike and those of a Crow (Pis. LXI. & LV.), and, although feebler, are of 
the Paradiseine type (see PI. LXII. figs. 2 & Z,pa). They have, in the depth of their 



PEOF. W. K. PARKER OX .ilGITHOGNATHOUS BIRDS. 335 

postpalatine keels and their ethmo-palatine scrolls [pt.pa, e.pa), likeness to the " Formi- 
cariidae;" but the transpalatine process {t.pa) is halfway between the broad lobe of the 
Crow and the sharpened spur of the Shrikes and Wood-Swallows. The maxillo-palatines 
(ma'.p) are not so delicately pedunculate as in the Thrush ; and the free retral end is 
formed into a narrow air-bottle. 

The nerve-passages (fig. 8, i & 5) above the huge lateral ethmoid (p-p) are distinct; 
and the lacrymal (l), like that of the Thrush, but larger, is an oval leaf of bone anky- 
losed to the descending crus of the nasal. There is no distinct os uncinatum. The 
upper part of the swollen lateral ethmoid appears free in the front of the wide frontal 
region. 

Example 21. Trichastoma celebense. 

Habitat. Celebes. Section " Oscines," Miiller ; family " Sylviidse." 

This bird is only three fourths the size of the last ; but it has a stouter head, and 
with its large skull and straight beak reminds the observer of the Tits, the Nuthatch, 
and the lesser Woodpeckers ; but in what is essential it belongs to these other Cele- 
besian birds; and it is intermediate between a northern and a southern type. I 
should place it nearer to the Flycatchers than to our Old- World Thrushes and 
Crows. In the basal region it agrees with the last ; and the nasal labyrinth in front, 
and the septum nasi, are unossified ; the hinge is perfect. The vomer (PI. LVIII. 
fig. 9, v) is similar to that of JEtiodes; but it has a projecting median region, and the 
parts attached to the alinasal turbinal (a. tb) are thin and scaly, and are indeed formed 
laterally of a large perforate scale-like septo-maxillary (s.mx) attached to the spiked fore 
end of the true vomer. 

The palatines (p«) are altogether more slender, and have a still more southern cha- 
racter ; they come near to what I have described in the " Formicariidae " and " Co- 
tingidse." 

The postpalatine keels are sharp and deep, the inter- and ethmo-palatines well deve- 
loped; and the transpalatine is feeble, intermediate between that oi Enodes and the 
more delicate triangular form seen in Anthreptes (" Nectariniidse," Celebes). The 
praepalatine bar is slender, the ptei7golid bone is slender, arcuate, and moderately 
hooked. 

The maxillo-palatine processes [mx.p) are almost in their full degree of typical spe- 
cialization, with long stalks bowed outwards and backwards, and with terminal pneumatic 
ladles, such as" we see in Tanagers, Buntings, and Thrushes. 

Example 22. Lalage leucopygiali&. 

Habitat. Celebes. Section " Oscines," Miiller ; family " Muscicapidas." 
This skull is the size of the last, being as much smaller than that of Enodes as that 
of Enodes is smaller than the skull of Bicrurus. 

It agrees with these two, and not with Trichastoma^ in having a curved beak. This is 



836 PEOF. W. K. PAKKEE ON ^GITHOGNATHOUS BIEDS. 

moie curved than in Hyloter]je ; but that genus is a natural ally of Lalage, which stands 
between it and Enodes (compare PI. LXII. fig. i, with PI. LVIII. figs. 3 & 7). 

In this type there are prickly basipterygoids in front of the basitemporal lip (PI. 
LXII. fig. Iffl, b.]}g, i.t). The pterygoids are slender, subarcuate, and with a short 
hamular process; they articulate with the deep postpalatine keels (fig. 1, pt.pa), and 
with the superadded mesopterygoid crest. The diverging vomerine crura, united to 
equally divergent ethmo-palatines, which are but little arched, show the rostrum clearly 
on the mid line. The interpalatine spurs (i.^Jflj) are well developed ; and the two lamellae, 
upper and lower, are large fore and aft. They end externally in a thick edge, which 
runs backwards as a roughly gnawed transpalatine process, like that of Hyloterpe 
(PI. LYIII. fig. 3), but better developed. The praepalatine bars are slender, but ex- 
pand in front, where they are ankylosed to the preemaxillaries. The broad, flattish 
vomer comes very near to that of Hyloterpe ; it is subcarinate, slightly apiculate in 
front, and has moderate and rather square upper lobes, in which the septo-maxillary is 
lost. The cranio-facial hinge is perfect, and the septum nasi (s. n) partly ossified. The 
maxillo-palatines {mx.j)) are intermediate between those of Enodes and those of Tri- 
chastoma (PI. LVIII. figs. 7 & 9), and are much like those of a Thrush and of the 
Flycatcher. The first and fifth nerves are divided by a delicate rod of bone, which lies 
forwards inside the upper turbinal; the pars plana [p-p) is squarish and moderately 
thick ; there is a semidistinct seed-shaped os uncinatum (o. m) attached to the angle of 
the pars plana ; and the lacrj mal is very small and ankylosed to the posterior crus of 
the oasal'. 

The other Celebesian species examined by me, and to be described hereafter, are two 
of them of the family " Nectariniidse,"' namely Nectaropldla grayi and Anthrejifes malac- 
censis ; the other comes near the Tanagers, namely Prionocheilus aureolimlatns. The 
six just described are all very near akin ; these are Artamus, Byloterpe, Licrums, 
Enodes, Tnchastoma, and Lalage. 

All these are evidently more metamorphosed offshoots of some common southern 
" leader " of a lower type : these are " Oscines ;" that was most probably of the section 
" Tracheophonee." 

The ancient non-singing passerines still abound in the American division of the 
" Notogsea;" and in the Malayan region they are not extinct, as, for instance, in the 
case of Pitta, a Bornean genus closely allied to Grallaria. 

I have some Australian types to describe ; but these, on the whole, come nearer to the 
Malayan forms than to the South-American. Yet, of seven genera dissected by me, two 
had the muscles of the lower larynx quite indistinct, namely Petroica and Sittella ; 
these must therefore be classed as " Tracheophonae." 

' The skull of Muscicapa grisola will be treated of in the second part. 



PROF. "W. K. PAEKER ON ^GITHOGNATHOUS BIRDS. 337 

Example 23. Petroica hicolor. 

Habitat. Australia. Group " Tracheophonse ; " family " Muscicapidse." 

This is the largest of those of this genus whose osteology is displayed in the Museum 
of the College of Surgeons. Its number in the ' Catalogue' is 1584 ; the other species 
there are P. multicolor (1584 a), P. phoe7iicea (1584 b), and P. fusca (1584 c). 

Petroica hicolor is one of the strongest of the smaller Passerines in pelvis and hinder 
limb ; its general osteology is as fuU of interest as that of the Australian type already 
described, namely Menura. 

In its skull and face, however, it comes near the soft-billed passerines. Yet its afiinity 
is not with our native Wrens and Sylvise ; but, in its palate at least, it approaches those 
types that are found in the Panama district of America, the " Mniotiltidse," afterwards 
to be described, coming nearer to these, in some respects, than to Muscicapa. The 
pterygoids (PI. LX. fig. 10, 2)^) agree with those of the " Formicariidse," save that they 
are longer, and more arched, but little uncinate, and are elegantly expanded in a falcate 
manner in front. 

As in Grallaria, the postpalatine keels {pt.pa) are deep, wide apart, and angulate, 
and the rostrum shows well between the right and left bone and the crura of the vomer. 

The interpalatine spur is very short, the transverse part of the bone of the medium 
extent ; and the transpalatine spur {t.pa) is arcuate, and of a width intermediate between 
that of a common and of a Piping Crow ; it is bluntly pointed, as in Anthreptes. The 
vomer (v) is of great interest. The moieties of the true vomer are seen distinct for a 
long distance behind, and for a short space in front, where they end in two short horns, 
with a rounded emargination between them ; this part is subcarinate below. But the 
outside of the bone is formed of the septo-maxillaries (s.mx), which are nearly as large 
as the halves of the true vomer, as in the Serpent. The ujDper lobes of this compound 
vomer are but little developed; the maxUlo-palatine processes are obliquely handled 
spatulee, as in many high-class passerines. 

Example 24. Petroica monticola. 

Habitat. Australia. Group " Tracheophonse ; " family " Muscicapidse." 

The palate of this smaller species (PI. LX. iig. 9) differs from the last principally 
in slendemess ; and the transpalatine processes come very near to those of the " Necta- 
riniidse." 

The vomerine crura are more bowed, and the united part of much greater extent. 
The true vomerine bones {v) unite in front by a rounded point; and the sutures 
between these and the marginal septo-maxillaries {s.mx) are very distinct, as in the 
" Mniotiltidse." A bone answering to the prsevomerine portion of the Snake's septo- 
maxillary {s.mx^) has grafted itself on the intumed alinasal lamina {i. a. I). The maxillo- 
palatines are alike in both species. 

There is a close affinity, one with another,, in many of the lesser narrow-billed 
VOL. IX. — PAKT V. December, 1875. 2 z 



338 PKOF. W. K. PAEKEK ON tEGITHOGNATHOTJS BIRDS. 

Australian passerines, and that whether their song-muscles are developed or not. In 
this first paper I have only space for one more of these, namely Pachycejahala; but 
afterwards Sittella and Sericornis will come under notice, besides those very unique types 
Ptilotis and Acanthorhynchus. 

Example 25. Pachycephala fusca {Vj. 

Habitat. Australia. Group " Oscines," Mliller ; family " Laniidse." 

Notwithstanding the superiority of this type over Petroica in the separation of the 
tracheal muscles for song, it is yet, I am satisfied, on the whole, only a slightly modified 
Petroica. Its large skull, shortish beak, and most remarkable vomer are the proofs of 
this. In some respects, Pachycephala is less specialized than Petroica — that is, in its 
palatine arch, both the primary and investing parts. 

On each side of the basitemporal there is the tubular " tympanic" on the " sipho- 
nium," with one or two additional ossicles. The basitemporal (PL LXI. fig. 7, b.t) 
itself is bat-shaped, as in the " Cotingidae " and " Formicariidse ;" and there are no basi- 
pterygoids on the rounded parasphenoidal beam. The hinge is almost perfect. The 
septum nasi (s. «) is alate in front ; and the trabecular bone {tr) has appeared in this part 
behind the alse. The recurrent alinasal fold {re. c) is well marked, and the inturned 
alinasal fold [i. a. I) is nari-ow ; mesiad of this we see the huge alinasal turbinal (a. tb) 
with two bony patches. The alinasal scale (Plate LXI. fig. 8, al.n) externally is unos- 
sified, but of large extent. The inferior turbinals are narrow and very long (i. tb) : they 
are mostly soft ; but there is a bony patch postero-superiorly. 

A hasty observation might lead to the opinion that the peculiar form of the vomer 
(like baggy Turkish trowsers) was a mere fi-eak of Nature ; but its meaning lies deeper 
than this. In Petroica monticola (PI. LX. fig. 9, v, s.mx), we have the same form, 
coupled with an alinasal turbinal ossicle close to the angle of the vomer. This curious 
outgrown form depends upon the very large size of the supero-lateral elements, the 
septo-maxillaries (s.mx), which here rival those of Lizards and Snakes. The vomer is 
subcarinate in front, but does not project at the mid line ; the bone, especially at its 
edges, is thick and spongy ; its upper lobes are scarcely developed : altogether it is a 
slightly masked reptilian structure. 

The pterygoids (PL LXI. fig. 7) are like those of Petroica, but shorter; they have, 
like the palatine arch, altogether a very cotingine appearance. 

The postpalatine keels are sharp and deep ; the mesopterygoid and ethmo-palatine 
laminse are low, the interpalatine spurs abortively developed, as is the transpalatine (t.pa), 
the bony bridge across of slight extent, and the prsepalatine bar a narrowish subsinuous 
bar. The maxillo-palatine processes {mx.p) are broad-based, thick and clumsy, not so well 
developed as in Petroica (PL LX. figs. 9 & 10, tnx.p), and on a level with those of 
Pachyrhamphus (" Cotingidae") and Thamnophilus (" Formicariidse"). The continuously 
bony jugum {j) is feeble and sinuous, and but little inturned behind. The prsefrontal. 



PEOP. W. K. PAEKEE ON ^GITHOGNATHOUS BIEDS. 339 

or ecto-ethmoid (fig. 7, e.eth, ]). p), is a huge swollen mass of bone, perfectly turnidne, 
appearing well above, externally, and below ; it sends a large kidney-shaped mass into the 
true olfactory region (PI. LXI. fig. 8, p.p), as in Eemipodius varius and Chasmorhyn- 
chus. There is no separate os uncinatum ; this is represented by the swollen lower 
angle of the pars plana ; above that plate the 1st and 5th nerves pass through a large 
common opening. The lacrymal (fig. 8, I) is small ; it has a high position, as in the 
Starling. 

The intermediate position of this bird is self-evident ; and it is also clear that the 
ascent, by metamorphosis, does not take place equally in all parts, but that some in one 
thing, some in another, become specialized and improved into nobler races and species. 
Moreover the existence of the proper organs for any special function in the life of the 
bird does not show that they are used for that purpose ; else why does not the Sparrow 
sing? Pachycephala comes closer to Elainea than to Lanius. 

It is no easy task to be a morphologist pure and simple whilst discussing the characters 
of the next type — the " Bird of Paradise." I shall endeavour to speak soberly, although 
treating of so beautiful a bird. 

Example 26. Paradisea papuana. 

Habitat. New Guinea. Group " Oscines," Miiller ; family " Paradiseidse." 

That which is peculiar to the bird's skull, namely ankylosis of part with part until 
nearly every land-mark has been removed, here attains its fullest possible extent, an 
extent only conditioned by the necessities of motion in certain parts of the face (PI. LXII. 
figs. 2-4). 

Setting aside for the time all side-relationships, I should place the Bird of Paradise 
in a position almost exactly intermediate between the true Crow of the Old World 
and the Piping Crow of Australia ; its morphology and its geographical distribution 
agree alike with this view. 

Yet the Malayan types just described, from Celebes, must be kept in mind ; for anv 
bird that should be like an exact cross between a Piping and a Common Crow, would 
not be a Paradisea. 

The pterygoids (PI. LXII. fig. 2, pg) are straight, strong, and have a flat, short 
hamular process ; they articulate by a moderately laminar process with the posterior 
end of the palatine, the mesopeterygoid part of which (fig. 4, ms.pg) is small. The 
basipterygoid processes are absent from the rostrum [pa.s), which appears for a long 
distance along the mid line between the palatines and vomerine forks. The hinge is 
perfect ; and in front of it the septum nasi (figs. 2 & 3, s. n) is solid bone, and very thick 
where the nasal nerves pass ; this solid wide-winged part is seen in the front of the 
vomer {v). The rest of the septum still keeps its rounded inferior edge, the bony alae 
on each side belonging to the "alinasal floor" {n.f), which, like the recurrent lamina 
in front, is one continuous mass with the surrounding facial bones. 

2 z 2 



340 PROP. W. K. PAEKEE ON ^GITHOGNATHOUS BIEDS. 

The turbinals within this lamina, which is curiously dentate, are well ossified, as also 
are the true inferior turbinals (fig. 3, i. tb) — but not the alae nasi themselves (fig. 4, al. n); 
these are the only soft part of the labyrinth. The rest of the labyrinth is very instruc- 
tive ; the ecto-ethmoid {e.eth) appears well above as an egg-shaped mass of bone, and 
it projects outwardly so as to reduce the lacrymal (fig. 4, I) to a small point of bone. 
The perpendicular plate, or meso-ethmoid, ends free behind the orbito-sphenoid, forming 
a postorbita] band, with a rudimentary prsesphenoid depending free. Thus the inter- 
orbital fenestra {i-O.f) is very large, and the separateness of the trabecular keel (fig. 4) 
considerable. 

Laterally, the pars plana {p.J>) returns inwards, and then appears to swell into an 
elegant egg-shaped mass of bone, which lies on the jugum {j). This bony egg (figs. 2-4, 
0. «), however, is separate, and belongs to the trabecular arch ; it is the " os uncinatum," 
or " palate- trabecular conjugational" element. 

The vomer (figs. 2 & 3, ?)) is very elegant, and is fashioned like a Salishiria leaf, 
spreading out, radiating its fibrous structure, and breaking into lobes, by notches that 
lie in the line of these fibres. The two principal notches are near the side ; they half 
cut off' the septo-maxiUaries {s.mx). 

Within, the vomer and the maxillo-palatines (mx.p) have been ankylosed to the 
intumed alinasal floor (?'. a. I); behind, the twin stalks of the vomer run insensibly into 
the upper palatine lamina, the ethmo-palatine (e.pa). 

These parts of the palatines are of moderate size. The interpalatine spurs are roughly 
pointed, like rusty nails, and they run into a ridge which becomes the postpalatine 
keel (j>f-J>a) ; it is pared away or bevelled, as in Gymnorhina and Corvus, and not sharp- 
angled, as in Trickastoma and Thamnophilus. 

The bridge extending from this inner edge to the thick transpalatine portion is 
oblique, deep, and large ; and thus the ear-shaped transpalatine snags {t.pa) are diver- 
gent. These subrotund lobes are flatter and more solid than those of Enocles (PI. LVIII. 
figs. 7 & 8) ; they are not sharp spikes as in the Wood-Swallow and Dicrurus (PI. LVIII. 
figs. 1 & 5). The whole fore beak (PI. LXII. figs. 2-4) is very solid bone, riddled be- 
hind, at the sides, with large holes for the air-cells. Here are given off' the characteristic 
maxillo-palatine processes (mx.p) ; they are like pruning-knives, are slightly bilobate at 
their end, and are not unlike those of Artamus (PI. LVIII. figs. 1 & 2), being, as in 
that type, greatly enlarged by fusion with the intensely ossified nasal floor {i. a. l). This 
borrowed substance makes them look, in both these cases, larger than they are in reality. 
The same thing is seen in Gymnorhina (PI. LX. figs. 5 & 6). 

The continuously bony jugal is sinuous and moderately strong ; it is but little incurved 
behind. This bii-d has the singing-muscles large and finely developed. It lived in the 
Gardens of the Society for some time, was dissected by me, and then put into the hands 
of Professor Flower for the Museum of the College of Surgeons. 

I may remark that its digestive organs seemed somewhat aberrant : I only found one 
caecum coli ; and that was very small. 



PEOP. W. K. PAEKEE ON ^GITHOGNATHOUS BIEDS. 341 

Example 27. Chasmorhynchus nudicollis (the Naked-throated Bell-bird). 

Habitat. Brazil. Group " Tracheophonae," Miiller ; family " Cotingidae." 

It would seem as though the " embryon atoms" of three diverse types had striven for 
mastery here : the Hemipod, the Goatsucker, and the Crow were put into the " limbeck ;" 
the spirit that arose was the " Bell-bird." 

The skull of this loud-voiced caprimulgine Crow is modified from the ordinary 
coracomorphous type far more than the skeleton generally ; this is' often the case in 
birds. 

As far as the skull is concerned, this type has the same (but no more) right to be 
considered one of the " Coracomorphae " as the Swift {Cypselus). In some respects it is 
truer to the Fissirostral type than the Swift itself; indeed, in the general texture of the 
skull, which is most exquisitely cellular and light, it comes close to Caprimulgus ; whilst 
Cypselus has a thin fibrous skull, much more so than its passerine relatives the Swal- 
lows. Here, then, is a point on the great Coracomorphous circle which impinges on the 
circle containing the Frog-faced Podargus, the Oil-bird (Steatornis), and the Goat- 
sucker ; which latter forms the touching-point. 

Still the tracheophonous Swift goes far away from the passerines, even those nearest 
to it, the Swallows, in all the structures behind the occiput. One of the lesser of the 
true Corvidae, the Jay, being of the same size as the Bell-bird, is good for comparison ; 
then let the student provide himself with the skull of a Goatsucker {Caprimulgus 
europceus) and of a Hemipod, and he will be able to follow the writer. Moreover our 
task, though asking delicate discrimination and familiarity with the bony framework of 
many birds, is yet a very easy one compared with that of tracing the atavistic germs of 
a Darwinian " Pangenesis." I may remark here, how smoothly the bone-surface has been 
polished and almost enamelled ! the walls also being of the thinnest periosteal bone, 
and the diploe reduced to the uttermost degree of delicacy. The elegant two-winged 
basitemporal region (PI. LXII. fig. 5, b.t) is everywhere completely welded to the sur- 
rounding parts, save in front, where the Eustachian openings {eu) are merely separated 
by a little wall of bone. Here the basitemporal lip is free ; it is thick and spongy, like 
a stonecrop leaf. 

The parasphenoid (pa.s) has spread abroad beneath the true posterior sphenoidal 
region, behind, facing most of the floor and sides of the " anterior tympanic recess," in 
which it is helped by the thoroughly continuous basitemporals. Like a true corvine, 
this bird has no basipterygoid processes, and the beam or rostrum runs forwards — thick, 
rounded, and solid — to the nearly perfect cranio-facial hinge. It is imderfloored, all 
but its hinder part, by the palatine bones, as in Caprimulgus. The true nasal septum 
is ossified all along and directly in front of the hinge, in the middle ; and in front the 
bony matter creeps down into the depth of the septum (fig. 7, s.n). Behind and below, a 
small tract of the septum is ossified (figs. 5 & 8, tr) ; this is the trabecular bone (belong- 
ing to the first facial arch) ; in front of it are two smaller bones, not united to the 



342 PEOF. W. K. PAEKEE ON ^GlTHOGNATHOtJS BIEDS. 

cartilage (fig. 8, tr', tr"). In front, the septal bone grows round the end and returns along 
the trabecular base, hookwise, up to the end of the expanded or alar portion (fig. 8, s. n). 

The alse nasi and their various outgrowths and processes are such as, being well mas- 
tered, will explain the peculiarities of a coracomorphous nasal labyrinth, as compared 
with that of the Fowl and Hemipod. Yet these parts, in the Bell-bird, are curiously 
intermediate between those of the Hemipod and the Crow ; and only by comparing all 
these together shall we see their real meaning, or make out a harmony between them. 
If the parts in the Fowl (Phil. Trans. 1869, pi. 86) be compared with what I have 
described in the Rook (PI. LV. figs. 1-3), it will be seen that the alinasal turbinal is 
given off from the roof in the Fowl, and from the wall in the Crow. In the Fowl, the 
alinasal wall is largely inturned ; in the Rook, only at the end. In the Fowl, the wall 
having become the floor, coalesces behind with sides and base of the septum {torn. cit. 
fig. 3) ; ui the Rook, this inturned part is continuous with, and ossified by, the com- 
pound vomer. In the Rook, the internasal part of the trabeculse (PI. LV. fig. 2) is 
largely alate ; in the Fowl [torn. cit. figs. 1-4), the trabeculee only caused the thickening 
to the base of the septum. But the most profitable comparison is to be made between 
the Crow and the Hemipod in these respects ; and only by such a comparison shall we 
be able to see the meaning of these parts in the Bell-bird. 

There is evidently, amongst birds, a primary difference in the manner in which the 
primary nasal slit (see " Fowl's Skull," pi. 81. fig. 1) becomes enclothed with cartilage, 
and drawn out into long, broken-up, labyrinthic passages. 

In the Crow and Warbler (PI. LV. figs. 1 & 13, re. c) the alinasal scale of cartilage 
is, as it were, tucked in at its fore end, a broad flap on each side passing backwards and 
inwards to meet, and afterwards coalesce with, its fellow beneath the septum nasi. This 
I have worked out in the embryo of the Gorse-Linnet, and shall describe elsewhere ; 
these retral parts are in reality the " cornua trabeculse." 

In the figures given of these parts in the young Rook and Redstart, these recun-ent 
flaps have united at the mid line into a triangular tongue of cartilage [re. c) ; but in a 
form to be given in my next part, namely one of the " Vireonidae " ( Vireosylvia oli- 
vacea), the part is twice the size of what is here shown, and nearly the hinder half 
is ununited, so that it is a large forked flap, the " tines ' looking backwards : this is a 
step towards what I shall describe in the Bell-bird. Now it is evident that in the Rook 
(PI. LV. fig. 1) the air passes in between the recurrent alinasal laminae (re. c) and the 
outer alinasal wall, with its ingrowing turbinal {al.n, a.th), the turbinal being lateral 
in its origin, and not superior as in the Fowl {loe. cit.) and the Hemipod (PL LIV. figs. 
S & 4, a.tl) ; it arises, in the Rook, from the wall behind the external nostril, and not, 
as in the Fowl and Hemipod, from the roof in front of it. Here also note another 
important difference — namely, that instead of the recurrent flap being an ingrowth 
backwards of the forefront of the alinasal roof in the Hemipod it is given off from the 
wall (PI. LIV. figs. 1, 3-6, n. w, n.f). So there is an exact reversal as to the origin of 



PROF. W. K. PAEKBE ON ^GITHOGNATHOUS BIEDS. 343 

the recurrent laminee and the alinasal turbinals in these two types, the " Turnico- 
morphae" and the " Coracomorphae." Moreover in Turnix these recurrent folds are of 
immense size ; they are, as it were, the uptilted floor of the nose slit up from the wall, 
nearly as far as to the fore end of the long, linear, valvular nostril. 

A far simpler form of nasal labyrinth may be taken as the common prototype of both 
these, namely that of the common Snake (Matrix torquata). 

My unpublished figures of the morphology of this type show that the aliethmoid, 
aliseptal, and alina